Classical Armenian Online - Romanized

Series Introduction

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

Armenian is the official language of what in recent memory was the smallest republic of the former Soviet Union, now the southernmost republic of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The language is spoken by approximately four million people still living within the borders of the republic. A small group of speakers live in north-western Iran, and some communities dot the countryside of eastern Turkey. Countless emigrees have spread the language to all corners of the world. The earliest documentary evidence of the Armenians is a sixth century B.C. inscription in Behistun by the Persian king Darius I. It was nearly a thousand years, however, before the Armenians themselves began to put their language to writing, when in 406 or 407 A.D. a priest Maštʿocʿ (also known as Mesrop) developed an Armenian alphabet. One also finds reference to a prior alphabet created by the Syriac bishop Daniel, purportedly abandoned because it was ill-suited to the sound system of the language. The language whose records date back to this period is termed Classical Armenian. Much later, in the twelfth to seventeenth centuries, one finds the legacy of Middle Armenian, whose authors attempted to emulate the style of the Golden Age of Classical Armenian. Between these two time periods one further distinguishes two stages of the Armenian language: post-Classical, spanning the sixth and seventh centuries, and Pre-Middle Armenian, from the eighth to twelfth centuries. After the seventeenth century, Armenian developed into a modern form which has split into two varieties: West Armenian and East Armenian.

Note: this set of lessons in Armenian uses Romanized letters rather than the traditional Armenian alphabet. Lessons rendered in the traditional alphabet can be accessed via the Armenian menu item.
Origin and Geographical Location

According to Greek mythic tradition, Armenia was named after Armenus, one of Jason's Argonauts. Herodotus, writing in the fifth century B.C., states that the Armenians lived in Thrace and then moved into Phrygia, from which they crossed into the later Armenian territory. Strabo, writing in the first century B.C., states that the Armenians entered the territory from two directions, one group coming from Phrygia in the west, the other coming from Mesopotamia in the southeast. Although by neither account were they the original inhabitants of the region, Xenophon records in 400 B.C. that they seem to have absorbed most of the local dwellers.

Armenian tradition, recorded between the fifth and eighth centuries A.D., relates the Armenian people to the descendants of Noah. After the Flood, Noah's family settled in Armenia before moving south to Babylon in successive generations. One of Noah's descendants, Haik, revolted and returned to Armenia, pursued by the Babylonian Bel. Haik killed Bel and became ruler of the Armenian land, and the descendants of Haik later defended Armenia from the forces of Assyria.

Modern scholarly views are just as wide-ranging. A common view is that the Armenians were of Indo-European stock and entered the region either along with the Phrygians from the Balkan region or with the Mitanni from the area of the Aral Sea. They encountered the Urartuan culture in a period of decline and eventually came to rule over them and other Caucasian groups in the region. Another theory draws on linguistic similarities between the Armenian language and the Caucasian languages of the area to say that the Armenians had originally been themselves a Caucasian tribe which adopted an Indo-European tongue, and this Caucasian substrate is responsible for the fact that Armenian is rather genetically isolated among the Indo-European languages. Yet another theory is that the Armenians are the most sedentary members of the original speakers of Proto-Indo-European; that the Indo-European languages originated in the transcaucasian region, but the Armenians, who chose not to migrate out of the area, were marginalized during periods of Hittite and Urartuan dominance. Suffice it to say, the true origin of the Armenian peoples will remain shrouded in obscurity for some time to come.

The Armenian land itself is a plateau located roughly 5000 feet above sea level and hemmed in by mountainous regions. It lies roughly southeast of the Black Sea and southwest of the Caspian Sea. The ancient Armenian homeland was somewhat more expansive than the modern Armenian Republic, also including much of eastern Turkey, the northeastern corner of Iran, and parts of Azerbaijan and Georgia. In the northeast the Kur River separates the highland region from lowlands which sweep to the Caspian Sea. The northern border is continued by the Pontus mountain range, which extends west from the source of the Kur and shields Armenia from the Black Sea. The Taurus and Zagros mountain ranges create a natural boundary running along the entire southern expanse and cutting Armenia off from Mesopotamia. The Armenian plateau itself is divided by several smaller mountain ranges that furnish the sources for a number of unnavigable rivers. The northermost section of the Euphrates was to form the boundary between Greater and Lesser Armenia in the subsequent imperial struggles.

Linguistic Heredity and Language Contact

The status of Armenian within the Indo-European family of languages remains obscure. Few facts are certain, and those conclusions which have an air of certainty about them are often of a very general nature. The fact that some propose Armenia to be the homeland of the original speakers of Proto-Indo-European would lead one to hope that Armenian represents the language of those speakers who did not migrate into other regions, but unfortunately this seems unlikely. Most suppose the speakers of Armenian to have come to the region from the west, supplanting the Urartuan culture they encountered. The Armenian language seems to have undergone several changes between the time of arrival into the transcaucasian region and the invention of the alphabet in the fifth century A.D., but unfortunately documentary evidence for the language during this period is lacking. By the time the language is recorded, roughly forty percent of the lexicon consisted of borrowings from other languages, the phonological system had changed to resemble several features of the Caucasian languages, and the morphological system had developed as well, though less drastically than the lexicon and phonological system. The changes in consonants from Proto-Indo-European to Armenian are typified by the following:

The vowels developed as follows:

In addition, there was a strong stress on the Proto-Armenian penultimate syllable, which led to the loss of any final vowel, and caused /i/ and /u/ to become the schwa in unaccented syllables.

Scholars generally believe Greek, Iranian, and Phrygian to have had the most linguistic influence on Armenian. The actual nature of Phrygian influence, however, is open to much debate because of the language's scanty attestation. The influence of the remaining languages seems to have been chiefly in the form of borrowings. Many terms of an ecclesiastical nature were adopted from Greek, as well as from Syriac, the language which formed the medium of the liturgy in Armenia for several years. But by far the greatest number of borrowings come from Iranian. Some borrowings date back to the Achaemenid period (ca. 550-330 B.C.), but Armenian felt the largest influence in the Arsacid period (ca. 53-428 A.D.). The loans can be traced to the north-eastern dialect by the presence of linguistic traits such as the presence of /rd/ instead of /l/ (e.g. Arm. vard 'rose' compared to MPers. gul 'flower'), and /z/ instead of /d/ (e.g. Arm. yazem 'I adore' compared to MPers. yad-).

Documents

The oldest documents in Armenian, dating back to the invention of the alphabet in the fifth century A.D., are of a primarily ecclesiastic nature. Presumably the Bible was the first text to be translated, followed by a number of other Greek and Syriac texts. Secular material, too, was translated, including many works by Aristotle and Neoplatonists such as Prophyry, Probus, and Diodorus. There was even an Armenian translation of the grammatical treatise of Dionysius Thrax. Some works have survived only through their Armenian translations, such as the Commentaries on the Benediction of Moses by Hippolytus, the first part of the Chronicle of Eusebius, and the Romance of Alexander the Great by Pseudo-Callisthenes. Soon native texts were composed, chiefly on historical and religious matters, such as the History of the Conversion of Armenia by Gregory the Illuminator, by Agatʿangelos, a biography of Maštocʿ by Koriwn, and Against the Sects, by Eznik of Kołb.

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Armenian Resources Elsewhere

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Classical Armenian Online - Romanized

Lesson 1

Todd B. Krause, John A.C. Greppin, and Jonathan Slocum

The Urartuan Period

The kingdom of Urartu (ca. 870 - 590 B.C.) was the first kingdom we know to have been centered in the region of what is now greater Armenia. The earliest mention of this kingdom comes from the campaign records of the Assyrian king Ashur-nasirpal (ca. 884 - 859 B.C.). The history of Urartu is one of constant struggle with the neighboring Assyrian state. For a brief period the Assyrian kingdom fell into decline, and this allowed Urartu to gain a strong foothold in the region, spreading from the western Euphrates to the eastern Caspian lowlands, and extending from Lake Urmia in the south to the Caucasus in the north. This region became a center for vineyards and grain production; its stores of copper and iron ensured it became a hub of trade in bronze and iron weaponry. Remnants of metal tools, weapons, and pottery have been found and preserved in museums in Armenia. Urartuan cauldrons and decorative shields have been found in both Greek-speaking and Transcaucasian regions.

Arame is the first Urartuan king to be mentioned, his name recorded by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III (ca. 860 - 825 B.C.). This Arame may have been the historical figure on whom is based Ara the Handsome, the legendary founder of the Armenian people described by Moses of Khoren more than a thousand years later. The Assyrian king Shammur-amat (ca. 810 - 805) is supposed by some to have lent his name to Queen Semiramis, the alluring rival in Moses of Khoren's story, who eventually led to Ara to his downfall.

The historical kingdom of Urartu itself eventually came to a period of decline. The kings Tiglath-pileser III (ca. 745 - 727 B.C.) and Sargon II (ca. 722 - 705 B.C.) reversed the decline of their Assyrian kingdom and began a long campaign against the Urartuans. The Assyrian records indicate that Urartu was at this time under attack by the Cimmerians from the north, and it seems that the two-front war was more than Urartu could sustain. Urartu was overrun and the Cimmerians poured through to attack Assyria itself. Soon thereafter, Urartu joined forces with Assyria, which was not only embroiled in conflict with the Cimmerians and the newly arrived Scythians in the north, but also with the Babylonian state to the south.

The subsequent history of Urartu falls into greater and greater obscurity. Urartu and Assyria both fell into great decline, opening up a power vacuum in the region which was filled by the Medes, Babylonians, and Egyptians. The Babylonians and Medes divided the Assyrian empire between them, but Urartu seems to have fallen solely under Median control by ca. 605-585 B.C.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The oldest Armenian text is the Bible, translated from Greek in the early fifth century. (The beginning and completion dates cannot be determined with precision, but late texts which refer to the Bible provide us with a date ante quem.) Though some have argued that the Armenians referred to the Hebrew Old Testament, there is little evidence to support this. It is likely that the New Testament was translated before the Old Testament, and here it is possible that there was Syriac influence, though the matter has not been carefully studied. This reading comes from Matthew 5:1-16.

1 - Ew teseal zžołovurdsn el i leaṙn: ew ibrew nstaw and` matean aṙ na ašakertkʿ nora
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • teseal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <tesanem> I see -- seeing
  • zžołovurdsn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <žołovurd> multitude + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the multitudes
  • el -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <elanem> I come, go up -- he went up
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- onto
  • leaṙn -- noun; accusative singular of <leaṙn> mountain -- a mountain
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • ibrew -- conjunction; <ibrew> when -- when
  • nstaw -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <nstim> I sit -- he was set
  • and -- adverb; <and> there -- ...
  • matean -- verb; 3rd plural aorist mediopassive of <matčʿim> I approach -- came
  • aṙ -- preposition; <aṙ> to, toward (a person); beside; in the time of; in addition to -- unto
  • na -- pronoun; accusative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • ašakertkʿ -- noun; nominative plural of <ašakert> student, disciple -- disciples
  • nora -- pronoun; genitive singular of <na> he, she, it -- his

2 - Ew bacʿeal zberan iwr usucʿanēr znosa ew asēr:
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • bacʿeal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <banam> I open -- he opened
  • zberan -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative singular of <beran> mouth -- mouth
  • iwr -- reflexive pronoun; genitive singular of <iwr> him-, her-, it-self -- his
  • usucʿanēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <usucʿanem> I teach -- taught
  • znosa -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative plural of <na> he, she, it -- them
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • asēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <asem> I say -- saying

3 - erani ałkʿatacʿ hogwov, zi nocʿa ē arkʿayutʿiwn erknicʿ :
  • erani -- adjective; nominative singular of <erani> happy -- Blessed (are) # used as interjection with accompanying dative
  • ałkʿatacʿ -- adjective used as substantive; dative plural of <ałkʿat> poor -- (the) poor
  • hogwov -- noun; instrumental singular of <hogi> soul, spirit -- in spirit
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • nocʿa -- pronoun; dative plural of <na> he, she, it -- theirs
  • ē -- verb; 3rd singular present of <em> I am -- is
  • arkʿayutʿiwn -- noun; nominative singular of <arkʿayutʿiwn> kingdom -- the kingdom
  • erknicʿ -- noun; genitive plural of <erkin> heaven -- of heaven

4 - Erani sgaworacʿ, zi nokʿa mxitʿarescʿin :
  • erani -- adjective; nominative singular of <erani> happy -- Blessed (are) # used as interjection with accompanying dative
  • sgaworacʿ -- adjective used as substantive; dative plural of <sgawor> sorrowful -- they that mourn
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • nokʿa -- pronoun; nominative plural of <na> he, she, it -- they
  • mxitʿarescʿin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist subjunctive mediopassive of <mxitʿarem> I comfort -- shall be comforted

5 - Erani hezocʿ, zi nokʿa žaṙangescʿen zerkir :
  • erani -- adjective; nominative singular of <erani> happy -- Blessed (are) # used as interjection with accompanying dative
  • hezocʿ -- adjective used as substantive; dative plural of <hez> meek -- the meek
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • nokʿa -- pronoun; nominative plural of <na> he, she, it -- they
  • žaṙangescʿen -- verb; 3rd plural aorist subjunctive of <žaṙangem> I inherit -- shall inherit
  • zerkir -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative singular of <erkir> earth -- the earth

6 - Erani or kʿałcʿeal carawi icʿen ardarutʿean, zi nokʿa yagescʿin
  • erani -- adjective; nominative singular of <erani> happy -- Blessed (are) # used as interjection with accompanying dative
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative plural of <or> who, what, which -- they which
  • kʿałcʿeal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <kʿałcʿnum> I hunger -- hunger
  • carawi -- adjective; undeclined form of <carawi> thirsting, thirsty -- (and) thirst
  • icʿen -- verb; 3rd plural present subjunctive of <em> I am -- do
  • ardarutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <ardarutʿiwn> righteousness -- after righteousness # or dative case
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • nokʿa -- pronoun; nominative plural of <na> he, she, it -- they
  • yagescʿin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist subjunctive mediopassive of <yagim> I am satisfied, filled, fulfilled -- shall be filled

7 - Erani ołormacacʿ, zi nokʿa ołormutʿiwn gtcʿen
  • erani -- adjective; nominative singular of <erani> happy -- Blessed (are) # used as interjection with accompanying dative
  • ołormacacʿ -- adjective used as substantive; dative plural of <ołormac> merciful -- the merciful
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • nokʿa -- pronoun; nominative plural of <na> he, she, it -- they
  • ołormutʿiwn -- noun; accusative singular of <ołormutʿiwn> mercy -- mercy
  • gtcʿen -- verb; 3rd plural aorist subjunctive of <gtanem> I find, get, obtain -- shall obtain

8 - Erani aynocʿik` or surb en srtiwkʿ, zi nokʿa zAstuac tescʿen :
  • erani -- adjective; nominative singular of <erani> happy -- Blessed
  • aynocʿik -- emphatic pronoun; dative plural of <ayn> he, she, it -- ...
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative plural of <or> who, what, which -- ...
  • surb -- adjective; undeclined form <surb> holy, blessed -- the pure
  • en -- verb; 3rd plural present of <em> I am -- are
  • srtiwkʿ -- noun; instrumental plural of <sirt> heart -- in heart
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • nokʿa -- pronoun; nominative plural of <na> he, she, it -- they
  • zAstuac -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + proper noun; accusative singular of <Astuac> God -- God
  • tescʿen -- verb; 3rd plural aorist subjunctive of <tesanem> I see -- shall see

9 - Erani xałałararacʿ, zi nokʿa ordikʿ Astucoy kočʿescʿin :
  • erani -- adjective; nominative singular of <erani> happy -- Blessed (are) # used as interjection with accompanying dative
  • xałałararacʿ -- adjective used as substantive; dative plural of <xałał arar> peacemaker -- the peacemakers
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • nokʿa -- pronoun; nominative plural of <na> he, she, it -- they
  • ordikʿ -- noun; nominative plural of <ordi> son -- the children
  • Astucoy -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Astuac> God -- of God
  • kočʿescʿin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist subjunctive mediopassive of <kočʿem> I call, name -- shall be called

10 - Erani or halaceal icʿen vasn ardarutʿean, zi nocʿa ē arkʿayutʿiwn erknicʿ :
  • erani -- adjective; nominative singular of <erani> happy -- Blessed (are) # used as interjection with accompanying dative
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- they which
  • halaceal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <halacem> I persecute -- persecuted
  • icʿen -- verb; 3rd plural present subjunctive of <em> I am -- they will be
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- for... sake
  • ardarutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <ardarutʿiwn> righteousness -- righteousness'
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • nocʿa -- pronoun; dative plural of <na> he, she, it -- theirs
  • ē -- verb; 3rd singular present of <em> I am -- is
  • arkʿayutʿiwn -- noun; nominative singular of <arkʿayutʿiwn> kingdom -- the kingdom
  • erknicʿ -- noun; genitive plural of <erkin> heaven -- of heaven

11 - Erani ē jez` yoržam naxaticʿen zjez ew halacescʿen, ew asicʿen zamenayn ban čʿar zjēnǰ sut vasn im :
  • erani -- adjective; nominative singular of <erani> happy -- Blessed
  • ē -- verb; 3rd singular present of <em> I am -- are
  • jez -- pronoun; dative plural of <du> thou -- ye
  • yoržam -- adverb; <yoržam> when -- when
  • naxaticʿen -- verb; 3rd plural present subjunctive of <naxatem> I insult -- (men) shall revile
  • zjez -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative plural of <du> thou -- you
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • halacescʿen -- verb; 3rd plural aorist subjunctive of <halacem> I persecute -- persecute (you)
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • asicʿen -- verb; 3rd plural present subjunctive of <asem> I say -- shall say
  • zamenayn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + adjective; undeclined form <amenayn> all, every -- all manner of
  • ban -- noun; accusative singular of <ban> speech, word -- ...
  • čʿar -- adjective; accusative singular of <čʿar> bad, evil -- evil
  • zjēnǰ -- preposition; <z‘> during; for; concerning; around, about + pronoun; ablative plural of <du> thou -- against you
  • sut -- adverb; <sut> falsely -- falsely
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- for... sake
  • im -- pronoun; genitive singular of <es> I -- my

12 - Cʿncacʿēkʿ ew urax lerukʿ, zi varjkʿ jer bazum en yerkins: zi ayspēs halacecʿin zmargarēsn or yaṙaǰ kʿan zjez ēin :
  • cʿncacʿēkʿ -- verb; 2nd plural aorist imperative of <cʿncam> I rejoice -- Rejoice
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • urax -- adjective; undeclined form <urax> happy -- (exceeding) glad
  • lerukʿ -- verb; 2nd plural present imperative of <linim> I am, exist -- be
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • varjkʿ -- noun; nominative plural of <varj> reward -- reward
  • jer -- pronoun; genitive plural of <du> thou -- your # or dative
  • bazum -- adjective; undeclined form of <bazum> much, many -- great
  • en -- verb; 3rd plural present of <em> I am -- is
  • yerkins -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + noun; locative plural of <erkin> heaven -- in heaven
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • ayspēs -- adverb; <ayspēs> so, thus, in this manner -- so
  • halacecʿin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist <halacem> I persecute -- they persecuted
  • zmargarēsn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <margarē> prophet + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the prophets
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative plural of <or> who, what, which -- which
  • yaṙaǰ -- adverb; <yaṙaǰ> before, earlier -- before
  • kʿan -- conjunction; <kʿan> than -- ...
  • zjez -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative plural of <du> thou -- you
  • ēin -- verb; 3rd plural imperfect of <em> I am -- were

13 - Dukʿ ēkʿ ał erkri: apa tʿē ałn anhami i⁰w yałicʿi: očʿ imikʿ azdicʿē aynuhetew, baycʿ etʿē ənkenul artakʿs, ew koxan linel i mardkanē :
  • dukʿ -- pronoun; nominative plural of <du> thou -- Ye
  • ēkʿ -- verb; 2nd plural present of <em> I am -- are
  • -- noun; nominative singular of <ał> salt -- the salt
  • erkri -- noun; genitive singular of <erkir> earth -- of the earth
  • apa -- conjunction; <apa> but; then, afterwards, later -- but
  • tʿē -- conjunction; <etʿe> that; if; or -- if
  • ałn -- noun; nominative singular of <ał> salt + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the salt
  • anhami -- verb; 3rd singular present of <anhamim> I am un-tasteful -- has lost (its) savour
  • i⁰w -- interrogative adverb; <i⁰w> how -- wherewith
  • yałicʿi -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive mediopassive of <yałem> I salt -- shall it be salted
  • očʿ -- adverb; <očʿ> no, not -- no-
  • imikʿ -- indefinite pronoun; dative singular of <*ikʿ> something, anything -- for...-thing
  • azdicʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <azdem> I am efficacious, I affect -- it is... good
  • aynuhetew -- adverb; <aynuhetew> thenceforth -- thenceforth
  • baycʿ -- conjunction; <baycʿ> but -- but
  • etʿē -- conjunction; <etʿe> that; if; or -- ...
  • ənkenul -- verb; infinitive of <ənkenum> I throw -- to be cast
  • artakʿs -- adverb; <artakʿs> out -- out
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • koxan -- adjective; undeclined form <koxan> trampled -- trodden
  • linel -- verb; infinitive of <linim> I am, exist -- to be
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- under (foot of)
  • mardkanē -- noun; ablative singular of <mardik> mankind, people -- men

14 - Dukʿ ēkʿ loys aškarhi, očʿ karē kʿałakʿ tʿakʿčʿel` or i veray lerin kaycʿē
  • dukʿ -- pronoun; nominative plural of <du> thou -- Ye
  • ēkʿ -- verb; 2nd plural present of <em> I am -- are
  • loys -- noun; nominative singular of <loys> light -- the light
  • aškarhi -- noun; genitive singular of <aškarh> earth -- of the world
  • očʿ -- adverb; <očʿ> no, not -- not
  • karē -- verb; 3rd singular present of <karem> I can, am able -- can-
  • kʿałakʿ -- noun; nominative singular of <kʿałakʿ> city -- A city
  • tʿakʿčʿel -- verb; infinitive used as complement <tʿakʿčʿem> I hide -- be hid
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- that
  • i veray -- compound preposition; <i veray> upon, over -- on
  • lerin -- noun; genitive singular of <leaṙn> mountain -- a hill
  • kaycʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <kam> I am, exist -- is set

15 - Ew očʿ lucʿanen črag ew dnen ənd gruanaw, ayl i veray aštanaki, ew loys tay amenecʿun or i tann icʿen
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- either
  • očʿ -- adverb; <očʿ> no, not -- N-
  • lucʿanen -- verb; 3rd plural present of <lucanem> I light -- do (men) light
  • črag -- noun; accusative singular of <črag> candle -- a candle
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • dnen -- verb; 3rd plural present of <dnem> I put, place -- put (it)
  • ənd -- preposition; <ənd> through, along, by way of; against; during; instead of, in exchange for; with, in the company of; under -- under
  • gruanaw -- noun; instrumental singular of <gruan> bushel -- a bushel
  • ayl -- conjunction; <ayl> but -- but
  • i veray -- compound preposition; <i veray> upon, over -- on
  • aštanaki -- noun; genitive singular of <aštanak> candle stick -- a candlestick
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • loys -- noun; accusative singular of <loys> light -- light
  • tay -- verb; 3rd singular present of <tam> I give; permit, let -- it giveth
  • amenecʿun -- noun; dative singular of <amenayn> everyone -- unto all
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative plural of <or> who, what, which -- that
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- in
  • tann -- noun; locative singular of <tun> house + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the house
  • icʿen -- verb; 3rd plural present subjunctive of <em> I am -- are

16 - Aynpēs lusaworescʿē loys jer aṙaǰi mardkan, orpēs zi tescʿen zgorcs jer baris, ew pʿaṙaworescʿen zhayr jer or yerkins ē :
  • aynpēs -- conjunction; <aynpēs> likewise -- ...
  • lusaworescʿē -- verb; 3rd singular aorist subjunctive of <lusaworem> I shine -- let... shine
  • loys -- noun; nominative singular of <loys> light -- light
  • jer -- pronoun; genitive plural of <du> thou -- your # or dative
  • aṙaǰi -- preposition; <aṙaǰi> before, in front of -- before
  • mardkan -- noun; genitive singular of <mardik> mankind, people -- man
  • orpēs zi -- compound conjunction; <orpēs zi> so that -- so... that
  • tescʿen -- verb; 3rd plural aorist subjunctive of <tesanem> I see -- they may see
  • zgorcs -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <gorc> work, deed -- works
  • jer -- pronoun; genitive plural of <du> thou -- your # or dative
  • baris -- adjective; accusative plural of <bari> good -- good
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • pʿaṙaworescʿen -- verb; 3rd plural aorist subjunctive of <paṙaworem> I glorify -- glorify
  • zhayr -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative singular of <hayr> father -- Father
  • jer -- pronoun; genitive plural of <du> thou -- your # or dative
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- which
  • yerkins -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + noun; locative plural of <erkin> heaven -- in heaven
  • ē -- verb; 3rd singular present of <em> I am -- is

Lesson Text

1 - Ew teseal zžołovurdsn el i leaṙn: ew ibrew nstaw and` matean aṙ na ašakertkʿ nora 2 - Ew bacʿeal zberan iwr usucʿanēr znosa ew asēr: 3 - erani ałkʿatacʿ hogwov, zi nocʿa ē arkʿayutʿiwn erknicʿ : 4 - Erani sgaworacʿ, zi nokʿa mxitʿarescʿin : 5 - Erani hezocʿ, zi nokʿa žaṙangescʿen zerkir : 6 - Erani or kʿałcʿeal carawi icʿen ardarutʿean, zi nokʿa yagescʿin 7 - Erani ołormacacʿ, zi nokʿa ołormutʿiwn gtcʿen 8 - Erani aynocʿik` or surb en srtiwkʿ, zi nokʿa zAstuac tescʿen : 9 - Erani xałałararacʿ, zi nokʿa ordikʿ Astucoy kočʿescʿin : 10 - Erani or halaceal icʿen vasn ardarutʿean, zi nocʿa ē arkʿayutʿiwn erknicʿ : 11 - Erani ē jez` yoržam naxaticʿen zjez ew halacescʿen, ew asicʿen zamenayn ban čʿar zjēnǰ sut vasn im : 12 - Cʿncacʿēkʿ ew urax lerukʿ, zi varjkʿ jer bazum en yerkins: zi ayspēs halacecʿin zmargarēsn or yaṙaǰ kʿan zjez ēin : 13 - Dukʿ ēkʿ ał erkri: apa tʿē ałn anhami i⁰w yałicʿi: očʿ imikʿ azdicʿē aynuhetew, baycʿ etʿē ənkenul artakʿs, ew koxan linel i mardkanē : 14 - Dukʿ ēkʿ loys aškarhi, očʿ karē kʿałakʿ tʿakʿčʿel` or i veray lerin kaycʿē 15 - Ew očʿ lucʿanen črag ew dnen ənd gruanaw, ayl i veray aštanaki, ew loys tay amenecʿun or i tann icʿen 16 - Aynpēs lusaworescʿē loys jer aṙaǰi mardkan, orpēs zi tescʿen zgorcs jer baris, ew pʿaṙaworescʿen zhayr jer or yerkins ē :

Translation

1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up onto a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him: 2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying, 3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. 5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. 6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. 7 Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. 8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. 9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. 10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteouness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. 13 Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt has lost its savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men. 14 Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid. 15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. 16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

Grammar

1 The Alphabet and Sound System
1.1 The Alphabet

The Armenian alphabet was created in roughly 406 AD by a cleric named Mesrop Mastoc, initially as a vehicle for translation of the Bible. The most likely source of the alphabet is the Greek alphabet: like Greek, Armenian is read left to right; vowels are represented by separate characters, unlike nearby Semitic scripts; certain letters of the Armenian alphabet are reminiscent of the Greek, in particular the use of a digraph u to represent the sound u as in the Greek; and the use of letters to represent numerals follows the Greek method. Below is a list of the letters of the Armenian alphabet, together with their names, numerical values, and a guide to their pronunciation.

    Letter     Name   Number   Pronunciation
    A a     ayb   1   a as in 'father'
    B b     ben   2   b as in 'boy'
    G g     gim   3   g as in 'good'
    D d     da   4   d as in 'dog'
    E e     ečʿ   5   e as in 'bet', initially ye as in 'yes'
    Z z     za   6   z as in 'zebra'
    Ē ē     ē   7   ei as in 'eight'
    Ə ə     etʿ   8   u as in 'but'
    Tʿ tʿ     tʿo   9   t, aspirated, as in 'top'
    Ž ž     žē   10   g as in 'rouge'
    I i     ini   20   ee as in 'queen'
    L l     liwn   30   l as in 'lamb'
    X x       40   ch as in (German pronunciation of) 'Bach'
    C c     ca   50   t's as in 'what's up?'
    K k     ken   60   k, unaspirated, as in 'skip'
    H h     ho   70   h as in 'hope'
    J j     ja   80   ds as in 'heads'
    Ł ł     łat   90   ll as in 'ball', or ch as in Scots English 'loch', but voiced
    Č č     čē   100   tch, unaspirated, as in 'matchbox'
    M m     men   200   m as in 'map'
    Y y     yi   300   y as in 'yes', also as in 'boy'
    N n     nu   400   n as in 'now'
    Š š     ša   500   sh as in 'ship'
    O o     o   600   oa as in 'boat', initially vo as in 'vote'
    Čʿ čʿ     čʿa   700   tch, aspirated, as in 'match'
    P p       800   p, unaspirated, as in 'spot'
    J̌ ǰ     ǰē   900   j as in 'jump'
    Ṙ ṙ     ṙa   1000   r as in 'run', but trilled
    S s       2000   s as in 'sip'
    V v     vew   3000   v as in 'vat'
    T t     tiwn   4000   t, unaspirated, as in 'stop'
    R r       5000   r as in 'run'
    Cʿ cʿ     cʿo   6000   ts, aspirated, as in 'hats'
    W w     hiwn   7000   w as in 'wet'
    Pʿ pʿ     pʿiwr   8000   p, aspirated, as in 'pot'
    Kʿ kʿ     kʿē   9000   k, aspirated, as in 'kit'

As mentioned above, the digraph u represents the single vowel sound u. The schwa ə is written only in initial position for monosyllabic words and for words derived from these by nominal composition. In modern printed texts it is written in polysyllabic words when hyphenated.

Beginning in the twelfth century, the letter O/o is used where one would usually find the diphthong aw. The letter F/f was introduced to represent the corresponding foreign sound, as in the f of English 'father'. Greek omega was usually represented by ov.

1.2 The Sound System

The phonological system of Classical Armenian consists of 29 consonants and 7 simple vowels. The consonants may be organized according to articulation as in the following chart.

    Voiceless       Voiced
Plosives   Unaspirated   Aspirated    
Labial   p   pʿ   b
Dental   t   tʿ   d
Velar   k   kʿ   g
             
Affricates   Unaspirated   Aspirated    
Dental   c   cʿ   j
Palatal   č   čʿ   ǰ
             
Fricatives   Voiceless       Voiced
Labial           v
Dental   s       z
Palatal   š       ž
Velar   x        
Glottal   h        
             
Nasals           Voiced
Labial           m
Dental           n
             
Liquids            
Central   r      
Lateral   l   ł    
             
Semivowels            
Palatal   y        
Velar   w        

Conventional pronunciation renders ł as the voiced counterpart of x , thereby lending it a fricative quality. The evidence from the classical period, however, seems to point to a heavy lateral articulation, as in Modern English 'ball'. The spelling gaył for the usual gayl shows that the distinction was not absolute within the language itself. It was also used to render the Greek lambda, as in titłos < Gk. titlos and Pawłos < Gk. Paulos.

v and w are conventionally pronounced differently, as their English counterparts. In the classical period, however, they do not seem to have been distinct phonemes, but rather allographs: v was used initially, initially in the second element of compounds, and after o with w w used elsewhere.

The vowels may be similarly organized, as in the following chart:

Vowels   Front   Central   Back
High   i       u
High-Mid   ē   ə    
Mid   e       o
Low       a    

There is no evidence for a distinction of vowel quantities in Classical Armenian.

Modern convention pronounces initial e as ye; the evidence for such pronunciation extending back to the classical period is unclear, since archaic texts often transcribe with initial e Greek names beginning with epsilon or the alpha-iota diphthong. The word for Jerusalem, which however would have had an initial glide, is written simply as Erosałēm, indicating that e was preceded by the glide y at least in some instances. Similarly, the pronunciation of initial o as vo seems to be post-classical.

Below is a list of the diphthongs of Classical Armenian. In some instances the conventional pronunciation diverges from the classical rendering.

  • ay -- conventionally pronounced as a in final position, and as uy otherwise;
  • oy -- conventionally pronounced as o in final position, and as uy otherwise;
  • aw -- conventionally pronounced as av before vowels and finally; later pronounced as o o and so rendered in written documents;
  • ew -- conventionally pronounced as ev before vowels and finally; often written alternately as eaw;
  • iw -- conventionally pronounced as iv before vowels and finally; often used to represent Greek upsilon;
  • ea -- conventionally pronounced as ya.
1.3 Vocalic and Consonantal Alternation

In many instances the stress of a word shifts due to addition of a morpheme. This shift may cause the originally stressed vowel to change or drop altogether. The general rules for such alternation are listed below with a few illustrative examples.

Stressed V /   Full Form   Reduced Form
Unstressed V        
         
i / zero   sirt 'heart'   G srti [sərti]
    amis 'month'   G amsoy [amso]
    tʿiw 'number'   G tʿuoy [tʿəwo]
    elikʿ 'he reads'   1 sg. lkʿi [ləkʿi]
         
u / zero   kʿun 'sleep'   G kʿnoy [kʿəno]
    hur 'fire'   G hroy [həro]
    ump 'he entered'   1 sg. mti [məti]
         
ē / i   vēm 'stone'   G vimi [vimi]
    ēǰ 'side'   G iǰi [iǰi]
    ēǰ 'he descended'   1 sg. iǰi [iǰi]
         
oy / u   loys 'light'   G lusoy [luso]
    koys 'virgin'   G kusi [kusi]
    ecʿoycʿ 'he showed'   1 sg. cʿucʿi [cʿucʿi]
         
ea / e   matean 'house'   G mateni [mateni]
    seneak 'room'   G seneki [seneki]
    sireacʿ 'he loved'   1 sg. sirecʿi [sirecʿi]
         
ew / iw   ewł 'oil'   G iwłoy [iwło]

There are some exceptions to these rules. Other vowels undergo no change under change of stress.

There are also some general tendencies of alternation between consonants in certain environments.

  • r / -- r often changes to r before n, e.g. leaṙn 'mountain', G lerin, Ab leṙnē (< *lerinē); aṙnem 'I do', Aor. arari.
  • h / zero -- initial h is lost in combination, e.g. hat-anem 'I cut', but lezu-at (< *lezu‘hat) 'with cut tongue'.
  • w / v / b -- /v/ is realized as b after the consonants m, r, ł; as w after the vowels a, i; and as v after o. Examples are matamb from matn 'finger', astełb from astł 'star', kayserb from kaysr 'Caesar', azgaw from asg 'nation', bayiw from bay 'word', getov from geto 'river'.
  • cʿ / s -- before cʿ and ǰ, cʿ dissimilates to s, e.g. 1 sg. sirecʿicʿ 'I shall love', 2 sg. sirescʿes (< *sirecʿcʿes < *sirecʿicʿes), 2 pl. siresǰikʿ (< *sirecʿǰikʿ < *sirecʿiǰikʿ).
2 Nominal Declension

Classical Armenian nouns and adjectives display two numbers, singular and plural, and seven cases: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Locative, Ablative, and Instrumental. There is no purely grammatical gender of the sort found in languages such as Latin. There are several declension paradigms, which broadly fall into two categories: those with variable stems and those with invariable stems. One should note that stem variation is a phenomenon distinct from vocalic alternation. Vowel alternation occurs automatically whenever there is a change of stress due to the addition of a morpheme, and it therefore bears no relation to patterns of declension.

2.1 Nouns with Invariable Stems Ending in a Consonant

Nouns with invariable stems may be divided into two groups: those ending in a vowel, and those ending in a consonant. Of those ending in a consonant, there are four declensions, categorized according to the vowel found in the genitive plural: a, i, u, o. The nouns am 'year', ban 'word', cov 'sea', and beran 'mouth' illustrate the declension.

Singular

    a   i   u   o
Nom.   am   ban   cov   beran
Acc.   am   ban   cov   beran
Gen.   ami   bani   covu   beranoy
Dat.   ami   bani   covu   beranoy
Loc.   ami   bani   covu   beran
Abl.   amē   banē   covē   beranoy
Inst.   amaw   baniw   covu   beranov

Plural

    a   i   u   o
Nom.   amkʿ   bankʿ   covkʿ   berankʿ
Acc.   ams   bans   covs   berans
Gen.   amacʿ   banicʿ   covucʿ   beranocʿ
Dat.   amacʿ   banicʿ   covucʿ   beranocʿ
Loc.   ams   bans   covs   berans
Abl.   amacʿ   banicʿ   covucʿ   beranocʿ
Inst.   amawkʿ   baniwkʿ   covukʿ   beranovkʿ

Nouns ending in -eay follow the i-declension, e.g. hreay 'Jew', G sg. hrei; N pl. hreaykʿ, G pl. hreicʿ, etc.

Some nouns of the u-declension have an ablative singular ending in -, e.g. spas 'service', G sg. spasu, Ab sg. spasuē.

Some nouns of the o-declension optionally have the ending -i in the Locative case, for example mēǰ 'middle':

  • i mēǰ Accusative or Locative;
  • i mēǰoy Ablative;
  • i miǰi Locative.

Proper nouns of the a-declension are characterized by the ending -ay in the genitive, dative, locative, and ablative singular. Tigran provides an example:

    a-decl.
Nom.   Tigran
Acc.   Tigran
Gen.   Tigranay
Dat.   Tigranay
Loc.   Tigranay
Abl.   Tigranay
Inst.   Tigranaw
2.2 Substantives with Invariable Stems Ending in a Vowel

A large number of nouns and adjectives have invariable stems ending in the vowel -i. These fall into two declensions, the o-declension and the a-declension. The a-declension has a special Locative ending - and Ablative ending -oǰē. The nouns hogi 'spirit, soul' and tełi 'place' illustrate the o- and a-declensions, respectively.

Singular

    o   a
Nom.   hogi   tełi
Acc.   hogi   tełi
Gen.   hogwoy   tełwoy
Dat.   hogwoy   tełwoy
Loc.   hogi   tełwoǰ
Abl.   hogwoy   tełwoy, tełwoǰē
Inst.   hogwov   tełeaw

Plural

    o   a
Nom.   hogikʿ   tełikʿ
Acc.   hogis   tełis
Gen.   hogwocʿ   tełeacʿ
Dat.   hogwocʿ   tełeacʿ
Loc.   hogis   tełis
Abl.   hogwocʿ   tełeacʿ
Inst.   hogwovkʿ   tełeawkʿ

Adjectives derived from place names by means of the suffix -acʿi follow the declension of hogi, with G plural in -wocʿ, e.g. Atʿenacʿi 'Athenian, one from Athens', G pl. Atʿenacʿwocʿ. On the other hand, nouns with the suffix -acʿi which are not derived from place names follow the declension of tełi, e.g. dracʿi, G pl. dracʿeacʿ 'neighbor' derived from durkʿ 'door'.

3 The Present System of Verbs

Verbal forms in Classical Armenian are built from two stems, the present and the aorist. One or both of these stems may contain a suffix inserted between the root and the inflectional vowel (in the present), or between root and ending (in the aorist). The present stem is the base for an indicative mood, subjunctive and (negative) imperative. The indicative mood separates into two tenses: present and imperfect. Nominal forms may arise from the present stem, namely an infinitive and participle. Inasmuch as verbal aspect is distinguished in Classical Armenian, the present system forms denote a developing or continuous action, while the aorist forms refer to an action's completion.

3.1 Present Indicative of 'to be'

The present indicative of the verb 'to be' illustrates the endings of the present indicative of all verbs. The forms are as follows.

    Singular   Plural
1st   em   emkʿ
2nd   es   ēkʿ
3rd   ē   en

Note that e + y > ē, so that the endings are -m, -s, -y, -mkʿ, -ykʿ, -n.

3.2 The Present Indicative of All Verbs

The forms of the present indicative are comprised of a stem, characteristic vowel, and the present indicative endings. There are five possible characteristic vowels: e, i, a, u, o. The endings are the same as those listed above for the verb 'to be'. sirem 'I love', sirim 'I am loved', lam 'I weep', hełum 'I pour', and gom 'I exist' illustrate the paradigms.

    e   i   a   u   o
1 sg.   sirem   sirim   lam   hełum   *gom
2 sg.   sires   siris   las   hełus   *gos
3 sg.   sirē   siri   lay   hełu   goy
1 pl.   siremkʿ   sirimkʿ   lamkʿ   hełumkʿ   *gomkʿ
2 pl.   sirēkʿ   sirikʿ   laykʿ   hełukʿ   *goykʿ
3 pl.   siren   sirin   lan   hełun   gon

*gom is the sole verb of the o-class. It is only recorded in third person forms.

3.3 The Present Infinitive

The present infinitive is built from the present stem by addition of a characteristic vowel and the suffix -l. The characteristic vowel exhibited by a given verb is the same as that found in the present indicative forms, with the exception that verbs in -em and -im both exhibit the vowel e in the infinitive. Thus the verbs above form the infinitives sirel 'to love', lal 'to weep', hełul 'to pour', gol 'to exist'. The infinitive is declined as an o-type singular noun:

    -el   -al   -ul   -ol
Nom.   sirel   lal   hełul   gol
Acc.   sirel   lal   hełul   gol
Gen.   sireloy   laloy   hełloy   goloy
Dat.   sireloy   laloy   hełloy   goloy
Loc.   sirel   lal   hełul   gol
Abl.   sireloy   laloy   hełloy   goloy
Inst.   sirelov   lalov   hełlov   golov

In the post-classical era infinitives in -il appear in order to distinguish verbs in -im.

3.4 The Imperfect Tense of All verbs

The imperfect indicative is built from the same stem as the present indicative, but makes no distinction between verbal stems ending in -e or -i. Therefore verbal pairs such as sirem 'I love' and sirim 'I am loved' lose their distinction in the imperfect. The conjugation is as follows.

    -e/-i   -a   -u   -o
1 sg.   sirei   layi   hełui   -
2 sg.   sireir   layir   hełuir   -
3 sg.   sirēr   layr   hełoyr   goyr
1 pl.   sireakʿ   layakʿ   hełuakʿ   -
2 pl.   sireikʿ   layikʿ   hełuikʿ   -
3 pl.   sirein   layin   hełuin   goyin

The third person singular is one syllable shorter than the other forms.

In the post-classical period -em and -im verbs were distinguished in the third person singular by means of an innovative ending -iwr: sirēr 'he loved', siriwr 'he was loved'.

3.5 The Present Subjunctive

The present subjunctive is formed from the present tense stem with its characteristic vowel, to which the suffix -icʿ is added, and to this the usual present indicative endings. With the endings, however, only forms in -em, -im and -um are distinguished. For example, sirem forms sire + icʿ + em > siricʿem, sirim forms siri + icʿ + im > siricʿim. Verbs with present indicative in -am take present subjunctive endings in -em, so that lam forms la + icʿ + em > laycʿem. But hełum forms hełu + icʿ + um > hełucʿum.

Although formation of the passive will be treated more fully, later, it is important to point out here that verbs in -am make in the subjunctive a distinction between active and passive which is not found in the indicative. In the same fashion that allows sirem 'I love' to be opposed to sirim 'I am loved', so in the subjunctive ałam 'I grind' distinguishes the active ałaycʿem from the passive ałaycʿim.

Conjugation follows the pattern of the indicative, as the paradigms below illustrate:

    e   i   a   u   o
1 sg.   siricʿem   siricʿim   laycʿem   hełucʿum    
2 sg.   siricʿes   siricʿis   laycʿes   hełucʿus    
3 sg.   siricʿē   siricʿi   laycʿē   hełucʿu   gucʿē (< *goycʿē)
1 pl.   siricʿemkʿ   siricʿimkʿ   laycʿemkʿ   hełucʿumkʿ    
2 pl.   siricʿēkʿ   siricʿikʿ   laycʿēkʿ   hełucʿukʿ    
3 pl.   siricʿen   siricʿin   laycʿen   hełucʿun    

The form gucʿē is often used in the adverbial sense of 'perhaps'. The verb 'to be' has the following present subjunctive forms:

    Singular   Plural
1st   icʿem   icʿemkʿ
2nd   icʿes   icʿēkʿ
3rd   icʿē   icʿen

In the second person one also finds forms adopted from the aorist: second person singular -ijir and plural -ijikʿ. These forms are typically employed in the role of futures or imperatives. The singular form is generally, and the plural form occasionally, used in a passive sense, e.g. sirijir 'be thou loved' and sirijikʿ 'be ye loved'.

3.6 The Present Imperative

The present imperative is used only in prohibitive statements, accompanied by the negative particle mi. Only the second person singular present imperative has distinct forms, the others being the same as the present indicative. Formation is based on the present stem with characteristic vowel, to which is added the ending -r. Thus

    -em   -im   -am   -um
2 sg.   mi sirer   mi sirir   mi lar   mi hełur

The imperative of 'to be' is used only in the expression słj er 'be thou well, greetings', translating the Greek chaire. The second person plural, of course, is słj ēkʿ 'be ye well, greetings' (Gk. chairete).

4 Word Order and Congruence

Word order in Classical Armenian is free, with words placed toward the beginning of an utterance gaining prominence. In Biblical translations, the word order often follows that of the Greek text.

Word order may affect the congruence between an adjective an the word it modifies. Attributive adjectives are undeclined when they precede a noun, declined when they follow the noun. For example, in John 10.32 one finds bazum gorcs baris. Here, bazum is the uninflected N/Ac singular form of the adjective bazum, -acʿ 'much, many'; gorcs is the inflected Ac plural form of the noun gorc, -ocʿ 'work, deed'; baris is the inflected Ac plural of the adjective bari, -eacʿ 'good'. In predicate sentences, the predicated adjective is in the Nominative case and singular, even if the subject is plural, unless the adjective follows the copula directly. Thus one might have azat en Haykʿ 'The Armenians are free', but vardapetkʿ en imastumkʿ 'Teachers are wise.'

The verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Coordinated subjects require a plural verb. Singular subjects with collective meaning may have either singular or plural verb forms.

5 Prepositions

Armenian has a wealth of words functioning as prepositions. Many of these, however, are adverbs or collocations of a simple preposition and a noun, which in turn govern a noun in the genitive. Prepositions generally precede the noun they govern, but some follow the noun as a postposition. There are six basic prepositions, listed in the chart below with the cases they govern and their meaning appropriate to each case.

Prep.   Case   Associated Meaning
aṙ   Acc.   to, toward (motion toward a person)
    Loc.   beside, Fr. chez
    Inst.   beside, in the time of (with person's name), in addition to
         
ənd   Acc.   through, along, by way of, against, during
    Gen.   instead of, in exchange for
    Loc.   with, in the company of
    Inst.   under
         
əst   Acc.   on, onto
    Dat.   according to
    Loc.   according to
    Abl.   one after another (e.g. year by year)
         
z   Acc.   during, for
    Abl.   concerning
    Inst.   around, about
         
i   Acc.   to, into, upon
    Loc.   in, at, under
    Abl.   from, out of, away from; out of (in partitive sense); by (agent in passive sentence)
         
cʿ   Acc.   to, up to

The prepositions z and cʿ are inseparable from the following noun; similarly i, which becomes y before vowels.

Below are listed some of the more frequent adverbs used as prepositions. They all govern the genitive case.

    Adverb   Meaning with Genitive
    aṙaǰi   in front of, before (of time)
    artakʿoy   outside
    nerkʿoy   inside, under
    čʿurǰ   around
    vasn, ałazaw   concerning, because of
    het   with, after (of time)
    yet, zkni   after, following
    aṙancʿ   without
    pʿoxanak   instead of, for, on behalf of

The word handerc may govern the Instrumental case in the sense 'with, in the company of'. It may come either before or after the noun it governs.

Common compound prepositions are i veray 'above' and i mēǰ 'amidst'. They take the genitive case, which may be placed between the two components, e.g. i hroy mēǰ 'in the fire, in the midst of the fire'.

Classical Armenian Online - Romanized

Lesson 2

Todd B. Krause, John A.C. Greppin, and Jonathan Slocum

The Yervanduni Dynasty

Yervanduni is the name given to a family whose members were appointed by the Medes and Persians as governors in Armenia over the period 585 - 200 B.C. At least four of these governors were named Yervand. Their ethnic background is not clear. Most now believe the Urartuan and Armenian ethnicities to have been distinct, and it is not certain from which culture the Yervandunis originated. The Yervandunis were related somehow to the Persians, if not by blood, at least through bonds of marriage.

By roughly 610 B.C., the Medes and Babylonians had divided the remnants of the Assyrian empire, and the Medes began to consolidate their power in the north. Having captured portions of Urartu and Mesopotamia, by 585 B.C. the Medes were a dominant force in the region. They appointed a Yervanduni family member to administer the Urartuan province.

Median hegemony did not last long. A number of the subjugated states rose in rebellion under the leadership of the Persian Cyrus. Among those rebelling were the Yervandunis. By 550 B.C. Cyrus had overthrown the Medes and established the beginnings of the Achaemenid dynasty, one which would greatly expand Persian influence through the exploits of Cyrus' son Cambyses, and later those of Darius I.

The reasons are not clear, but somehow, after the fall of the Urartuan kingdom, Armenian culture gained in prestige and was eventually recognized as one of the important satrapies listed by Darius I on the Behistun rock (ca. 520 B.C.). This is the first record of the name Armenia. Darius had apparently campaigned against the Armenians when they rose in revolt against his taxes. To quell such rebellious tendencies, Darius may have installed a governor from another family, since there is no mention of the Yervandunis until the next century.

Under Achaemenid rule, the Armenians were free to live according to their own cultural dictates, as long as they paid tribute to the Persian empire. Most of our knowledge of Armenia during this period comes from the Anabasis of Xenophon, who travelled through the region with Greek troops in 401 - 400 B.C. Xenophon tells of a ruler Yervand, who was son-in-law to the Persian king Artaxerxes I. The Armenian satrapy evidently consisted of a non-Armenian enclave in the highlands, perhaps remnants of the Urartuan culture, and whom some believe to be the ancestors of the modern Kurds. Xenophon mentions underground winter quarters in some towns, an abundance of food, and a type of beer drunk through a reed straw.

Persian culture left an indelible imprint in Armenia. Although Aramaic seems to have been the language of administration during this period, Armenian is infused with several words borrowed from Persian. Armenians also seem to have adopted many Persian social practices, as well as something of the Zoroastrian pantheon. The Armenians dedicated several temples and festivals to Anahit, goddess of fertility and wisdom.

By the middle of the fourth century B.C., the Achaemenid dynasty had fallen into decline, allowing the Yervandunis to consolidate their power and create a nearly autonomous Armenian province. Darius III, supported in battle by another Armenian satrap named Yervand, finally fell before the onslaught of Alexander the Great in roughly 330 B.C. Under Alexander, and, after his death in 323 B.C., under Seleucid reign, Greek culture began to impose itself on the region.

Alexander's conquests did not take him through Armenian territory, however, and so the fall of the Persian empire left the Yervandunis an opportunity for consolidating a completely independent rule over the Armenian region. Initially Alexander appointed governors over Armenia, but the Yervandunis led a revolt and refused taxation. They reasserted their autonomy later in the face of the Seleucids. In the end, three distinct regions opened up in the Armenian region. There was a western region, Lesser Armenia, which periodically fell under Seleucid rule and was never completely annexed by the Yervandunis. To the east of this was the region of Dsopk, which acted as a buffer region between Lesser Armenia and the third region, Greater Armenia, in which the Yervanduni foothold was firm. Yervanduni rule finally came to an end in roughly 200 B.C., when they were overthrown by the Armenian noble Artashes, incited to revolt by the Seleucids.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Moses Khorenatsi (that is, Moses of Khoren) is the father of Armenian history and is traditionally believed to have written in the fifth century A.D. Other scholars have suggested the seventh century. Some of his work is based on a mythological history, which he describes with the same belief as the later true historical renderings of the Persian era up to the establishment of Christianity. This reading is taken from his History, Book II, Chapter 30.

Ənd ayn žamanaks ekacʿ i gorc hazarapetutʿean kayser i veray Pʿiwnikecʿwocʿ ew Pałestinacʿwocʿ, Asorwocʿ ew Miǰagetacʿ, Maṙinos ordi Storgeay:
  • ənd -- preposition; <ənd> through, along, by way of; against; during; instead of, in exchange for; with, in the company of; under -- At
  • ayn -- demonstrative pronoun; undeclined form of <ayn> that, that over there -- that
  • žamanaks -- noun; accusative plural of <žamanak> time -- time
  • ekacʿ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <gam> I come, go -- took
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- ...
  • gorc -- noun; accusative singular of <gorc> work, deed -- the post # ekacʿ i gorc -- 'attained the office of' + gen.
  • hazarapetutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <hazarapetutʿiwn> chiliarch, commander -- of... chiliarch
  • kayser -- noun; genitive singular of <kaysr> chief, emperor -- the emperor's
  • i veray -- compound preposition; <i veray> upon, over -- over
  • Pʿiwnikecʿwocʿ -- proper noun; genitive plural of <Pʿiwnikecʿi> Phoenician -- the Phoenicians
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • Pałestinacʿwocʿ -- proper noun; genitive plural of <Pałestinacʿik> Palestinian -- Palestinians
  • Asorwocʿ -- proper noun; genitive plural of <Asori> Assyrian, Syrians -- the Syrians
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • Miǰagetacʿ -- proper noun; genitive plural of <Miǰagetkʿ> Mesopotamia -- Mesopotamians
  • Maṙinos -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Marinos> Marinus -- Marinus
  • ordi -- noun; nominative singular of <ordi> son -- son
  • Storgeay -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Storgews> Storgius -- of Storgius

aṙ or aṙakʿeacʿ Abgaros erkus i glxaworacʿ iwrocʿ, zMarihab bdešxn Ałjneacʿ, ew zŠamšagram nahapet Apahuneacʿ tohmin, ew zAnan hawatarim iwr` i kʿałakʿn Betʿkʿubin, zgacʿucʿanel nma zpatčaṙs ertʿaloyn iwroy yarewels, cʿucʿanelov nma zgir uxtin` or ənd Artašēs ew ənd ełbars iwr, ew aṙnel zna tʿikuns ōgnakanutʿean :
  • aṙ -- preposition; <aṙ> to, toward (a person); beside; in the time of; in addition to -- to
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- And... him
  • aṙakʿeacʿ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <aṙakʿem> I send -- sent
  • Abgaros -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Abgaros> Abgar -- Abgar
  • erkus -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural of <erku> two -- two
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- from among
  • glxaworacʿ -- noun; ablative plural of <glxawor> notable, head -- notables
  • iwrocʿ -- reflexive possessive adjective; ablative plural of <iwr> him-, her-, it-self -- his
  • zMarihab -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + proper noun; accusative singular of <Marihab> Mar Ihab -- Mar Ihab
  • bdešxn -- noun; accusative singular of <bdešx> consul + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the consul
  • Ałjneacʿ -- proper noun; genitive plural of <Ałjnikʿ> (pl.) Aghjnik' -- of Aghjnik'
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • zŠamšagram -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + proper noun; accusative singular of <Šamšagran> Shamshagram -- Shamshagram
  • nahapet -- noun; accusative singular of <nahapet> nahapet, senior prince -- senior prince
  • Apahuneacʿ -- proper noun; genitive plural of <Apahuneikʿ> (pl.) Apahunis -- of the Apahunis
  • tohmin -- noun; genitive singular of <tohm> dynasty, tribe + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- of the dynasty
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- as well as
  • zAnan -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + proper noun; accusative singular of <Anan> Anan -- Anan
  • hawatarim -- noun; accusative singular of <hawatarim> confidant -- confidant
  • iwr -- reflexive pronoun; genitive singular of <iwr> him-, her-, it-self -- his
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- to
  • kʿałakʿn -- noun; accusative singular of <kʿałakʿ> city -- the city
  • Betʿkʿubin -- proper noun; accusative singular of <Betʿkʿubin> Bet Kubin -- of Bet Kubin
  • zgacʿucʿanel -- verb; infinitive undeclined form of <zgacʿucʿanem> I inform -- to inform... of
  • nma -- pronoun; dative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • zpatčaṙs -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <patčaṙ> basis, cause, reason -- the reasons
  • ertʿaloyn -- verb; infinitive genitive singular of <ertal> to go + definite marker; <‘n> the -- of... going
  • iwroy -- reflexive possessive adjective; genitive singular of <iwr> him-, her-, it-self -- his
  • yarewels -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + noun; accusative plural of <arewelkʿ> East, the Orient -- to the East
  • cʿucʿanelov -- verb; infinitive instrumental singular of <cʿucʿanem> I show -- by showing
  • nma -- pronoun; dative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • zgir -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative singular of <gir> writing, text -- the text
  • uxtin -- noun; genitive singular of <uxt> agreement, covenant + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- of the agreement
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- which (was)
  • ənd -- preposition; <ənd> through, along, by way of; against; during; instead of, in exchange for; with, in the company of; under -- between
  • Artašēs -- proper noun; accusative singular of <Artašēs> Artashes -- Artashes
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • ənd -- preposition; <ənd> through, along, by way of; against; during; instead of, in exchange for; with, in the company of; under -- ...
  • ełbars -- noun; accusative plural of <ełbayr> brother -- brothers
  • iwr -- reflexive pronoun; genitive singular of <iwr> him-, her-, it-self -- his
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • aṙnel -- verb; infinitive undeclined form of <aṙnem> I do, make -- to make
  • zna -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • tʿikuns -- noun; accusative plural of <tʿikunkʿ> (pl.) back, shoulder; help, auxiliary -- an aid
  • ōgnakanutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <awgnkanutʿiwn> cooperation; help, support -- of (his) support # or dative

Orocʿ ekeal gtin zna yElewtʿeroypōlis :
  • orocʿ -- relative pronoun; genitive plural of <or> who, what, which -- (And) they # genitive subject of participle
  • ekeal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <gam> I come, go -- upon arriving
  • gtin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist of <gtanem> I find, get, obtain -- found
  • zna -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • yElewtʿeroypōlis -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + proper noun; locative singular of <Elewtʿeroypōlis> Eleutheropolis -- in Eleutheropolis

Ew nora ənkaleal znosa xałałutʿeamb ew mecaranōkʿ, aṙnē patasxani Abgaru: Mi kaskacēr i kayserē saks aynr, miayn zi harkeln liov pʿutʿascʿis :
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • nora -- pronoun; genitive singular of <na> he, she, it -- he # genitive subject of participle
  • ənkaleal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <əndunim> I receive -- having received
  • znosa -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative plural of <na> he, she, it -- them
  • xałałutʿeamb -- noun; instrumental singular of <xałałutʿiwn> peace -- with peace
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • mecaranōkʿ -- noun; instrumental plural of <mecaran> respect, honor -- honor
  • aṙnē -- verb; 3rd singular present of <aṙnem> I do, make -- gave
  • patasxani -- noun; accusative singular of <patasxani> answer -- an answer
  • Abgaru -- proper noun; dative singular of <Abgaros> Abgar -- to Abgar
  • mi -- imperative adverb; <mi> (do) not -- Do not
  • kaskacēr -- verb; 2nd singular present imperative of <kaskacem> I doubt, suspect -- doubt
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- ...
  • kayserē -- noun; ablative singular of <kaysr> chief, emperor -- the emperor
  • saks -- preposition; <sak> on account of, because of -- on account of
  • aynr -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular of <ayn> that, that over there -- that
  • miayn -- adverb; <miayn> only, merely -- merely
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- that
  • harkeln -- verb; infinitive used as complement <harkim> I pay tribute + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- to pay (his) tribute off # definite marker is often appended to the first accented word of a subordinate clause
  • liov -- adverb; <liov> fully -- in full
  • pʿutʿascʿis -- verb; 2nd singular aorist subjunctive mediopassive of <pʿutʿam> I hasten, make haste -- you hasten

Ew nocʿa darjeal anti, elin yErusałēm tesanel zPʿrkičʿn mer Kʿristos vasn lroy hambawocʿ skʿančʿelagorcutʿeancʿn: orum ew akanates ełeal patmecʿin Abgaru :
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • nocʿa -- pronoun; genitive plural of <na> he, she, it -- they # genitive subject of participle
  • darjeal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <daṙnam> I return -- having returned
  • anti -- adverb; <anti> from there -- from there
  • elin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist of <elanem> I come, go up -- went up
  • yErusałēm -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + proper noun; accusative singular of <Erusałēm> Jerusalem -- to Jerusalem
  • tesanel -- verb; infinitive used as complement <tesanem> I see -- to see
  • zPʿrkičʿn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative singular of <pʿrkičʿ> savior + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- Savior
  • mer -- pronoun; genitive plural of <es> I -- our
  • Kʿristos -- proper noun; accusative singular of <Kʿristos> Christ -- Christ
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- on account of
  • lroy -- noun; genitive singular of <lur> hearing; news, report; voice -- of hearing
  • hambawocʿ -- noun; genitive plural of <hambaw> news -- the news
  • skʿančʿelagorcutʿeancʿn -- noun; genitive plural of <skʿančʿelagorcutʿiwn> miracle + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- of the miracles
  • orum -- relative pronoun; dative singular of <or> who, what, which -- to this
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • akanates -- noun; nominative singular of <akanates> eyewitness -- witness
  • ełeal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <ełanim> I become -- being
  • patmecʿin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist of <patmem> I report, tell -- they recounted (this)
  • Abgaru -- proper noun; dative singular of <Abgaros> Abgar -- to Abgar

Ənd or zarmacʿeal Abgaru, hawatacʿ čšmartapēs ibr ardarew ordi Astucoy, ew asē: Ayn zōrutʿiwnkʿ očʿ mardoy en, ayl Astucoy: zi čʿikʿ okʿ i mardkanē or karē zmeṙeals yarucʿanel, baycʿ miayn Astuac :
  • ənd -- preposition; <ənd> through, along, by way of; against; during; instead of, in exchange for; with, in the company of; under -- at
  • or -- relative pronoun; accusative singular of <or> who, what, which -- this
  • zarmacʿeal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <zarmanam> I am astonished, marvel -- Astonished
  • Abgaru -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Abgaros> Abgar -- Abgar # genitive subject of participle
  • hawatacʿ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <hawatam> I believe -- recognized
  • čšmartapēs -- adverb; <čšmartapēs> truly -- truly
  • ibr -- conjunction; <ibr> like, as (if) -- as
  • ardarew -- adverb; <ardarew> truly -- ...
  • ordi -- noun; accusative singular of <ordi> son -- son
  • Astucoy -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Astuac> God -- of God
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • asē -- verb; 3rd singular present of <asem> I say -- said
  • ayn -- demonstrative pronoun; undeclined form of <ayn> that, that over there -- These
  • zōrutʿiwnkʿ -- noun; nominative plural of <zawrutʿiwn> miracle -- marvels
  • očʿ -- adverb; <očʿ> no, not -- not
  • mardoy -- noun; genitive singular of <mard> man -- of man
  • en -- verb; 3rd plural present of <em> I am -- are
  • ayl -- conjunction; <ayl> but -- but
  • Astucoy -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Astuac> God -- of God
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • čʿikʿ -- adverb; <čʿ‘> not + indefinite pronoun; nominative singular of <*ikʿ> something, anything -- there is no
  • okʿ -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular of <okʿ> someone, anyone -- one
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- among
  • mardkanē -- noun; ablative singular of <mardik> mankind, people -- men
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- who
  • karē -- verb; 3rd singular present of <karem> I can, am able -- is able
  • zmeṙeals -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + adjective used as substantive; accusative plural of <mereal> dead -- the dead
  • yarucʿanel -- verb; infinitive used as complement <yarucʿanem> I raise -- to raise
  • baycʿ -- conjunction; <baycʿ> but -- save
  • miayn -- adjective; nominative singular of <miayn> only, solitary -- alone
  • Astuac -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Astuac> God -- God

Ew kʿanzi apakaneal ēr marminn iwr i čʿaračʿar cʿawocʿ, or patahecʿin nma i Parsicʿ ašxarhin yaṙaǰ kʿan zeawtʿn am, or i mardkanē očʿ ełew nma hnar bžškutʿean, et tanel nma tʿułtʿ ałačʿanacʿ, gal ew bžškel zna i cʿawocʿn
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • kʿanzi -- conjunction; <kʿanzi> because -- because
  • apakaneal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <apakanem> I corrupt -- corrupted
  • ēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <em> I am -- was
  • marminn -- noun; nominative singular of <marmin> body + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- body
  • iwr -- reflexive pronoun; genitive singular of <iwr> him-, her-, it-self -- his
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- by
  • čʿaračʿar -- adjective; undeclined form of <čʿaračʿar> terrible -- terrible
  • cʿawocʿ -- noun; ablative plural of <cʿaw> pain -- pains
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- which
  • patahecʿin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist of <patahem> I occur, befall -- had befallen
  • nma -- pronoun; dative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- in
  • Parsicʿ -- proper noun; genitive plural of <Parskʿ> (pl.) the Persians -- of the Persians
  • ašxarhin -- noun; locative singular of <ašxarh> land, realm + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the land
  • yaṙaǰ -- adverb; <yaṙaǰ> before, earlier -- before
  • kʿan -- conjunction; <kʿan> than -- ...
  • zeawtʿn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + adjective; undeclined form <eawtʿn> seven -- seven
  • am -- noun; accusative singular of <am> year -- year # when the cardinal number is undeclined, the substantive usually follows in the singular, cf. Section 17.1
  • or -- relative pronoun; accusative plural of <or> who, what, which -- who # direct object of bžškutʿean
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- among
  • mardkanē -- noun; ablative singular of <mardik> mankind, people -- men
  • očʿ -- adverb; <očʿ> no, not -- not
  • ełew -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <ełanim> I become -- there was
  • nma -- pronoun; dative singular of <na> he, she, it -- for him
  • hnar -- noun; nominative singular of <hnar> means -- a means
  • bžškutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <bžškutʿiwn> healing, cure -- of curing
  • et -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <tam> I give; permit, let -- he granted
  • tanel -- verb; infinitive used as complement <tanim> I take -- to be taken
  • nma -- pronoun; dative singular of <na> he, she, it -- to him
  • tʿułtʿ -- noun; accusative singular of <tʿułtʿ> letter -- a letter
  • ałačʿanacʿ -- noun; genitive plural <ałačʿankʿ> (pl.) supplication -- of entreaty
  • gal -- verb; infinitive of <gam> I come, go -- to come
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • bžškel -- verb; infinitive of <bžškem> I cure -- cure
  • zna -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- of
  • cʿawocʿn -- noun; ablative plural of <cʿaw> pain + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- (his) pains

Lesson Text

Ənd ayn žamanaks ekacʿ i gorc hazarapetutʿean kayser i veray Pʿiwnikecʿwocʿ ew Pałestinacʿwocʿ, Asorwocʿ ew Miǰagetacʿ, Maṙinos ordi Storgeay: aṙ or aṙakʿeacʿ Abgaros erkus i glxaworacʿ iwrocʿ, zMarihab bdešxn Ałjneacʿ, ew zŠamšagram nahapet Apahuneacʿ tohmin, ew zAnan hawatarim iwr` i kʿałakʿn Betʿkʿubin, zgacʿucʿanel nma zpatčaṙs ertʿaloyn iwroy yarewels, cʿucʿanelov nma zgir uxtin` or ənd Artašēs ew ənd ełbars iwr, ew aṙnel zna tʿikuns ōgnakanutʿean : Orocʿ ekeal gtin zna yElewtʿeroypōlis : Ew nora ənkaleal znosa xałałutʿeamb ew mecaranōkʿ, aṙnē patasxani Abgaru: Mi kaskacēr i kayserē saks aynr, miayn zi harkeln liov pʿutʿascʿis : Ew nocʿa darjeal anti, elin yErusałēm tesanel zPʿrkičʿn mer Kʿristos vasn lroy hambawocʿ skʿančʿelagorcutʿeancʿn: orum ew akanates ełeal patmecʿin Abgaru : Ənd or zarmacʿeal Abgaru, hawatacʿ čšmartapēs ibr ardarew ordi Astucoy, ew asē: Ayn zōrutʿiwnkʿ očʿ mardoy en, ayl Astucoy: zi čʿikʿ okʿ i mardkanē or karē zmeṙeals yarucʿanel, baycʿ miayn Astuac : Ew kʿanzi apakaneal ēr marminn iwr i čʿaračʿar cʿawocʿ, or patahecʿin nma i Parsicʿ ašxarhin yaṙaǰ kʿan zeawtʿn am, or i mardkanē očʿ ełew nma hnar bžškutʿean, et tanel nma tʿułtʿ ałačʿanacʿ, gal ew bžškel zna i cʿawocʿn

Translation

At that time Marinus, son of Storgius, took the post of the emperor's chiliarch over the Phoenicians and Palestinians, the Syrians and Mesopotamians. And to him Abgar sent two from among his notables, Mar Ihab, the consul of Aghjnik', and Shamshagram, a senior prince of the dynasty of the Apahunis, as well as Anan his confidant, to the city of Bet-Kubin, to inform him of the reasons of his going to the East by showing him the text of the agreement which was between Artashes and his brothers, and to make him an aid of his support. And they, upon arriving, found him in Eleutheropolis. And he, having received them with peace and honor, gave an answer to Abgar: Do not doubt the emperor on account of this, merely that you hasten to pay his tribute off in full. And they, having returned from there, went up to Jerusalem to see our Savior Christ on account of hearing the news of the miracles; and being witness to this, they recounted this to Abgar. Astonished at this, Abgar recognized him truly as son of God, and said: "These marvels are not of man but of God, for there is no one among men who is able to raise the dead, save God alone." And because his own body was corrupted by terrible pains, which had befallen him in the land of the Persians seven years before, and which among men there was not for him a means of curing, he granted to be taken to him a letter of entreaty to come and cure him of his pains....

Grammar

6 Nominal Declension

The remaining declensions of nouns and adjectives have variable stems. For the most part these stems end in the resonants r, ł, n. Some substantives retain the resonant throughout the paradigm, while others do not. Of those that do, one finds changes in the stem-vowel preceding the resonant.

6.1 Stem Variation vs. Vocalic Alternation

An important distinction must be made between the concepts of stem variation and vocalic alternation. Vocalic alternation occurs whenever a morpheme is added which changes the stress of a word. It is an automatic process and occurs according to the rules described in the first lesson. It therefore plays no functional role in declension. Thus words such as aṙaǰin 'first' (GDAb aṙaǰnoy), surb 'holy' (GDAb srboy), loys 'light' (GDAb lusoy), mēǰ 'middle' (GDAb miǰoy) all show regular vocalic alternation as a result of addition of the morpheme -oy, which entails a change in stress. These are therefore all invariable-stem substantives, just as e.g. Astuac 'God' (GDAb Astuacoy), beran 'mouth' (GDAb beranoy), get 'river' (GDAb getoy). Stem variation, by contrast, is bound to declension; it is not the result of automatic stress shift and, as such, is in and of itself indicative of the case of a given noun. Thus azn 'kind, race' displays forms NAc Sg. azn and GDL Sg. azin; the variation is not conditioned by any stress shift due to addition of a morpheme. It may happen, however, that in some words both stem variation and vocalic alternation take place: jukn 'fish', GDL *jukan > jkan; dustr 'daughter', GDL *duster > dster; leaṙn 'mountain', GDL *learin > lerin.

In general the declensions of variable stem substantives may be distinguished on the basis of whether the noun uses two or three stem variants within a paradigm. The following chart shows some possibilities of the two-stem declensions. The term 'obliques' specifies any case not explicitly mentioned under one stem or another.

    Stem 1: N Ac sg.   Stem 2: obliques, N Ac L pl.
Nouns in -r, -ł        
    oskr 'bone'   osker-
    astł 'star'   asteł-
    dustr 'daughter'   dster-
         
Nouns in -n        
    himn 'foundation'   himan-
    akn 'gem'   akan-
         
    Stem 1: N Ac sg./pl., L pl.   Stem 2: obliques
         
Nouns in -n        
    šun 'dog'   s'an-
    tun 'house'   tan-
         
Most nouns in -iwn        
         
    ariwn 'blood'   arean-
    zerutʿiwn 'imprisonment'   zerutʿean-

On the other hand there are three-stem declensions. These may be broken down as follows.

    Stem 1: N Ac sg.   Stem 2: obliques   Stem 3: N Ac L pl.
Most nouns in -n            
    jukn 'fish'   jkan-   jkun-
    duṙn 'door'   dran-   drun-
             
Action nouns in -umn            
    šeržumn 'movement'   šeržman-   šeržmun-
    erdumn 'oath'   erdman-   erdmun-
             
Words lacking -n in N Ac sg.            
    manuk 'child'   mankan-   mankun-
    ałǰik 'maiden'   ałǰkan-   ałǰkun-
             
    Stem 1: N Ac sg.   Stem 2: G D L (Ab) sg., N Ac L pl.   Stem 3: obliques
             
    azn 'nation, race'   azin-   azan-
    gaṙn 'lamb'   gaṙin-   gaṙan-
    harsn 'bride'   harsin-   harsan-

The ablative singular is usually built from Stem 2, sometimes with loss of the vowel preceding -n; occasionally the ablative singular is built from Stem 3.

Certainly other classification systems are possible, and indeed, each grammar of Classical Armenian tends to have its own idiosyncratic declensional scheme. Notable among these is the system used by Schmitt in Grammatik des Klassisch-Armenischen. Schmitt sets out declensions according to theme: e.g. a-, i-, etc. declension, r-, l-, n-stem; he then divides some of these into Primary Type (Haupttypus, here Ht) and Secondary Type (Nebentypus, here Nt). These types may be further divided into subclasses A and B, and these further into 1 and 2. In the following, where easily discernible, Schmitt's classification will be noted among the paradigms in order to facilitate the transition to previous work in the field. When necessary, the theme will be explicitly mentioned with the abbreviation T, so that T-u refers to the u-declension.

6.2 r- and ł-Stems

All nouns ending in ł and most ending in r retain these consonants in the oblique cases; in cases other than the N and Ac the vowel -e- intercedes between the base and -ł/-r. Still other nouns show a diphthong, e.g. ew, in the N and Ac singular which is shortened to e in the remaining forms. The nouns oskr 'bone', ałbewr 'source, fountain', and astł 'star', illustrate the declensions.

    T-r, Ht   T-r, Nt-A   T-ł
    -r/-er   -ewr/-er   -ł/-
             
N Sg.   oskr   ałbewr   astł
Ac   oskr   ałbewr   astł
G   osker   ałber   asteł
D   osker   ałber   asteł
L   osker   ałber   asteł
Ab   oskerē   ałberē   astełē
I   oskerb   ałberb   astełb
             
N Pl.   oskerkʿ   ałberkʿ   astełkʿ
Ac   oskers   ałbers   astełs
G   oskeracʿ   ałberacʿ   astełacʿ
D   oskeracʿ   ałberacʿ   astełacʿ
L   oskers   ałbers   astełs
Ab   oskeracʿ   ałberacʿ   astełacʿ
I   oskerawkʿ   ałberawkʿ   asteławkʿ
6.3 n-Stems with Two Stems

Nouns whose stem ends in -n are quite common in Classical Armenian. Many of these display two stems in their declension. Nouns of this sort fall into two categories according to which cases display different stems. In particular, one finds the types

  • (a) Stem 1: NAc Sg.; Stem 2: oblique cases, NAcL Pl.;
  • (b) Stem 1: NAc Sg., NAcL Pl.; Stem 2: oblique cases.

Again, the term 'oblique' refers to any case not explicitly mentioned. Examples of type-(a) are given by the nouns kołmn 'side', stems kołmn-/kołman-; and anun 'name', stems anun-/anuan-. Examples of type-(b) are given by the nouns tun 'house', stems tun-/tan-; and gerutʿiwn 'imprisonment', stems gerutʿiwn-/gerutʿean-.

    Ht B   Ht B   Nt B2   Nt B1
    (a)   (a)   (b)   (b)
    kołmn   anun   tun   gerutʿiwn
    'side'   'name'   'house'   'imprisonment'
                 
N Sg.   kołmn   anun   tun   gerutʿiwn
Ac   kołmn   anun   tun   gerutʿiwn
G   kołman   anuan   tan   gerutʿean
D   kołman   anuan   tan   gerutʿean
L   kołman   anuan   tan   gerutʿean
Ab   kołmanē   anuanē   tanē   gerutʿenē
I   kołmamb   anuamb   tamb   gerutʿeamb
                 
N Pl.   kołmankʿ   anuankʿ   tunkʿ   gerutʿiwnkʿ
Ac   kołmans   anuans   tunkʿ   gerutʿiwns
G   kołmancʿ   anuancʿ   tancʿ   gerutʿeancʿ
D   kołmancʿ   anuancʿ   tancʿ   gerutʿeancʿ
L   kołmans   anuans   tuns   gerutʿiwns
Ab   kołmancʿ   anuancʿ   tancʿ   gerutʿeancʿ
I   kołmambkʿ   anuambkʿ   tambkʿ   gerutʿeambkʿ
6.4 n-Stems with Three Stems

Some n-stem nouns display three stems throughout their declension. These also may be divided into two categories based on which stem appears in each case.

  • (c) Stem 1: NAc Sg.; Stem 2: oblique cases; Stem 3: NAcL Pl.;
  • (d) Stem 1: NAc Sg.; Stem 2: GDL(Ab) Sg., NAcL Pl.; Stem 3: oblique cases.

In nouns of type-(d), the ablative is typically built from stem 2, but occasionally from stem 3. Type-(c) is illustrated by the nouns duṙn 'door', stems duṙn-/dran-/drun-; šaržumn 'imprisonment', stems šaržumn-/šaržman-/šaržmun-; manuk 'child', stems manuk-/mankan-/mankun-; ałǰik 'maiden', stems ałǰik-/ałǰkan-/ałǰkun-. Type-(d) is illustrated by the nouns azn 'race, kind', stems azn-/azin-/azan-; gaṙn 'lamb', stems gaṙn-/gaṙin-/gaṙan-.

    Ht B   Ht B   Ht B   Ht B   Ht A   Ht A
    (c)   (c)   (c)   (c)   (d)   (d)
    duṙn   šaržumn   manuk   ałǰik   azn   gaṙn
                         
N Sg.   duṙn   šaržumn   manuk   ałǰik   azn   gaṙn
Ac   duṙn   šaržumn   manuk   ałǰik   azn   gaṙn
G   dran   šaržman   mankan   ałǰkan   azin   gaṙin
D   dran   šaržman   mankan   ałǰkan   azin   gaṙin
L   dran   šaržman   mankan   ałǰkan   azin   gaṙin
Ab   dranē   šaržmanē   mankanē   ałǰkanē   aznē   gaṙnē
I   dramb   šaržmamb   mankamb   ałǰkamb   azamb   gaṙamb
                         
N Pl.   drunkʿ   šaržmunkʿ   mankunkʿ   ałǰkunkʿ   azinkʿ   gaṙinkʿ
Ac   druns   šaržmuns   mankuns   ałǰkuns   azins   gaṙins
G   drancʿ   šaržmancʿ   mankancʿ   ałǰkancʿ   azancʿ   gaṙancʿ
D   drancʿ   šaržmancʿ   mankancʿ   ałǰkancʿ   azancʿ   gaṙancʿ
L   druns   šaržmuns   mankuns   ałǰkuns   azins   gaṙins
Ab   drancʿ   šaržmancʿ   mankancʿ   ałǰkancʿ   azancʿ   gaṙancʿ
I   drambkʿ   šaržmambkʿ   mankambkʿ   ałǰkambkʿ   azambkʿ   gaṙambkʿ
                         

Notice the forms aznē and gaṙnē, shortened from azinē and gaṙinē respectively.

Some nouns exhibit features of both the (c) and (d) declension types. Examples are the nouns tʿoṙn 'grandchild' and harsn 'bride'.

    Nt A   Nt A
    (c)+(d)   (c)+(d)
    tʿoṙn   harsn
         
N Sg.   tʿoṙn   harsn
Ac   tʿoṙn   harsn
G   tʿoṙin   harsin
D   tʿoṙin   harsin
L   tʿoṙin   harsin
Ab   tʿoṙnē, tʿoṙanē   harsnē
I   tʿoṙamb   harsamb
         
N Pl.   tʿoṙunkʿ   harsunkʿ
Ac   tʿoṙuns   harsuns
G   tʿoṙancʿ   harsancʿ
D   tʿoṙancʿ   harsancʿ
L   tʿoṙuns   harsuns
Ab   tʿoṙancʿ   harsancʿ
I   tʿoṙambkʿ   harsambkʿ
7 Demonstratives
7.1 Demonstrative Suffixes

Classical Armenian has three demonstrative suffixes which are attached to the end of nouns. These are

  • -s 'this, this here, this near to me';
  • -d 'that, that right there, that next to you';
  • -n 'that, that over there, that near to him'.

These correlate roughly to the use of Latin hic, iste, and ille, respectively. These particles, however, are indeclinable. Since Classical Armenian has no articles as such, an unqualified noun may be either definite or indefinite; these demonstrative suffixes are often used for marking a noun as definite (and in that sense overlap with z-, which is pre-posed on definite nouns in the accusative). In this role -n is by far the most commonly used; -s and -d are reserved for particular emphasis or change of subject. Note the possibility of overlap, e.g. ajss could be either ays 'evil spirit' plus the accusative plural ending -s, or the same noun in the singular but with the deictic suffix -s. Moreover, one may find aysss, that is, ajs + Ac Pl. -s + suffix -s.

There are a few tendencies in the usage of the demonstrative suffixes. Proper names rarely take demonstrative suffixes, e.g. tʿagawor-n Parsicʿ 'the king of the Persians', where English inserts before 'Persians' an article which is not present in the Armenian. Another example is Aršak arkʿay 'Arshak the king'. When an adjective modifies a noun, typically only the noun receives a demonstrative suffix, e.g. vkayn surb 'the holy martyr'. If a noun in the genitive qualifies a definite noun, typically the last word of the collocation receives the demonstrative suffix, e.g. barekan tʿagawori-n 'the king's friend, the friend of the king'. Vocatives use the suffix -d, e.g. Kʿristos-d 'O Christ'. Adjectives used as substantives may take demonstrative suffixes, as in čʿarn 'the evil one, Satan'; aṙakʿealkʿn 'the ones sent, the apostles', built from the participle aṙakʿeal 'sent'; gełecʿikd 'O beautiful one'.

Relative clauses may also take a demonstrative suffix. The suffix -s, -d, or -n is added to the first stressed word of the relative clause.

7.2 Demonstrative Adjectives

The same threefold distinction as in the suffixes -s, -d, -n is found in the demonstrative adjectives ajs 'this here', ayd 'that', ayn 'that over there'. These adjectives also have a long form which is used as an emphatic. The threefold distinction is also made in the demonstrative pronouns sa, da, na, which may also function as the third person pronoun. Likewise the distinction is made in the pronoun and adjective soyn 'this same', doyn 'that same', noyn 'that same there'. The paradigms of the -n series are given below to illustrate the declensions.

    ay-s, -d, -n   ay- (emph.)   s-, d-, n-a   s-, d-, n-oyn
                 
N Sg.   ayn   ayn   na   noyn
Ac   ayn   ayn   na   noyn
G   aynr   aynorik   nora   norin, norun
D   aynm   aynmik   nma   nmin
L   aynm   aynmik   nma   nmin
Ab   aynm   aynmanē   nmanē   nmin
I   aynu   aynuik   novaw   novin, novimb
                 
N Pl.   aynkʿ   aynokʿik   nokʿa   nokʿin, noynkʿ
Ac   ayns   aynosik   nosa   nosin, noyns
G   ayncʿ   aynocʿik   nocʿa   nocʿin, nocʿuncʿ
D   ayncʿ   aynocʿik   nocʿa   nocʿin, nocʿuncʿ
L   ayns   aynosik   nosa   nosin, noyns
Ab   ayncʿ, ayncʿanē   aynocʿik   nocʿa, nocʿanē   nocʿin, nocʿuncʿ
I   aynukʿ   aynokʿiwkʿ   nokʿawkʿ   nokʿimbkʿ, nokʿumbkʿ
8 The Aorist System of Verbs

Classical Armenian has a two-stem verbal system, wherein each verb form pertains either to a present or to an aorist stem of a given root. Generally, one or both of the stems will contain a suffix inserted directly after the root, thus preceding the thematic vowel in present forms and preceding the endings in aorist forms. There are several such suffixes in the present system (-an-, -n-, -čʿ-, -nčʿ-), but only one type, namely -(V)cʿ-, in the aorist system. There are five basic distinctions in the two-stem system:

(a) Aorist stem extended:

    Present   Meaning       Aorist
    pʿory-em   'I tempt'       pʿory-ecʿ-i
    hay-im   'I look'       hay-ecʿ-ay
    as-em   'I say'       as-acʿ-i
    ors-am   'I hunt'       ors-acʿ-i
    yus-am   'I hope'       yus-acʿ-ay

(b) Present stem extended:

    Present   Meaning       Aorist
    pag-an-em   'I kiss'       pag-i
    hec-an-im   'I ride'       hec-ay
    pʿax-čʿ-im   'I flee'       pʿaxe-ay

(c) Both stems extended:

    Present   Meaning       Aorist
    moṙ-an-am   'I forget'       moṙ-acʿ-ay
    l-n-um   'I fill'       l-cʿ-i (3rd Sg. elicʿ, from root li-)

(d) Neither stem extended:

    Present   Meaning       Aorist
    han-em   'I draw'       han-i
    nst-im   'I sit down'       nst-ay (root nist-)
    tʿoł-um   'I let'       tʿoł-i

(e) Suppletive system:

    Present   Meaning       Aorist
    əmp-em   'I drink'       arb-i
    ertʿ-am   'I go'       čʿog-ay

Aorists without suffixes are termed root aorists. Other terms are strong or second aorists. Aorists with the -(V)cʿ suffix are sometimes known as weak or first aorists.

The distinction between present and aorist is not one of tense, but of aspect. Both imperfect and aorist indicative are past tenses; both present and aorist subjunctive lack tense altogether. Verbal forms built from the present stem denote a continuous, ongoing action -- an action in its development. By contrast, verbs forms built from the aorist stem refer to the completion of the action. These distinctions are without regard to the actual point on a timeline at which an action occurs; they point to the nature of the action described. In principle, then, one could find "present aorist" forms, "past present" forms, and so on. "Past present" forms, in this sense denoting past actions with continuous aspect, are essentially what the imperfect tense represents. There are no specifically "present aorist", that is, present completive forms; however the occasional use of the aorist subjunctive in the role of a future displays how the aorist may be used in reference to completive actions in the "non-past".

The aorist system also distinguishes two voices, active (A) and mediopassive (MP), by different sets of endings. The distinctions are discussed in the next lesson.

8.1 The Aorist Indicative

The endings of the aorist indicative are as follows.

    A   MP
1 Sg.   -i   -ay
2   -er   -ar
3   -   -aw
         
1 Pl.   -akʿ   -akʿ
2   -ēkʿ, -ikʿ   -aykʿ, -arukʿ
3   -in   -an

The verbs argelum 'I hinder' and nstim 'I sit' illustrate root aorist paradigms. The verbs orsam 'I hunt' and hayim 'I look' illustrate aorists with the suffix -(V)cʿ.

    root, A   -Vcʿ, A   root, MP   -Vcʿ, MP
    argelum   orsam   nstim   hayim
    'hinder'   'hunt'   'sit'   'look'
                 
1 Sg.   argeli   orsacʿi   nstay   hayecʿay
2   argeler   orsacʿer   nstar   hayecʿar
3   argel   orsacʿ   nstaw   hayecʿaw
                 
1 Pl.   argelakʿ   orsacʿakʿ   nstakʿ   hayecʿakʿ
2   argelēkʿ, argelikʿ   orsacʿēkʿ, orsacʿikʿ   nstaykʿ, nstarukʿ   hayecʿaykʿ, hayecʿarukʿ
3   argelin   orsacʿin   nstan   hayecʿan

The ending -arukʿ of the second person plural sometimes shows up as -erukʿ in certain verbs. For example, čanačʿem 'I know' has aorist caneay 'I knew', with 2nd Pl. canerukʿ.

A given root may take endings of both active and mediopassive voices, such as sirem 'I love' and berem 'I carry'.

    -Vcʿ, A   -Vcʿ, MP   root, A   root, MP
    sirem   sirim   berem   berim
    'love'   'be loved'   'carry'   'be carried'
                 
1 Sg.   sirecʿi   sirecʿay   beri   beray
2   sirecʿer   sirecʿar   berer   berar
3   sireacʿ   sirecʿaw   eber   beraw
                 
1 Pl.   sirecʿakʿ   sirecʿakʿ   berakʿ   berakʿ
2   sirecʿēkʿ, sirecʿikʿ   sirecʿaykʿ   berēkʿ, berikʿ   beraykʿ
3   sirecʿin   sirecʿan   berin   beran

Note that forms which would otherwise be monosyllabic take an augment e, hence eber. The augment does not appear when the monosyllable begins with a vowel, e.g. 3 Sg. A ac from the verb acem 'I lead'. In the post-classical period, such forms also gained an augment: ēac. Note also the alternation ea/e, with ea showing in positions where the syllable carries stress, hence sireacʿ. In general, when the stem is subject to vowel alternation, the full grade is displayed in the 3rd Sg.; examples are the following.

    1st Sg.   2nd Sg.   3rd Sg.
    kl-i 'I swallowed'   kl-er   ekul
    lcʿ-i 'I filled'   lcʿ-er   elicʿ
    -i 'I came down'   -er   ēǰ
    anic-i 'I cursed'   anic-er   anēc
    luc-i 'I loosened'   luc-er   eloyc
    pʿaxucʿ-i 'I chased'   pʿaxucʿ-er   pʿaxoycʿ
    kecʿ-i 'I lived'   kecʿ-er   ekeacʿ
    atecʿ-i 'I hated'   atecʿ-er   ateacʿ

The last two forms are not examples of the -(V)cʿ aorist suffix, but rather of regular vowel alternation in the verbal root itself: present indicative keam, ateam.

Root aorists in -eay are built on i-stems, e.g. pʿaxeay 'I fled' < *pʿaxi-ay and sarteay 'I startled' < *sarti-ay. Such aorists at times have modified endings in other portions of the aorist system.

8.2 The Aorist Subjunctive

The marker of the aorist subjunctive is -icʿ-, becoming -ycʿ- after a. In unstressed syllables, the i drops. Only the second person plural breaks this pattern, showing -ǰikʿ instead. Thus the aorist subjunctive endings are as follows.

    A   MP
1 Sg.   -icʿ   -aycʿ
2   -cʿes   -cʿis, -cʿes
3   -cʿē   -cʿi, -cʿē
         
1 Pl.   -cʿukʿ   -cʿukʿ
2   -ǰikʿ   -ǰikʿ
3   -cʿen   -cʿin, -cʿen

These endings are added to the aorist stem. Note that extended polysyllabic aorist stems change cʿ to s before a consonant. Thus we have the following example paradigms.

    root, A   -Vcʿ, A   root, MP   -Vcʿ, MP
    argelum   orsam   nstim   hayim
    'hinder'   'hunt'   'sit'   'look'
                 
1 Sg.   argelicʿ   orsacʿicʿ   nstaycʿ   hayecʿaycʿ
2   argelcʿes   orsescʿes   nstcʿis   hayescʿis
3   argelcʿē   orsascʿē   nstcʿi   hayescʿi
                 
1 Pl.   argelcʿukʿ   orsascʿukʿ   nstcʿukʿ   hayescʿukʿ
2   argelǰikʿ   orsasǰikʿ   nstǰikʿ   hayesǰikʿ
3   argelcʿen   orsascʿen   nstcʿin   hayescʿin

Monosyllabic stems do not display such dissimilation, e.g. lacʿicʿ, lacʿcʿes, etc.

The alternate mediopassive endings are found for some anomalous verbs and for i-stem aorists. For example, pʿaxeay 'I fled' shows subjunctive forms pʿaxeaycʿ, pʿaxicʿes, pʿaxicʿē, 3rd Pl. pʿaxicʿen.

8.3 The Aorist Imperative

The aorist imperative has only second person forms. The endings are as follows.

    A   MP
2 Sg.   -   -ir, -
2 Pl.   -ēkʿ, -ikʿ   -arukʿ, -aykʿ

Note that the second person plural forms are the same as those of the aorist indicative. Sample paradigms are given for the verbs berem 'I carry' and sirem 'I love'.

    A   MP       A   MP
    berem           sirem    
    'carry'           'love'    
                     
2 Sg.   ber   berir, ber       sirea   sireacʿ
                     
2 Pl.   berēkʿ, berikʿ   berarukʿ       sirecʿēkʿ, sirecʿikʿ   sirecʿarukʿ

The mediopassive ending -ir always occurs in verbs with extended present stems:

    Present   Aorist   Imper. Sg.   Imper. Pl.
    hecanim 'I ride'   hecay   hecir   hecarukʿ
    daṙnam 'I turn'   darjay   darjir   darjarukʿ
    pʿaxčʿim 'I flee'   pʿaxeay   pʿaxir   pʿaxerukʿ
    zgenum 'I dress'   zgecʿay   zgecʿir   zgecʿarukʿ

and occasionally in verbs with present in -anam, aorist -acʿay:

    Present   Aorist   Imper. Sg.   Imper. Pl.
    imanam 'I understand'   imacʿay   imacʿir, ima   imacʿarukʿ
    moṙanam 'I forget'   moṙacʿay   moṙacʿir, moṙa   moṙacʿarukʿ

Otherwise, the second person singular is generally identical to the bare aorist stem. Polysyllabic aorists in -cʿ-, however, have the following tendencies:

(a) -acʿ reduces to -a:

    Present   Aorist   Imper. Sg.   Imper. Pl.
    asem 'I say'   asacʿi   asa   asacʿēkʿ
    hawatam 'I believe'   hawatacʿi   hawata   hawatacʿēkʿ
    yusam 'I hope'   yusacʿay   yusa   yusacʿarukʿ

(b) -ecʿ changes to -ea in the active, to -eacʿ in the mediopassive:

    Present   Aorist   Imper. Sg.   Imper. Pl.
    grem 'I write'   grecʿi   grea   grecʿēkʿ
    hayim 'I look'   hayecʿay   hayeacʿ   hayecʿarukʿ

Monosyllabic stems in -cʿ do not undergo such changes:

    Present   Aorist   Imper. Sg.   Imper. Pl.
    lam 'I cry'   lacʿi   lacʿ   lacʿēkʿ
    keam 'I live'   kecʿi   keacʿ   kecʿēkʿ
    banam 'I open'   bacʿi   bacʿ   bacʿēkʿ
    lnum 'I fill'   lcʿi   licʿ   lcʿēkʿ

Root aorist stems remain unaltered:

    Present   Aorist   Imper. Sg.   Imper. Pl.    
    argelum 'I hinder'   argeli   argel   argelēkʿ    
    hanem   'I draw'   hani   han   hanēkʿ
    baṙnam 'I lift'   barji   barj   barjēkʿ    
    arkanem 'I throw'   arki   ark   arkēkʿ    
    nstim 'I sit'   nstay   nist   nstarukʿ    

Also noteworthy are the second person endings -ǰir (Sg.) and -ǰikʿ added to aorist stems to form the so-called cohortative. These parallel the present endings -iǰir and -iǰikʿ added to -em and -im presents. The cohortative forms play a role essentially like an imperative. The verb argelum 'I hinder' illustrates the forms.

    Imperative   Cohortative
2 Sg.   argel   argelǰir
2 Pl.   argelēkʿ   argelǰikʿ

The difference is perhaps akin to that of Latin imperative as against second person subjunctive: prohibe (imp.) 'hinder!' vs. prohibeas (coh.) 'let you hinder'.

9 Adverbs

There are some general tendencies in the formation of adverbs in Classical Armenian. Adverbs generally derive from two souces: (1) frozen use of oblique cases; (2) special endings. The most common formations are discussed below.

Adverbs of Mode are often formed from

  • the instrumental case of nouns or adjectives: diwr 'easy' yields the adverb diwraw 'easily'; bun 'nature' yields bnaw 'by nature; absolutely'. There is a particular instrumental ending -ew frozen in its adverbial function: ardar 'just, righteous' yields ardarew 'really'; amen-ayn 'all, every' yields amenewin 'wholly'.
  • the accusative of adjectives: yankarc 'unexpectedly'; ułił 'directly'.
  • the ablative with the preposition i: yanpatrasticʿ 'suddenly', from i and anpatrast 'not ready'.
  • the suffix -pēs, denoting 'type, way', appended to nouns and adjectives: pʿoytʿ 'haste' yields pʿutʿapēs 'quickly'; daṙn 'bitter' yields daṙnapēs 'bitterly'; ays 'this' yields ayspēs 'in this way'; ⁰or 'what?' yields ⁰orpēs 'how?'. Note the form pēspēs 'variously'.
  • the suffix -abar with the sense 'in the habit of, in the manner of': gazanabar 'in the manner of a beast, wildly' comes from gazan 'wild beast'; ariabar 'valiantly' comes from ari 'brave, valiant'.
  • the suffixes -arēn or -erēn used for languages: yunarēn 'in Greek' from yoyn 'Greek'; hayerēn 'in Armenian' from hay 'Armenian'; ebrayecʿerēn 'in Hebrew' from ebrayecʿi 'Hebrew'.

Adverbs of Time are often derived from frozen case forms. Examples are aysawr 'today', the accusative of ays awr 'this day'; ayžm 'now', accusative of ays žam 'this time'; vałiw (also i vałiw or i vałiw andr) 'tomorrow', instrumental of vał 'soon'; erek 'yesterday', locative of erek 'evening'; aysu hetew 'from now onward; consequently', instrumental of ays het 'this track, this trail'; orov hetew 'since; because', instrumental of or het 'which track'.

Adverbs of Place generally have the same threefold distinction as the demonstratives (-s, -d, -n), and answer to questions of y⁰o 'to where?', ⁰ur 'where?', and ust⁰i 'from where?'. The following table summarizes the distinction.

    here   there   over there
to   aysr   aydr   andr
at   ast   aydr   and
from   asti, astust   ayti   anti, andust

There are emphatic forms with the ending -ēn: astēn, aydrēn, andēn 'in the same place'.

One may construct a similar table based upon the distinction 'in', 'out', 'above'.

    inside   outside   above
to   i nerkʿs   artakʿs   i ver
at   i nerkʿoy   artakʿoy   i veroy, i veray
from   i nerkʿust   artakʿust   i verust

The phrase i vayr 'down', from the word vayr 'field', is often used in opposition to i ver 'above'.

10 Particles

Classical Armenian makes use of several particles. The most common are listed below for convenience.

aha 'lo! behold!'. Interjection.

ayl 'but, rather', typically contrasting opposites, e.g. očʿ eki lucanel , ayl lnul 'I have not come to destroy, but to fulfil'. The form is A Sg. of ayl 'other, another'.

apa 'then, afterwards, later', marking the sequence of events. apa (uremn) 'therefore' may signify logical conclusion, e.g. apa uremn azat en ordikʿn 'therefore the sons are free'. apa 'or' may signify the second of two alternatives. apa 'then' may mark the apodosis ('then'-clause) of a conditional statement.

ard 'now; so, then'. The basic meaning is 'now', but may be used in the continuation of a thought.

baycʿ 'except, but'. The basic sense is 'except': očʿ okʿ i nocʿanē koreaw baycʿ ordin korstean 'no one among them perished, save the son of ruin'. baycʿ 'but' may be used in a limiting sense: hogis yawžar ē baycʿ marmins tkar 'the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak'.

ew 'also, too, and'. Conjunction linking words or clauses. Also found in extended form ews 'also, still, moreover, besides'.

zi 'that, because' with indicative verb, introducing causal statements; 'so that, so as to' with verbs in the subjunctive, introducing result clauses. The form z-i is A Sg. of the relative-interrogative pronoun. It is often closely allied with other adverbs: kʿanzi 'because'; vasn zi 'since'; orpēs zi 'so that', with subjunctive; minčʿ zi 'until, up to'; pʿoxanak zi 'in place of'.

tʿe, etʿe '(quote)', introducing direct speech or a direct question; 'whether, whether...or' introducing dependent or indirect questions, or twofold questions; 'that' with subjunctive, introducing result clauses; 'if' with indicative or subjunctive verb, introducing different types of conditional statements. This particle has a very broad range, with many nuances beyond those mentioned here.

tʿepēt 'although'. It may be followed by a verb in the indicative or subjunctive, according to sense.

ibr, ibrew 'like, as', used for comparison with z and the accusative of the object of comparison, e.g. linicʿikʿ ibrew zastyacs 'you will be as gods'; 'about, approximately' used in apposition with numbers; 'as, as soon as, while, after' with temporal clauses.

isk 'truly, indeed, but'. isk ew isk is used in the sense of 'immediately': ew isk ew isk etes i tesleann 'and immediately he saw in the dream'.

kam 'or', kam...kam 'either...or'. Disjunctive particle. Originally meaning 'as one wants, as you like, as you will'.

minčʿ, minčʿew 'until, up to, as far as, as, during, while, as long as' with finite verb or infinitive, introducing temporal or consecutive statements. It may also be used with i before nouns. The collocation minčʿ čʿew is used in the sense 'before'. minčʿ deṙ is used in the sense 'while, as'.

na 'then'. One also finds na ew 'and also'.

sakayn 'but, however', often used in the sense 'under such conditions'.

kʿan 'than'. Comparative particle, used with z and the accusative of the object of comparison: sirecʿin mardik zxawar aṙawel kʿan zloys 'the men loved the shadow more than the light'; hzawragoyn kʿan zna 'someone stronger than he'.

Classical Armenian Online - Romanized

Lesson 3

Todd B. Krause, John A.C. Greppin, and Jonathan Slocum

The Artashesian Dynasty

Although the Yervandunis had succeeded in securing an independent Armenia, Seleucid influence again began to assert itself when Antiochus III convinced two members of the Yervanduni family to revolt. These two, Artashes and Zareh, succeeded in overthrowing Yervanduni rule, with Artashes taking control of Greater Armenia and Zareh taking Dsopk. Antiochus, however, went too far when he tried to drive the Romans out of Macedonia and Greece. Defeated decisively at Magnesia, Antiochus was forced in 188 B.C. to cede Asia Minor and northwest Syria to the Romans. Seleucid reign was further weakened under Antiochus IV, when Jewish uprisings caused enough instability for the Parthians to gain control of Persia. At the same time Rome lured the states of Armenia, Cappadocia, Commagene, and Pontus away from the Seleucids to create a buffer between Roman holdings and the Parthians.

Upon securing his kingdom, Artashes marked its borders with boundary stones written in Aramaic. He then endeavored to extend his realm, eventually conquering regions belonging to the Medes, Caucasian Albanians, and Iberians. He was repulsed, however, by Dsopk and Lesser Armenia. Within his borders, Artashes distributed land among nobles and established a system of taxation. But the Seleucids eventually quelled the Jewish uprisings in 165 B.C. and attacked Armenia. Antiochus IV captured Artashes, reinstating his reign only under the condition that he pay tribute to the Seleucids. Seleucid power nevertheless entered swiftly into a period of decline, leaving the Arsacid ruler Mithridates I an opportunity to extend Parthian dominion throughout Mesopotamia.

Artavazd I (160 - 115 B.C.) and Tigran I (115 - 95 B.C.), the successors of Artashes, were both subject to Parthian domination, forced to pay tribute and send royal family members as hostages to the Parthian capital at Ctesiphon. When Tigran I died in 95 B.C., his son Tigran II, then a hostage at Ctesiphon, secured his freedom by giving the Parthians a portion of southeastern Armenia. Upon his return, Tigran quickly conquered Dsopk and created a unified Greater Armenia. There was now little separating Tigran's kingdom from the Romans, and so he struck up an alliance with Mithridates of Pontus. Armenia was thus protected from the Romans, and Pontus from the Parthians. This left Tigran free to expand eastward, which he did in 90 B.C. by reconquering the lands he gave to the Parthians. He then turned south to take Commagene, northern Syria, Cilicia, and Phoenicia, so that Armenia was for a brief time an empire extending from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean. Greek and Persian became the languages of the nobility, Persian used mainly for admistrative affairs and Greek for cultural entertainment.

The situation changed drastically with Rome's invasion of Pontus in 74 B.C. Tigran remained loyal to his alliance with Mithridates, resisting the Roman advance. In 69 B.C., Rome turned toward Tigranakert, a major city of the Armenian empire, and took it by force; this destroyed the Armenian hold on Syria and Mesopotamia. Finally Rome sent Pompey to advance on Armenia; when the Parthians simultaneously attacked from the east, Tigran struck a peace treaty with the Romans in 66 B.C. Rome allowed Tigran to maintain his rule of Armenia in order to keep this a buffer region between Roman and Parthian interests. Tigran ruled until his death in 55 B.C.

One of Tigran's sons, Artavazd II, came to the Armenian throne amidst the signs of an inevitable clash between Rome and Parthia. Initially Artavazd attempted to court the favor of Crassus, who was then in charge of the Roman forces in the area. When Crassus failed to take notice, Artavazd shifted his loyalty to the Parthians, a status sealed by the marriage of Artavazd's sister to the Parthian heir-apparent. Artavazd still tried to appear friendly to Rome when Mark Antony took command of Roman forces in the region. But when Armenia refused to commit troops to the Roman effort against the Parthians, Antony blamed Artavazd for his defeat and took the Armenian capital by force in 35 B.C. Artavazd was taken to Egypt and executed.

Artavazd's son, Artashes II, enlisted the aid of the Parthians and regained his country in 30 B.C. For the next several years rulers of the Artashesian dynasty continued to direct Armenia's loyalty back and forth between Rome and Parthia. Finally the Artashesian dynasty came to an end around 10 A.D., and Armenia fell into Roman hands.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The History of Armenia, by Faustos Buzand, is also called The Epic Histories, by Pseudo Fawstos. It covers nearly sixty years of Christian Armenia's earliest history, from ca. 330 to 387, from the late Arsacid dynasty to the partition of Armenia between Byzantium and Sasanian Iran. The author deals with the political issues of that period, and with the development of Armenian Christianity. This reading is taken from Book IV, Chapter 5.

Apa vasn xałałutʿean uxtin miabanutʿean dašinn, or ēr ašxarhin Hayocʿ ənd kaysern Yunacʿ, dēp ełew aṙakʿel andr kazmutʿeamb mecaw arkʿayin Hayocʿ: zi inkʿnin mec katʿołikosn Hayocʿ Nersēs, ew i mecamecacʿn Hayocʿ satraps tasn ənd nma aṙnel, zi ertʿicʿē, i mēǰ kaysern ew i mēǰ iwreancʿ zuxtn hawanutʿean ew xałałutʿean norogescʿen :
  • apa -- conjunction; <apa> but; then, afterwards, later -- Then
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- because of
  • xałałutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <xałałutʿiwn> peace -- of peace
  • uxtin -- noun; genitive singular of <uxt> agreement, covenant + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the covenant
  • miabanutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <miabanutʿiwn> unity -- of unity
  • dašinn -- noun; genitive singular of <dašn> alliance, agreement, treaty + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the alliance # in apposition to uxtin
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- which
  • ēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <em> I am -- was
  • ašxarhin -- noun; genitive singular of <ašxarh> land, realm + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- (between) the land
  • Hayocʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Hay> Armenian -- of the Armenians
  • ənd -- preposition; <ənd> through, along, by way of; against; during; instead of, in exchange for; with, in the company of; under -- and
  • kaysern -- noun; locative singular of <kaysr> chief, emperor + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the emperor
  • Yunacʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Yoyn> Greek -- of the Greeks
  • dēp -- adjective; nominative singular of <dēp> fitting, suitable; happening, occuring -- appropriate
  • ełew -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <ełanim> I become -- it was
  • aṙakʿel -- verb; infinitive nominative singular of <aṙakʿem> I send -- to send
  • andr -- adverb; <andr> there, to there, thither -- thither
  • kazmutʿeamb -- noun; instrumental singular of <kazmutʿiwn> arrangement, order, pomp -- pomp
  • mecaw -- adjective; instrumental singular of <mec> great, big -- with great
  • arkʿayin -- noun; dative singular of <arkʿay> archon, leader, king + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- for the king
  • Hayocʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Hay> Armenian -- of the Armenians
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- so that
  • inkʿnin -- emphatic pronoun; nominative singular of <inkʿnin> he himself, he personally, the very one -- himself
  • mec -- adjective; undeclined form of <mec> great, big -- the great
  • katʿołikosn -- noun; nominative singular of <katʿołikos> catholicos + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- catholicos
  • Hayocʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Hay> Armenian -- of the Armenians
  • Nersēs -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Nersēs> Nerses -- Nerses
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- of
  • mecamecacʿn -- adjective used as substantive; ablative plural of <mecamec> very great, grand, important + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the greatest
  • Hayocʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Hay> Armenian -- Armenians
  • satraps -- noun; accusative plural of <satrap> satrap -- satraps
  • tasn -- adjective; accusative plural of <tasn> ten -- ten
  • ənd -- preposition; <ənd> through, along, by way of; against; during; instead of, in exchange for; with, in the company of; under -- ...
  • nma -- pronoun; locative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • aṙnel -- verb; infinitive nominative singular of <aṙnem> I do, make -- to furnish
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- so that
  • ertʿicʿē -- verb; 3rd singular aorist subjunctive of <ertʿam> I go, set out -- he should go
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- ...
  • mēǰ -- noun; locative singular of <mēǰ> middle, midst -- between
  • kaysern -- noun; genitive singular of <kaysr> chief, emperor + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the emperor
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- ...
  • mēǰ -- noun; locative singular of <mēǰ> middle, midst -- ...
  • iwreancʿ -- reflexive pronoun; genitive plural of <iwr> him-, her-, it-self -- themselves
  • zuxtn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative singular of <uxt> agreement, covenant + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the treaty
  • hawanutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <hawanutʿiwn> accord -- of accord
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • xałałutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <xałałutʿiwn> peace -- of peace
  • norogescʿen -- verb; 3rd plural aorist subjunctive of <norogem> repair, renew -- (and) they renew

Apa čʿogan gnacʿin hasin i kayserakan pałatn tʿagaworacʿn Yunacʿ :
  • apa -- conjunction; <apa> but; then, afterwards, later -- then
  • čʿogan -- verb; 3rd plural aorist mediopassive of <ertʿam> I go, set out -- They... set out
  • gnacʿin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist of <gnam> go, walk -- travelled
  • hasin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist of <hasanem> I approach, arrive; obtain -- (and) reached
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- ...
  • kayserakan -- adjective; undeclined form of <kayserakan> imperial -- imperial
  • pałatn -- noun; accusative singular of <pałat> palace + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the... palace
  • tʿagaworacʿn -- noun; genitive plural of <tʿagawor> king -- of the kings
  • Yunacʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Yoyn> Greek -- of the Greeks

Zaynu žamanakaw tʿagaworn mec Yunacʿ Vałēs i xotorutʿean heretikosutʿean ałandutʿeann arianosacʿ ēr i hawats :
  • zaynu -- preposition; <z‘> during; for; concerning; around, about + demonstrative pronoun; instrumental singular of <ayn> that, that over there -- at about that
  • žamanakaw -- noun; instrumental singular of <žamanak> time -- time
  • tʿagaworn -- noun; nominative singular of <tʿagawor> king + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the... king
  • mec -- adjective; nominative singular of <mec> great, big -- great
  • Yunacʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Yoyn> Greek -- of the Greeks
  • Vałēs -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Vałēs> Valens -- Valens
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- under
  • xotorutʿean -- noun; locative singular of <xotorutʿiwn> bend; deviation; straying -- the sway
  • heretikosutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <heretikosutʿiwn> heresy -- of heresy
  • ałandutʿeann -- noun; genitive singular of <ałandutʿiwn> deception + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- of the... sect
  • arianosacʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <arianoskʿ> (pl.) Arians -- Arians'
  • ēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <em> I am -- was
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- in matters of
  • hawats -- noun; locative plural of <hawat> belief, religion -- faith

Ard ibrew etes znosa tʿagaworn, zaṙaǰinn mecapaycaṙ pʿaṙōkʿ mecaw škʿov mecareacʿ znosa :
  • ard -- adverb; <ard> now; so, then -- Then
  • ibrew -- conjunction; <ibrew> when -- when
  • etes -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <tesanem> I see -- saw
  • znosa -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative plural of <na> he, she, it -- them
  • tʿagaworn -- noun; nominative singular of <tʿagawor> king + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the king
  • zaṙaǰinn -- preposition; <z‘> during; for; concerning; around, about + adjective used as substantive; accusative singular of <aṙaǰin> first + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- first
  • mecapaycaṙ -- adjective; undeclined form of <mecapaycaṙ> brilliant -- marvellous
  • pʿaṙōkʿ -- noun; instrumental plural of <pʿaṙkʿ> (pl.) glory, majesty -- with... glory
  • mecaw -- adjective; instrumental singular of <mec> great, big -- (and) great
  • škʿov -- noun; instrumental singular of <šukʿ> pomp -- splendor
  • mecareacʿ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <mecare> I honor, venerate -- he honored
  • znosa -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative plural of <na> he, she, it -- them

Apa dēp ełew` zi ordi miamōr kaysern, ayn isk gtanēr nora zawak, angeal dnēr yaxts sastik hiwandutʿean: apa tʿagaworn vasn ałōtʿs aṙneloy i veray mankann stipēr zsurb katʿołikos Hayocʿ zNersēs :
  • apa -- conjunction; <apa> but; then, afterwards, later -- Then
  • dēp -- adjective; nominative singular of <dēp> fitting, suitable; happening, occuring -- happened
  • ełew -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <ełanim> I become -- it
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- that
  • ordi -- noun; nominative singular of <ordi> son -- son
  • miamōr -- noun; nominative singular of <miamawr> only begotten, only -- the only
  • kaysern -- noun; genitive singular of <kaysr> chief, emperor + demonstrative suffix; <‘s> this, this here, the -- of the emperor
  • ayn -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular of <ayn> that, that over there -- that one
  • isk -- conjunction; <isk> but, truly, and -- truly
  • gtanēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <gtanem> I find, get, obtain -- was... considered
  • nora -- pronoun; genitive singular of <na> he, she, it -- his
  • zawak -- noun; nominative singular of <zawak> child, offspring, progeny -- progeny
  • angeal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <ankanim> I fall -- lapsed
  • dnēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect mediopassive of <dnem> I put, place -- had
  • yaxts -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + noun; accusative plural of <axt> illness, disease -- into the throes # or locative
  • sastik -- adjective; undeclined form of <sastik> severe, grievous -- a severe
  • hiwandutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <hiwandutʿiwn> disease, illness -- of... illness
  • apa -- conjunction; <apa> but; then, afterwards, later -- thereupon
  • tʿagaworn -- noun; nominative singular of <tʿagawor> king + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the king
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- On account of
  • ałōtʿs -- noun; accusative plural of <aławtʿkʿ> (pl.) prayers -- prayers
  • aṙneloy -- verb; infinitive genitive singular of <aṙnem> I do, make -- making
  • i veray -- compound preposition; <i veray> upon, over -- over
  • mankann -- noun; genitive singular of <manuk> child + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the child
  • stipēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <stipem> I push, urge -- urged
  • zsurb -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + adjective; accusative singular of <surb> holy, blessed -- holy
  • katʿołikos -- noun; accusative singular of <katʿołikos> catholicos -- catholicos
  • Hayocʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Hay> Armenian -- of the Armenians
  • zNersēs -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + proper noun; accusative singular of <Nersēs> Nerses -- Nerses # the ensuing speech of Nerses is omitted -- the narrative continues with the king's reply

Ew ibrew luaw tʿagaworn zays amenayn, zi minčʿ deṙ xōsērn aṙaǰi nora` na luṙ ewetʿ kayr, otn zotamb arkeal, armukn i cung ew jeṙn i cnōti` nstaw aynpēs, minčʿew katareacʿ xōsecʿaw zamenayn zbans iwr :
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • ibrew -- conjunction; <ibrew> when -- when
  • luaw -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <lsem> I hear -- heard
  • tʿagaworn -- noun; nominative singular of <tʿagawor> king + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the king
  • zays -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular of <ays> this, this right here -- this
  • amenayn -- adjective; undeclined form of <amenayn> all, every -- all
  • zi -- conjunction; <zi> for; that; because -- for
  • minčʿ -- conjunction; <minčʿ> until, up to, as far as; while, during -- while
  • deṙ -- adverb; <deṙ> still -- still
  • xōsērn -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect mediopassive of <xawsim> I say, speak + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- he was... speaking # a demonstrative suffix is often placed after the first accented word of a subordinate clause
  • aṙaǰi -- preposition; <aṙaǰi> before, in front of -- before
  • nora -- pronoun; genitive singular of <na> he, she, it -- him # referring to the king
  • na -- pronoun; nominative singular of <na> he, she, it -- he # the king
  • luṙ -- adjective; nominative singular of <luṙ> silent -- silent
  • ewetʿ -- adverb; <ewetʿ> only, solely -- but
  • kayr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <kam> I am, exist -- remained
  • otn -- noun; accusative singular of <otn> foot -- foot
  • zotamb -- preposition; <z‘> during; for; concerning; around, about + noun; instrumental singular of <otn> foot -- over foot
  • arkeal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <arkanem> I throw, cast, hurl -- having set
  • armukn -- noun; accusative singular of <armukn> elbow -- elbow
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- on
  • cung -- noun; accusative singular of <cunr> knee -- knee # oblique cases built from cung
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • jeṙn -- noun; accusative singular of <jeṙn> hand -- hand
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- on
  • cnōti -- noun; locative singular of <cnaw\t> chin, cheek -- chin
  • nstaw -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <nstim> I sit -- he sat # the king
  • aynpēs -- adverb; <aynpēs> so, thus -- thus
  • minčʿew -- adverb; <minčʿew> until, as far as -- until
  • katareacʿ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <katarem> I complete, carry out -- he finished # referring to Nerses
  • xōsecʿaw -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <xawsim> I say, speak -- speaking
  • zamenayn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + adjective; undeclined form of <amenayn> all, every -- all
  • zbans -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <ban> speech, word -- words
  • iwr -- reflexive pronoun; genitive singular of <iwr> him-, her-, it-self -- his

Ew grēin zays semiarkʿ notaracʿi arkʿayin, orkʿ kayinn aṙaǰi tʿagaworin :
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • grēin -- verb; 3rd plural imperfect of <grem> I write -- transcribed
  • zays -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular of <ays> this, this right here -- this
  • semiarkʿ -- noun; nominative plural of <semiar> stenographer -- stenographers
  • notaracʿi -- adjective; undeclined form of <notaracʿi> notarizing -- notary
  • arkʿayin -- noun; genitive singular of <arkʿay> archon, leader, king + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the archon's
  • orkʿ -- relative pronoun; nominative plural of <or> who, what, which -- who
  • kayinn -- verb; 3rd plural imperfect of <kam> I am, exist + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- were # a demonstrative suffix is often placed after the first accented word of a subordinate clause
  • aṙaǰi -- preposition; <aṙaǰi> before, in front of -- before
  • tʿagaworin -- noun; genitive singular of <tʿagawor> king + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the king

Apa mecapēs i cʿasumn brdeal linēr tʿagaworn, ew tayr hraman` erkatʿi kapanōkʿ mecapēs kapel zsurb episkoposapetn Hayocʿ zNersēs, ew arkanel i pʿiwłakē :
  • apa -- conjunction; <apa> but; then, afterwards, later -- Then
  • mecapēs -- adverb; <mecapēs> greatly -- fiercely
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- into
  • cʿasumn -- noun; accusative singular of <cʿasumn> rage, anger -- a rage
  • brdeal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <brdem> I fall, descend -- fell
  • linēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <linim> I am, exist -- ...
  • tʿagaworn -- noun; nominative singular of <tʿagawor> king + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the king
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • tayr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <tam> I give; permit, let -- gave
  • hraman -- noun; accusative singular of <hraman> command, order -- an order
  • erkatʿi -- noun; genitive singular of <erkatʿ> iron -- iron
  • kapanōkʿ -- noun; instrumental plural of <kapankʿ> (pl.) chains -- with... chains
  • mecapēs -- adverb; <mecapēs> greatly -- fast
  • kapel -- verb; infinitive accusative singular of <kapem> I bind -- to bind
  • zsurb -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + adjective; accusative singular of <surb> holy, blessed -- holy
  • episkoposapetn -- noun; accusative singular of <episkoposapet> archbishop + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the... archbishop
  • Hayocʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Hay> Armenian -- of the Armenians
  • zNersēs -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + proper noun; accusative singular of <Nersēs> Nerses -- Nerses # the ensuing speech of Nerses is omitted -- the narrative continues with the king's reply
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • arkanel -- verb; infinitive accusative singular of <arkanem> I throw, cast, hurl -- to cast (him)
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- into
  • pʿiwłakē -- noun; accusative singular of <pʿiwłakē> prison -- prison

Lesson Text

Apa vasn xałałutʿean uxtin miabanutʿean dašinn, or ēr ašxarhin Hayocʿ ənd kaysern Yunacʿ, dēp ełew aṙakʿel andr kazmutʿeamb mecaw arkʿayin Hayocʿ: zi inkʿnin mec katʿołikosn Hayocʿ Nersēs, ew i mecamecacʿn Hayocʿ satraps tasn ənd nma aṙnel, zi ertʿicʿē, i mēǰ kaysern ew i mēǰ iwreancʿ zuxtn hawanutʿean ew xałałutʿean norogescʿen : Apa čʿogan gnacʿin hasin i kayserakan pałatn tʿagaworacʿn Yunacʿ : Zaynu žamanakaw tʿagaworn mec Yunacʿ Vałēs i xotorutʿean heretikosutʿean ałandutʿeann arianosacʿ ēr i hawats : Ard ibrew etes znosa tʿagaworn, zaṙaǰinn mecapaycaṙ pʿaṙōkʿ mecaw škʿov mecareacʿ znosa : Apa dēp ełew` zi ordi miamōr kaysern, ayn isk gtanēr nora zawak, angeal dnēr yaxts sastik hiwandutʿean: apa tʿagaworn vasn ałōtʿs aṙneloy i veray mankann stipēr zsurb katʿołikos Hayocʿ zNersēs : Ew ibrew luaw tʿagaworn zays amenayn, zi minčʿ deṙ xōsērn aṙaǰi nora` na luṙ ewetʿ kayr, otn zotamb arkeal, armukn i cung ew jeṙn i cnōti` nstaw aynpēs, minčʿew katareacʿ xōsecʿaw zamenayn zbans iwr : Ew grēin zays semiarkʿ notaracʿi arkʿayin, orkʿ kayinn aṙaǰi tʿagaworin : Apa mecapēs i cʿasumn brdeal linēr tʿagaworn, ew tayr hraman` erkatʿi kapanōkʿ mecapēs kapel zsurb episkoposapetn Hayocʿ zNersēs, ew arkanel i pʿiwłakē :

Translation

Then, because of the covenant of peace -- the alliance of unity, which was between the realm of the Armenians and the emperor of the Greeks -- it was appropriate for the king of the Armenians to send thither with great pomp, so that the great catholicos of the Armenians, Nerses himself, -- and to furnish him ten satraps of the greatest Armenians -- so that he should go and they renew the treaty of peace and accord between the emperor and themselves. They then set out, travelled, and reached the imperial palace of the kings of the Greeks. At about that time in matters of faith the great king of the Greeks, Valens, was under the sway of heresy of the Arians' sect. Then, when the king saw them, first he honored them with marvellous glory and great splendor. Then it happened that the only son of the emperor -- that one was truly considered his progeny -- had lapsed into the throes of a severe illness. On account of making prayers over the child, the king thereupon urged Nerses the holy catholicos of the Armenians.
[Nerses continues with a discussion of the content of the orthodox faith, and makes the son's healing dependent on the Arian king's acceptance of this doctrine. The following continues with the king's reply.]
And when the king heard all this -- for, while he was still speaking before him, he remained but silent, having set foot over foot, elbow on knee, and hand on chin -- he sat thus until he finished speaking all his words. And the notary archon's stenographers who were before the king transcribed this. Then the king fell fiercely into a rage, and gave an order to bind fast with iron chains Nerses the holy archbishop of the Armenians, and to cast him into prison.

Grammar

11 Mixed Nominal Declension
11.1 Substantives with -n in the Plural Only

These declensions are followed by both nouns and adjectives. Several nouns follow an i- or u-declension. Adjectives of this type display an -r in the nominative and accusative which drops in the remaining forms. The plural forms of both nouns and adjectives display stems in -n. The substantives may have either two or three stems within the declension. The noun kʿar 'stone', with stems kʿar-/kʿarin-/kʿaran-, illustrates the i-declension; paṙaw 'old woman', with stems paṙaw-/paṙawun-/paṙawan- illustrates the u-declension. Adjective declensions are illustrated by pʿokʿr 'small', stems pʿokʿ-/pʿokʿun-; and barjr 'high', stems barj-/barjun-/barjan-. These follow the u-declension.

    i-decl.   u-decl.   u-decl.   u-decl.
    T-i, Nt + T-n, Ht-A   T-u, Ht + T-n, Ht-B   T-u, Ht + T-n, Ht-B   T-u, Ht + T-n, Ht-B
                 
N Sg.   kʿar   paṙaw   pʿokʿr   barjr
Ac   kʿar   paṙaw   pʿokʿr   barjr
G   kʿari   paṙawu   pʿokʿu   barju
D   kʿari   paṙawu   pʿokʿu   barju
L   kʿari   paṙawu   pʿokʿu   barju
Ab   kʿarē   paṙaw(u)ē   pʿokʿuē   barjuē
I   kʿariw   paṙawu   pʿokʿu   barju
                 
N Pl.   kʿarinkʿ   paṙawunkʿ   pʿokʿunkʿ   barjunkʿ
Ac   kʿarins   paṙawuns   pʿokʿuns   barjuns
G   kʿarancʿ   paṙawancʿ   pʿokʿuncʿ   barjancʿ
D   kʿarancʿ   paṙawancʿ   pʿokʿuncʿ   barjancʿ
L   kʿarins   paṙawuns   pʿokʿuns   barjuns
Ab   kʿarancʿ   paṙawancʿ   pʿokʿuncʿ   barjancʿ
I   kʿariwkʿ   paṙawumbkʿ   pʿokʿunbkʿ   barjumbkʿ
11.2 Substantives with -n in the Singular Only

Certain nouns display -n only in the singular forms. The plural then follows the a-declension, sometimes the i-declension. Nouns of this type may typically have two or three stems within the paradigm. The nouns jeṙn 'hand', stems jeṙn-/jeṙin-/jeṙ-; serund 'breed, race', stems serund-/serdean-; and otn 'foot', stems otn-/otin-/ot-, illustrate the paradigms.

    a-decl.   a-decl.   i-decl.
    T-n, Ht-A + T-a   T-n, Ht-A + T-a   T-n, Nt-B1 + T-a
             
N Sg.   jeṙn   serund   otn
Ac   jeṙn   serund   otn
G   jeṙin   serdean   otin
D   jeṙin   serdean   otin
L   jeṙin   serdean   otin
Ab   jeṙanē   serdenē   otanē
I   jeṙamb   serdeamb   otamb
             
N Pl.   jeṙkʿ   serundkʿ   otkʿ
Ac   jeṙs   serunds   ots
G   jeṙacʿ   serundacʿ   oticʿ
D   jeṙacʿ   serundacʿ   oticʿ
L   jeṙs   serunds   ots
Ab   jeṙacʿ   serundacʿ   oticʿ
I   jeṙawkʿ   serundawkʿ   otiwkʿ

Note the singular forms Ab jeṙanē, otanē and I jeṙamb, otamb wherein a precedes the nasal instead of i.

11.3 Anomalous Nouns

Certain common nouns display enough peculiarity of declension that they do not fit easily within the patterns already mentioned. These are collected here. The nouns hayr 'father', kʿoyr 'sister', and awr '(24-hour) day' are declined as follows.

    hayr   kʿoyr   awr
    'father'   'sister'   '(24-hour) day'
    T-r, Nt-B        
             
N Sg.   hayr   kʿoyr   awr
Ac   hayr   kʿoyr   awr
G   hawr   kʿeṙ   awur
D   hawr   kʿeṙ   awur
L   hawr   kʿeṙ   awur
Ab   hawrē   kʿeṙē   awrē (< awurē)
I   harb   kʿerb   awurb
             
N Pl.   harkʿ   kʿerkʿ   awurkʿ
Ac   hars   kʿers   awurs
G   harcʿ   kʿercʿ   awurcʿ
D   harcʿ   kʿercʿ   awurcʿ
L   hars   kʿers   awurs
Ab   harcʿ   kʿercʿ   awurcʿ
I   harbkʿ   kʿerbkʿ   awurbkʿ

The nouns mayr 'mother' and ełbayr 'brother' follow the pattern of hayr.

The nouns nu 'daughter-in-law', gewł 'village', and tiw 'day(light)' are declined as follows.

    nu   gewł   tiw
    'daughter-in-law'   'village'   'day(light)'
             
N Sg.   nu   gewł   tiw
Ac   nu   gewł   tiw
G   nuoy   gełǰ   tuənǰean
D   nuoy   gełǰ   tuənǰean
L   nu   gełǰ, gewł   tuənǰean
Ab   nuoy   gełǰē   tuənǰenē, tuē
I   nuov, nuav   giwłiw   tuəǰeamb
             
N Pl.   nu(an)kʿ   gewłkʿ   tiwkʿ
Ac   nu(an)s   gewłs   tiws
G   nua(n)cʿ   giwłicʿ   -
D   nua(n)cʿ   giwłicʿ   -
L   nu(an)s   gewłs   -
Ab   nua(n)cʿ   giwłicʿ   -
I   nuawkʿ   giwłiwkʿ   -

Below are the paradigms of the nouns ayr 'man, husband', kin 'woman, wife', tēr 'lord', tikin 'lady'. Note that tēr is a contracted form of te(y)-ayr or ti-ayr and thus parallels tikin in construction.

    ayr   kin   tēr   tikin
    'man'   'woman'   'lord'   'lady'
                 
N Sg.   ayr   kin   tēr   tikin
Ac   ayr   kin   tēr   tikin
G   aṙn   knoǰ   teaṙn   tiknoǰ
D   aṙn   knoǰ   teaṙn   tiknoǰ
L   aṙn   knoǰ   teaṙn   tiknoǰ
Ab   aṙnē   knoǰē   teaṙnē   tiknoǰē
I   aramb   kanamb, knaw   teramb   tiknamb
                 
N Pl.   arkʿ   kanajkʿ   tearkʿ   tiknaykʿ
Ac   ars   kanajs   tears   tiknays
G   arancʿ   kanancʿ   terancʿ   tiknancʿ
D   arancʿ   kanancʿ   terancʿ   tiknancʿ
L   ars   kanajs   tears   tiknays
Ab   arancʿ   kanancʿ   terancʿ   tiknancʿ
I   arambkʿ   kanambkʿ   terambkʿ   tiknambkʿ

The two nouns akn and unkn require special attention because of the fact that their meanings change depending on what form their plurals take. Specifically, akn may have three separate meanings: (1) 'eye', (2) 'source', (3) 'gem'. In the plural, each meaning is associated with a distinct stem. All three meanings, however, are associated with the same forms in the singular. Thus akn has the following declension.

    Sg.   Pl. (1) 'eye'   Pl. (2) 'source'   Pl. (3) 'gem'
N   akn   ačʿkʿ   akunkʿ   akankʿ
Ac   akn   ačʿs   akuns   akans
G   akan   ačʿacʿ   akancʿ   akanocʿ
D   akan   ačʿacʿ   akancʿ   akanocʿ
L   akan   ačʿs   akuns   akans
Ab   ak(a)   ačʿacʿ   akancʿ   akanocʿ
I   akamb   ačʿawkʿ   akambkʿ   akanovkʿ

A similar situation obtains for the noun unkn. This noun has a twofold semantic split in the plural: (1) 'ear', (2) 'handle'. The declension is as follows.

    Sg.   Pl. (1) 'ear'   Pl. (2) 'handle'
N   unkn   akanǰkʿ   unkunkʿ
Ac   unkn   akanǰs   unkuns
G   unkan   akanǰacʿ   unkancʿ
D   unkan   akanǰacʿ   unkancʿ
L   unkan   akanǰs   unkuns
Ab   unk(a)   akanǰacʿ   unkancʿ
I   unkamb   akanǰawkʿ   unkambkʿ
12 Personal Pronouns and Possessives
12.1 Personal Pronouns

The personal pronouns es 'I' and du 'thou' are the only substantives in Classical Armenian whose nominative and accusative forms differ. Their declensions are as follows.

    es   du
    'I'   'thou'
         
N Sg.   es   du
Ac   is   kʿez
G   im   kʿo
D   imj   kʿez
L   is   kʿez
Ab   inēn, injēn   kʿēn, kʿezēn
I   inew   kʿew
         
N Pl.   mekʿ   dukʿ
Ac   mez   jez
G   mer   jer
D   mez   jez
L   mez   jez
Ab   mēnǰ, mezēn   jēnǰ, jezēn
I   mewkʿ   jewkʿ

The secondary ablative forms may be used in an intensive role. When used as intensives, these ablative forms need not be in the same case as the pronoun which they emphasize. They do, however, agree in number. For example:

  • orpēs ew dukʿ isk jezēn vkayecʿēkʿ 'as you yourselves have borne witness';
  • es injēn gitem 'I myself know'.
12.2 Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

For the third person Classical Armenian has a separate reflexive pronoun iwr '-self, -selves'. The pronoun inkʿn '-self, -selves' may be used as a reflexive for all of the first, second, and third persons. These are comparable to Latin se and ipse respectively. inkʿn may be used in an intensive sense; there is an emphatic form inkʿnin, derived by adding the suffix -in. In addition to these pronouns, the noun anjn 'person, self' may be used in a reflexive role. The paradigms for iwr, inkʿn, and anjn are as follows.

    iwr   inkʿn   anjn
    refl. pron.   refl./intens. pron.   refl. noun
             
N Sg.   -   inkʿn   anjn
Ac   -   inkʿn   anjn
G   iwr   inkʿean   anjin
D   iwr   inkʿean   anjin
L   iwr   inkʿean   anjin
Ab   iwrmē   inkʿenē   anjnē
I   iwrew, iwreaw, iwreamb   inkʿeamb   anjamb
             
N Pl.   -   inkʿeankʿ   anjinkʿ
Ac   iwreans   inkʿeans   anjins
G   iwreancʿ   inkʿeancʿ   anjancʿ
D   iwreancʿ   inkʿeancʿ   anjancʿ
L   iwreans   inkʿeans   anjins
Ab   iwreancʿ   inkʿeancʿ   anjancʿ
I   iwreambkʿ   inkʿeambkʿ   anjambkʿ

Note the genitive of iwr may be used with participles as the subject, e.g. zor iwr čʿēr gorceal '(the sins) which he had not committed'. The subject of the relative clause is the same as that of the main clause.

The reflexive inkʿn is found in the phrase ays inkʿn 'that is, really'.

The noun anjn is often found with a possessive pronoun or adjective: yaytneacʿ zanjn iwr 'he revealed himself'; but this is not always the situation: očʿ unikʿ keans yanjins 'you do not have life in yourselves'.

12.3 Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives

The possessive pronouns are supplied by the genitive case of the corresponding personal pronouns, im 'mine, of me'; kʿo 'thine, of you'; nora 'his, of him; her, of her; its, of it'; iwr 'of him-, her-, it-self' (reflexive); mer 'of us'; jez 'of you'; nocʿa 'of them'; iwreancʿ 'of themselves' (reflexive). These then form the basis for a series of possessive adjectives, whose declensions follow.

    im   kʿo   nora   iwr   mer   jer   nocʿa   [iwreancʿ]
    'my'   'thy'   'his'   'his'(refl.)   'our'   'your' (pl.)   'their'   'their' (refl.)
                                 
N Sg.   im   kʿo   nora   iwr   mer   jer   nocʿa   [iwreancʿ]
Ac   im   kʿo   nora   iwr   mer   jer   nocʿa    
G   imoy   kʿoyoy, kʿoy   norayoy   iwroy   meroy   jeroy   nocʿayoy    
D   imum   kʿum   norayum   iwrum   merum   jerum   nocʿayum    
L   imum   kʿum   norayum   iwrum   merum   jerum   nocʿayum    
Ab   immē   kʿumē   norayoy   iwrmē   mermē   jermē   nocʿayoy    
I   imov   kʿuov   norayov   iwrov   merov   jerov   nocʿayov    
                                 
N Pl.   imkʿ   kʿoykʿ   noraykʿ   iwr   merkʿ   jerkʿ   nocʿaykʿ   [iwreancʿ]
Ac   ims   kʿoys   norays   iwr   mers   jers   nocʿays    
G   imocʿ   kʿoyocʿ, kʿocʿ   norayocʿ, norayicʿ   iwrocʿ   merocʿ   jerocʿ   nocʿayocʿ, nocʿayicʿ    
D   imocʿ   kʿoyocʿ   norayocʿ, norayicʿ   iwrocʿ   merocʿ   jerocʿ   nocʿayocʿ, nocʿayicʿ    
L   ims   kʿoys   norays   iwrum   mers   jers   nocʿays    
Ab   imocʿ   kʿoyocʿ   norayocʿ, norayicʿ   iwrocʿ   merocʿ   jerocʿ   nocʿayocʿ, nocʿayicʿ    
I   imovkʿ   kʿoyovkʿ   norayovkʿ, norayiwkʿ   iwrovkʿ   merovkʿ   jerovkʿ   nocʿayovkʿ, nocʿayiwkʿ    

Note that the NAcL Pl. forms of iwr are the same as the singular. The expected forms iwrkʿ and iwrs are found instead as substantives: yiwrs ekn ew iwrkʿn zna očʿ ənkalan 'he came to his own and his own did not receive him.'

Examples are jeṙamb iwrov 'with his own hand', es očʿ inčʿ yanjnē immē xawsim 'I say nothing by myself.' Nouns found in the plural with singular meanings often take singular possessive adjectives: jawrēns kʿum 'in thy law'.

13 Verbal Classification and Anomalous Verbs
13.1 Present-Aorist Classification

One may classify verbs according to how a given present type leads regularly to a given aorist type. Such a classification scheme is given below.

(i) Regular verb classes with -Vcʿ- aorist:

Type   Present   Aor. stem   Example Present   Aorist
                 
(A)   -em (primary)   -acʿ-i   asem 'I say'   asacʿi
            gitem 'I know'   gitacʿi
            karem 'I can'   karacʿi
    -em (denominative)   -ecʿ-i   gorcem 'I make'   gorcecʿi
            pʿorjem 'I tempt'   pʿorjecʿi
            bnakem 'I dwell'   bnakecʿi
                 
(B)   -im (denominative)   -ecʿ-ay   gorcim 'I am made'   gorcecʿay
            nmanim 'I resemble'   nmanecʿay
            hamarim 'I regard'   hamarecʿay
                 
(C)   -am   -acʿ-i   ałam 'I grind'   ałacʿi
            gnam 'I go'   gnacʿi
            hawatam 'I believe'   hawatacʿi
    -am   -acʿ-ay   ałam 'I am made'   ałacʿay
            gtʿam 'I pity'   gtʿacʿay
            yusam 'I hope'   yusacʿay
                 
(D)   -anam   -acʿ-i / -ay   luanam 'I wash'   luacʿi
            luanam 'I wash myself'   luacʿay
            arbenam 'I get drunk' (< *arbi-anam)   arbecʿay (< *arbi-acʿay)
    -anam   -acʿ-ay   imanam 'I understand'   imacʿay
            əntʿanam 'I run'   əntʿacʿay
            moṙanam 'I forget'   moṙacʿay
                 

(ii) Regular verb classes with root aorist:

Type   Present   Aor. stem   Example Present   Aorist
                 
(E1)   -em (primary)   root   berem 'I carry'   beri
            acem 'I bring'   aci
            hanem 'I draw'   hani
                 
(E2)   -im (primary)   root   nstim 'I sit'   nstay
                 
(E3)   -um   root   argelum 'I hinder'   argeli
            tʿołum 'I let, remit'   tʿołi
            hełum 'I pour'   hełi
                 
(F)   -anem   root   bekanem 'I break'   beki
            tesanem 'I see'   tesi
            lkʿanem 'I leave'   lkʿi (3 Sg. elikʿ)
                 
(G)   -anim   root   ankanim 'I fall'   ankay
            tesanim 'I am seen'   tesay
            usanim 'I learn'   usay
                 
(H)   -(n)čʿim   -eay   hangčʿim 'I rest'   hangeay
            pʿaxčʿim 'I flee'   pʿaxeay
            martnčʿim 'I fight'   marteay
                 
(I)   -nam   root   daṙnam 'I (re)turn' (< *darj-nam)   darjay
            baṙnam 'I raise' (< *barj-nam)   barji
                 

(iii) Verbs classes with root or -cʿ- aorists:

Type   Present   Aor. stem   Example Present   Aorist
                 
(J1)   -C-num   root   aṙnum 'I take'   aṙi
            ǰernum 'I warm'   ǰeṙay
                 
(J2)   -V-num   root   erdnum 'I swear' (< *erdu-num)   erduay
            aytnum 'I swell' (< *ayti-num)   ayteay (< *ayti-ay)
            kʿałcʿnum 'I hunger' (< *kʿałcʿi-num)   kʿałcʿeay (< *kʿałcʿi-ay)
                 
(J3)   -V-num   -cʿ-i / -ay   zgenum 'I clothe myself'   zgecʿay
            lnum 'I fill'   lcʿi (< *li-cʿi, cf. 3 Sg. elicʿ)
            ənkenum 'I throw'   ənkecʿi (NB. 3 Sg. ənkēcʿ instead of *ənkeacʿ)
13.2 Anomalous and Suppletive Verbs

Although most verbs obey the above-outlined categories regarding present and aorist classification, there are some verbs that depart from the regular formations. The most notable among these anomalous verbs are collected here. In this section, suppletion is treated as an extreme form of irregularity. The irregularities are broken down into three major categories and examples listed under each.

(a) Irregular stem contrast without inflectional peculiarities

Verbs in this category inflect normally, though the present/aorist stem contrast does not fall into the patterns above.

    Present   Aorist
    harkanem 'I strike'   hari
    yancʿanem 'I trespass'   yancʿeay
    baṙnam 'I raise'   barji
    daṙnam 'I (re)turn'   darjay
    čanačʿem (< *canačʿem) 'I know'   caneay
    əmpem 'I drink'   arbi
    unim 'I take hold, have'   kalay

(b) Irregular stem contrast with peculiar forms in the imperative and/or aorist subjunctive

    Present   Aorist   Aor. Subj.   Imperative
    aṙnem 'I do, make'   arari   araricʿ, arascʿes, ...   Sg. ara
    tanim 'I carry'   taray   -   tar, taraykʿ
    yaṙnem 'I rise'   yareay   -   ari, arikʿ
    ertʿam 'I go'   čʿogay   ertʿaycʿ, ertʿicʿes, ...   -
    mełančʿem 'I sin'   mełay   małaycʿ, mełicʿes, ...   -
    lsem 'I hear'   luay   luaycʿ, luicʿes, ...   lur, luarukʿ
    utem 'I eat'   keray (3 Sg. eker, keraw)   keraycʿ, kericʿes, ...   ker, keraykʿ

(c) Irregular inflection in the aorist group generally

Present                
    gam 'I come'   tam 'I give'   dnem 'I put'   linim 'I become'
                 
Aor. Ind.                
1 Sg.   eki   etu   edi   ełē
2   ekir   etur   edir   ełer
3   ekn   et   ed   ełew
                 
1 Pl.   ekakʿ   tuakʿ   edakʿ   ełeakʿ
2   ekikʿ   etukʿ   edikʿ   ełēkʿ
3   ekin   etum   edin   ełen
                 
Aor. Subj.                
1 Sg.   ekicʿ   tacʿ   edicʿ   ełecʿ
2   eke(s)cʿes   tacʿes   dicʿes   licʿis (ełicʿis)
3   eke(s)cʿē   tacʿē   dicʿē   licʿi (ełicʿi)
    etc.            
                 
Imperative                
2 Sg.   ek   tur   dir   ler (ełiǰir)
2 Pl.   ekaykʿ   tukʿ   dikʿ   lerukʿ (ełerukʿ)
                 
Participle                
N A Sg.   ekeal   tueal   edeal   leal (ełeal)

The conjugation of linim parallels that of dnem. The augmented forms ełicʿis, ełicʿi, etc. are later developments which eventually gave rise to a new present form ełanim.

The aorist subjunctive and aorist imperative forms of em 'I am' are supplied by the forms licʿis, etc. and ler, lerukʿ of the verb linim 'I become'.

14 The Passive Voice
14.1 Passive Voice in the Present System

In Classical Armenian transitive verbs occur in both active and passive contructions. The distinction between active and passive, however, is not universally distinguished through morphology. That is to say, the contrast between active forms and passive forms does not hold throughout the Classical Armenian verbal system. In the present indicative, verbs of the e-conjugation may form a passive by changing the stem vowel from e to i, e.g. varem 'I lead' vs. varim 'I am led'; čanačʿem zimsn ew čanačʿim yimocʿn 'I know my own and I am known by my own'. This distinction is in keeping with the distribution of verbs between the e- and i-conjugations, since most of the verbs in the e-conjugation are transitive, most in the i-conjugation intransitive. The e-/i- manner of active/passive contrast has been extended to the prohibitive and to the present subjunctive. Thus one finds the following contrast pattern.

    Active   Passive
Pres. Indic.   varem, -es, -ē, ... 'I lead'   varim, -is, -i, ... 'I am led, I behave'
Prohibitive   mi varer, -ēkʿ 'do not lead'   mi varir, -ikʿ 'do not behave'
Pres. Subj.   varicʿem, -es, -ē, ... 'I shall lead'   varicʿim, -is, -i, ... 'I shall be led, I shall behave'

Such distinction is lost in the imperfect: since e-conjugation verbs follow the same imperfect paradigm as i-conjugation verbs, the distinction between active and passive is lost in this tense. Thus the active varem 'I lead' and the passive varim 'I am led' both have imperfect varei, -eir, -ēr, ... 'I was leading, I was being led'. Compare patmein zbann Astuacoy 'they proclaimed the word of God' and patmein bankʿs aysokʿik 'all these things were told'.

Verbs of the a- and u-conjugations, and verbs which are inherently of the i-conjugation, do not form passives by such vowel substitution. These verbs make no formal distinction between active and passive throughout the entire present system:

        Active Meaning   Passive Meaning
Present            
    hamarim   'I regard'   'I am regarded'
    banam   'I open'   'I am opened'
    argelum   'I hinder'   'I am hindered'
             
Imperfect            
    banayi   'I was opening'   'I was being opened'
    argelui   'I was hindering'   'I was being hindered'
             
Subjunctive            
    hamaricʿim   'I shall regard'   'I shall be regarded'
    argelucʿum   'I shall hinder'   'I shall be hindered'
14.2 The Aorist System and Mediopassive

The aorist system maintains a morphological distinction between active and passive. Regular alternation of endings displays the voice contrast:

    Present   Aor. Active   Aor. Passive
             
Indicative            
    pʿorjem 'I tempt'   pʿorjecʿi 'I tempted'   pʿorjecʿay 'I was tempted'
    patmem 'I tell'   patmecʿin 'they told'   patmecʿan '(things) were told'
    argelum 'I hinder'   argel 'he hindered'   argelaw 'he was hindered'
             
Subjunctive            
    pʿorjicʿem 'I shall tempt'   pʿorjecʿicʿ 'I shall tempt'   pʿorjecʿaycʿ 'I shall be tempte'
    argelicʿum 'I shall hinder'   argelcʿen 'they will hinder'   argelcʿin 'they will be hindered'
             
Imperative            
    (mi) mrkter '(don't) baptize'   mrktea 'baptize'   mrkteacʿ 'be baptized'
    (mi) luanaykʿ '(don't) wash, (don't) wash yourselves'   luacʿēkʿ 'wash'   luacʿarukʿ 'wash yourselves'

There are, however, forms which are the same in both active and passive. Such forms are the aorist indicative first person plural, e.g. pʿorjecʿakʿ 'we tempted, we were tempted'; the aorist subjunctive first person plural, e.g. argelcʿukʿ 'we shall hinder, we shall be hindered' and second person plural, e.g. pʿorjesǰikʿ 'you will tempt, you will be tempted'.

Some transitive verbs are found only with passive forms in the aorist system. These forms are therefore ambiguous when taken out of context; they may have active meaning and take an object, or have true passive (and therefore intransitive) meaning. For this reason, the term mediopassive is often used instead of 'passive' to describe the non-active forms of aorist conjugation. Verbs which are so found with only mediopassive endings in the aorist typically have presents in -im, -anam, and -num. Below are examples of some verbs that distinguish active and passive forms in the aorist, and some that have only mediopassive forms.

    Present   Aorist Active   Aor. Mediopassive   Aor. Passive
                 
    banam 'I open/am opened'   bacʿi 'I opened'       bacʿay 'I was opened'
    argelum 'I hinder/am hindered'   argeli 'I hindered'       argelay 'I was hindered'
    hamarim 'I regard/am regarded'       hamarecʿay 'I regarded/was regarded'    
    moṙanam 'I forget/am forgotten'       moṙacʿay 'I forgot/was forgotten'    
    əntʿeṙnu 'he reads/(something) is read'       əntʿercʿaw 'he read/(something) was read'    
14.3 General Notes on Passive Usage

The active/passive contrast is not morphologically distinguished in non-finite verb forms, i.e. the infinitive, verbal adjectives, participle. These forms may have either active or passive meaning, determined by context: pʿorjeal i Satanayē 'tempted by Satan'; haneal zna 'having drawn him'.

When morphology does not distinguish voice contrast, ambiguity is often avoided by one of two means: (1) stem substitution, e.g. hełu 'he pours' vs. hełani '(something) is poured'; (2) compound tenses, e.g. bereal linei, lineir, linēr, ... 'I was being carried' vs. berei, bereir, berēr, ... 'I was carrying/was being carried'.

In passive statements, agents of the action are treated differently depending on whether they be animate or inanimate. When the agent is a

  • person, it is signified by the preposition i + Ablative;
  • thing, it is placed in the Instrumental.

For example, mrktein i nmanē 'they were baptized by him'; ahiw mecaw tagnapein 'they were struck with fear'.

15 Negation

The particle očʿ is used to negate declarative and interrogative statements. The particle mi is used in negative wishes, requests, commands and final clauses. The particle očʿ, when placed just before the verb, is shortened to čʿ- and written together with the verb: čʿē 'he is not'; čʿtesanein 'they did not see'.

Classical Armenian Online - Romanized

Lesson 4

Todd B. Krause, John A.C. Greppin, and Jonathan Slocum

Arsacid Reign

During the first century A.D., Armenia was a pendulum swinging between Rome and Parthia. When Vologeses I, an Arsacid, finally took the Parthian throne in 51 A.D., he took advantage of Armenian revolts against Roman rule to occupy Armenia and set his younger brother Trdat (Tiridates) on the throne. The Roman emperor Nero responded by sending Corbulo, his general, to retake Armenia. The venture succeeded, and, when Trdat fled to Persia, Nero installed Tigranes, a descendant of Herod the Great, as ruler of Armenia. Vologeses again attempted to take Armenia in 62 A.D.; he managed to drive back the Romans, but did not secure his hold on Armenia until 64 A.D., when an agreement was struck whereby Dsopk and Greater Armenia were to be ruled by members of the Arsacid line of Parthia, but would receive their crowns from Rome. In 66 B.C. Trdat received his crown in Rome and so began the Parthian Arsacid, or Arshakuni, rule of Armenia.

Under Arsacid rule, Armenia received a constant influx of noble families from the Parthian empire, particularly from Persia. Persian and Parthian became common languages in the upper echelons of society, and many Persian loanwords entered Armenian during this period. A feudal social structure was introduced, where high-ranking noble families were granted hereditary administrative positions and fiefdoms in return for military service. This created a hierarchy within the nobility, out of which a king would be chosen as chief of the nobles.

It was the Roman emperor Trajan who finally broke the treaty with Parthia by invading Armenia in 114 A.D. Trajan pushed farther and eventually took the Parthian capital Ctesiphon in 116 A.D., but with his death in 117 A.D. and the rise of Hadrian to the Roman throne, the compromise with the Parthians was restored and the Parthian Vagharsh I was placed in charge of Armenia. He ruled Armenia until 140 A.D. After a few intervening Roman and Persian rulers, the Parthian prince Vagharsh II assumed the throne of Armenia in 186 A.D. In 191 A.D. he assumed the Persian throne and named his son Khosrov I to the Armenian throne. Khosrov was subsequently captured by the Romans, who installed one of their own to take charge of Armenia. However the Armenians themselves revolted against their Roman overlords, and, in a new Rome-Parthia compromise, Khosrov's son, Trdat II (217 - 252 A.D.), was made king of Armenia.

The political situation in Parthia began to decline and a smallpox outbreak left the economy so weak that in 224 A.D. Ardeshir overthrew the Arsacids and began the new Sasanid dynasty. The Sasanids were determined to restore the old glory of Achaemenid Persia, making Zoroastrianism the state religion and claiming Armenia as part of the empire. To preserve the autonomy of Arshakuni rule in Armenia, Trdat II sought friendly relations with Rome. This was an unfortunate choice, because the Sasanid king Shapur I (240 - 270 A.D.) defeated the Romans and struck a peace with the emperor Philip, whereby Rome acquiesced to paying tribute and relinquishing control of Greater Armenia. In 252 A.D. Shapur invaded Armenia and, forcing Trdat to flee, installed his own son Hurmazd on the Armenian throne. When Shapur died in 270 A.D., Hurmazd took the Persian throne and his brother Narseh ruled Armenia in his stead. Under Diocletian, Rome tried to install Khosrov II as ruler of Armenia, and between 279 and 287 A.D. he was in possession of the western parts of Armenian territory. But the Sasanids stirred some nobles to revolt, killing Khosrov in the process. When Narseh left to take the Persian throne in 293 A.D., Khosrov's murderer was installed on the Armenian throne. Rome nevertheless defeated Narseh in 298 A.D., and Khosrov's son Trdat III regained control of Armenia with the support of Roman soldiers.

The Christian Religion in Armenia

Christianity, as a marginalized religion, seems to have spread to Armenia as early as the first century A.D. Its presence in Armenia continued to grow over the following two centuries. But the Sasanid sanctioning of Zoroastrianism to the exclusion of all other religions threatened this situation. In the Roman provinces, however, the emperor Constantine's Edict of Milan, issued in 313 A.D., made tolerance for the Christian religion into law. Rome being Armenia's strongest ally, this edict and the desire to resist the Sasanid fervor for Zoroastrianism probably impelled Armenia to become the first nation to adopt Christianity as its official religion. This likely happened around 315 A.D. (though tradition usually places the event around 301 A.D.), roughly sixty-five years before the Roman empire adopted Christianity.

Trdat is said to have been baptized by an ordained Christian named Gregory, whom he chanced upon in Caesarea before he reclaimed the throne of Armenia. When the organization of the Armenian Church was established under a feudal system, it was the family of this Gregory, later called the Illuminator, which inherited the position of catholicos, or supreme patriarch. Other nobles were typically given positions as bishops.

In 325 A.D., the emperor Constantine called the Council of Nicea, at which Gregory's son Aristakes represented Armenia. At the coucil there was debate over the position of Arius, who maintained that Christ was not of the same substance as God and therefore not divine, and of Bishops Alexander and Athanasius of Alexandria, who maintained that the substance of God and Christ was the same. The council rejected Arianism, but Constantine gave credence to the Arian views. The Armenian kings followed the models of the Byzantine rulers in espousing the Arian doctrine, putting them at odds with their own clergy. The issue was only put to rest in 381 A.D. when the emperor Theodosius accepted the ruling of the Council at Constantinople, in which the Athanasian stance was confirmed.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The History of the Life and Death of the Holy Teacher Mesrop, by Koriwn, is a quite brief biography of the spiritual leader and inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Mesrop lived from 361 to 440 A.D. Little is known of Koriwn, the biographer, or the date of the biography, but it surely was written after 440, and before 460, the year of the death of Koriwn. It is perhaps the earliest original writing in Classical Armenian. This reading is taken from Books V and VI.

Ew aynpēs trtmakan hogovkʿ pašareal ew tʿakardapateal ew ankeal i cupʿs xorhrdocʿ, etʿē orpisi ardeōkʿ els iracʿn gtanicʿē :
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • aynpēs -- adverb; <aynpēs> so, thus -- thus
  • trtmakan -- adjective; undeclined form of <trtamakan> painful -- vile
  • hogovkʿ -- noun; instrumental plural of <hogi> soul, spirit -- by... spirits
  • pašareal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <pašarem> I ensnare, catch -- (he was) caught
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • tʿakardapateal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <tʿakardapatem> I trap -- surrounded
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • ankeal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <ankanim> I fall -- fell
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- into
  • cupʿs -- noun; accusative plural of <cupʿ> wave, rush; confustion, torment, angst -- torrents # or locative
  • xorhrdocʿ -- noun; genitive plural of <xorhurd> thought, plan; counsel -- of thoughts
  • etʿē -- conjunction; <etʿe> that; if; or -- about
  • orpisi -- interrogative adjective; undeclined form of <orpisi> what kind (of); that kind (of), such -- what sort (of) # indirect question
  • ardeōkʿ -- interrogative particle; <ardeawkʿ> indeed, truly; perhaps -- ...
  • els -- noun; accusative plural of <elkʿ> (pl.) exit, going -- escape
  • iracʿn -- noun; ablative plural of <ir> thing, affair + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- from those affairs
  • gtanicʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <gtanem> I find, get, obtain -- he might find

Ew ibrew awurs bazums andēn i nmin degerēr, yarucʿeal aynuhetew hasanēr aṙ surb Katʿołikos Hayocʿ mecacʿ, oroy anunn čanačʿēr Sahak, zor patrastakan gtanēr, nmin pʿutʿoy hawaneal :
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • ibrew -- conjunction; <ibrew> when -- when
  • awurs -- noun; accusative plural of <awr> day -- days
  • bazums -- adjective; accusative plural of <bazum> much, many -- many
  • andēn -- adverb; <andēn> there -- there
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- on
  • nmin -- demonstrative pronoun; locative singular of <noyn> this, same, this same -- this
  • degerēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect mediopassive of <degerim> I am bothered, scattered, dispersed; I spend -- he had spent
  • yarucʿeal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <yarnem> I rise up -- he rose up
  • aynuhetew -- adverb; <aynuhetew> thenceforth -- forthwith
  • hasanēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <hasanem> I approach, arrive; obtain -- (and)... approached
  • aṙ -- preposition; <aṙ> to, toward (a person); beside; in the time of; in addition to -- ...
  • surb -- adjective; undeclined form of <surb> holy, blessed -- the holy
  • katʿołikos -- noun; accusative singular of <katʿołikos> catholicos -- Catholicos
  • Hayocʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Hay> Armenian -- of... Armenia
  • mecacʿ -- adjective; genitive plural of <mec> great, big -- greater
  • oroy -- relative pronoun; genitive singular of <or> who, what, which -- whose
  • anunn -- noun; nominative singular of <anun> name + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- name
  • čanačʿēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect mediopassive of <čanačʿem> I know, understand -- was known
  • Sahak -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Sahak> Sahak -- (as) Sahak
  • zor -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + relative pronoun; accusative singular of <or> who, what, which -- whom
  • patrastakan -- adjective; accusative singular of <patrastakan> ready, willing, predisposed -- willing
  • gtanēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <gtanem> I find, get, obtain -- he found
  • nmin -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular of <noyn> this, same, this same -- to this
  • pʿutʿoy -- noun; dative singular of <pʿoytʿ> hurry; eagerness; worry; interest -- concern
  • hawaneal -- verb; past participle accusative singular of <hawanim> I agree, concur, accede -- having acceded

Ew miangamayn yōžarutʿeamb gumareal handerj ałōtʿiwkʿ mecovkʿ aṙ Astuac kanxēin, vasn amenayn ogwocʿ kʿristosaber pʿrkutʿeann hasaneloy: ew zayn aṙnēin awurs bazums :
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • miangamayn -- adverb; <miangamayn> all together; totally; at once -- all together
  • yōžarutʿeamb -- noun; instrumental singular of <yōžarutʿiwn> inclination, predisposition, tendency -- thus inclined
  • gumareal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <gumarem> I assemble -- assembled
  • handerj -- preposition; <handerj> with, together with -- with
  • ałōtʿiwkʿ -- noun; instrumental plural of <aławtʿkʿ> (pl.) prayers -- prayers
  • mecovkʿ -- adjective; instrumental plural of <mec> great, big -- powerful
  • aṙ -- preposition; <aṙ> to, toward (a person); beside; in the time of; in addition to -- to
  • Astuac -- proper noun; accusative singular of <Astuac> God -- God
  • kanxēin -- verb; 3rd plural imperfect of <kanxem> I rise up; rush, hurry; go first -- they rose up
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- for
  • amenayn -- adjective; undeclined form of <amenayn> all, every -- all the
  • ogwocʿ -- noun; genitive plural of <hogi> soul, spirit -- for... souls
  • kʿristosaber -- adjective; undeclined form of <kristosaber> Christ-borne -- Christ-borne
  • pʿrkutʿeann -- noun; genitive singular of <pʿrkutʿiwn> salvation + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- salvation
  • hasaneloy -- verb; infinitive genitive singular of <hasanem> I approach, arrive; obtain -- obtaining # genitive after vasn
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • zayn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular of <ayn> that, that over there -- this
  • aṙnēin -- verb; 3rd plural imperfect of <aṙnem> I do, make -- they continued to do
  • awurs -- noun; accusative plural of <awr> day -- (for)... days
  • bazums -- adjective; accusative plural of <bazum> much, many -- many

Apa elanēr nocʿa pargewakan yamenabarin Astucoy žołovel zašxarhahog xorhurdn eraneli miabanelocʿn, ew girs nšanagroy Hayastan azgin hasanel: bazum harcʿ pʿorji ew kʿnnutʿean zanjins parapecʿucʿeal, ew bazum ašxatutʿeancʿ hambereal, azd aṙnēin apa ew zkanxagoyn xndrelin iwreancʿ tʿagaworin Hayocʿ, oroy anun kočʿēr Vṙamšapuh :
  • apa -- conjunction; <apa> but; then, afterwards, later -- Then
  • elanēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <elanem> I come, go up -- it occurred
  • nocʿa -- pronoun; dative plural of <na> he, she, it -- to them
  • pargewakan -- adjective; nominative singular of <pargewakan> granted, sent -- granted
  • yamenabarin -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + adjective; undeclined form of <amenabar> bountiful + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- by benevolent
  • Astucoy -- proper noun; ablative singular of <Astuac> God -- God
  • žołovel -- verb; infinitive nominative singular of <žołovem> I assemble, gather -- to collect
  • zašxarhahog -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + adjective; undeclined form of <ašxarhahog> caring for the land, patriotic -- patriotic
  • xorhurdn -- noun; accusative singular <xorhurd> thought, plan; counsel + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the... counsel
  • eraneli -- adjective; undeclined form of <eraneli> blessed -- blessed
  • miabanelocʿn -- noun; genitive plural of <miabaneal> monk + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- of the... monks
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • girs -- noun; accusative plural of <gir> writing, text -- letters
  • nšanagroy -- noun; genitive singular of <nšanagir> alphabet -- of the alphabet
  • Hayastan -- proper noun; <Hayastan> Armenia -- Armenian # instead of Hayastani?
  • azgin -- noun; dative singular of <azg> nation, people + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- for the... people
  • hasanel -- verb; infinitive nominative singular of <hasanem> I approach, arrive; obtain -- to obtain
  • bazum -- adjective; undeclined form of <bazum> much, many -- a great
  • harcʿ -- noun; accusative singular of <harcʿ> examination, question, questioning -- examination
  • pʿorji -- noun; genitive singular of <pʿorj> attempt, test, experiment; experience -- of experiment
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • kʿnnutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <kʿnnutʿiwn> examination, test; investigation, search; study -- investigation
  • zanjins -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <anjn> person, soul, self -- themselves
  • parapecʿucʿeal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <parapecʿucʿanem> I devote myself to -- having devoted... to # causative of parapim 'occupy oneself with, devote oneself to' + dative object
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • bazum -- adjective; undeclined form of <bazum> much, many -- great
  • ašxatutʿeancʿ -- noun; dative plural of <ašxatutʿiwn> labor -- labors
  • hambereal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <hamberem> I suffer, endure -- having endured # with dative object
  • azd -- noun; accusative singular of <azd> notice, advice; report, news; communication, announcement -- an announcement
  • aṙnēin -- verb; 3rd plural imperfect of <aṙnem> I do, make -- they made
  • apa -- conjunction; <apa> but; then, afterwards, later -- then
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- ...
  • zkanxagoyn -- preposition; <z‘> during; for; concerning; around, about + adjective used as substantive; accusative singular of <kanxagoyn> before, earlier -- ...
  • xndrelin -- verbal adjective; undeclined form of <xndrem> I search, seek + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- searching # see Section 18.4 for verbal adjectives
  • iwreancʿ -- reflexive pronoun; genitive plural of <iwr> him-, her-, it-self -- their own # lit. 'of themselves searching, of their searching selves'
  • tʿagaworin -- noun; dative singular of <tʿagawor> king + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- to the king
  • Hayocʿ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural of <Hay> Armenian -- of the Armenians
  • oroy -- relative pronoun; genitive singular of <or> who, what, which -- whose
  • anun -- noun; nominative singular of <anun> name -- name
  • kočʿēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect mediopassive of <kočʿem> I call, name -- was called
  • Vṙamšapuh -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Vṙamšapuh> Vramshapuh -- Vramshapuh

Yaynžam patmēr nocʿa arkʿayn, vasn aṙn urumn asorwoy episkoposi aznuakani` Daniēl anun kočʿecʿeloy, oroy yankarc uremn nšanagirs ałpʿabetacʿ hayerēn lezui :
  • yaynžam -- adverb; <yaynžam> at that time, then -- Then
  • patmēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <patmem> I report, tell -- told
  • nocʿa -- pronoun; dative plural of <na> he, she, it -- them
  • arkʿayn -- noun; nominative singular of <arkʿay> archon, leader, king + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the king
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- about
  • aṙn -- noun; genitive singular of <ayr> man -- a... man
  • urumn -- adjective; genitive singular of <omn> some, certain -- certain
  • asorwoy -- adjective; genitive singular of <asori> Assyrian, Syrian -- an Assyrian
  • episkoposi -- noun; genitive singular of <episkopos> bishop -- bishop
  • aznuakani -- adjective; genitive singular of <aznuakan> noble, of noble origin -- of noble origin
  • Daniēl -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Daniēl> Daniel -- Daniel # nominative case used for quoting the name
  • anun -- noun; accusative singular of <anun> name -- by name # accusative of anun commonly used in the sense 'with name' or 'by name'
  • kočʿecʿeloy -- verb; past participle genitive singular of <kočʿem> I call, name -- called
  • oroy -- relative pronoun; genitive singular of <or> who, what, which -- of whom # genitive subject; supply participial construction gteal e′r 'was having found, had found, had devised'
  • yankarc -- adverb; <yankarc> unexpectedly, suddenly -- ...
  • uremn -- adverb; <uremn> somewhere; then, consequently; about, roughly; certainly -- elsewhere
  • nšanagirs -- noun; accusative plural of <nšanagir> alphabet -- letters
  • ałpʿabetacʿ -- noun; genitive plural of <ałpʿabet> alphabet -- of the alphabet
  • hayerēn -- adjective; undeclined form of <hayerēn> Armenian; Armenian (language) -- Armenian
  • lezui -- noun; dative singular of <lezu> language, tongue -- for the... language # or genitive

Ew ibrew patmecʿaw nocʿa yarkʿayē vasn greloyn i Daniēlē, yōžarecʿin zarkʿay` pʿoytʿ aṙnel vasn pitoyicʿn aynocʿik :
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • ibrew -- conjunction; <ibrew> when -- when
  • patmecʿaw -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <patmem> I report, tell -- it was related
  • nocʿa -- pronoun; dative plural of <na> he, she, it -- to them
  • yarkʿayē -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + noun; ablative singular of <arkʿay> archon, leader, king -- by the king
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- about
  • greloyn -- verb; infinitive genitive singular of <grem> I write + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the writing
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- from
  • Daniēlē -- proper noun; ablative singular of <Daniēl> Daniel -- Daniel
  • yōžarecʿin -- verb; 3rd plural aorist of <yawžarem> I stimulate, prompt; persuade -- they prompted
  • zarkʿay -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative singular of <arkʿay> archon, leader, king -- the king
  • pʿoytʿ -- noun; accusative singular of <pʿoytʿ> hurry; eagerness; worry; interest -- care
  • aṙnel -- verb; infinitive used as complement <aṙnem> I do, make -- to take
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- according to
  • pitoyicʿn -- noun; genitive plural of <pitoy> need + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- needs
  • aynocʿik -- emphatic pronoun; genitive plural of <ayn> that, that over there -- their

Ew na aṙakʿēr zomn Vahrič anun hrovartakōkʿ aṙ ayr mi erēcʿ, oroy anun Habēl kočʿēin: or ēr merjawor Daniēli asorwoy episkoposi :
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- And
  • na -- pronoun; nominative singular of <na> he, she, it -- he # the king
  • aṙakʿēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <aṙakʿem> I send -- he sent
  • zomn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative singular of <omn> some, certain -- someone
  • Vahrič -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Vahrič> Vahrich -- Vahrich
  • anun -- noun; accusative singular of <anun> name -- by name # accusative of anun commonly used in the sense 'with name' or 'by name'
  • hrovartakōkʿ -- noun; instrumental plural of <hrovartak> writing; order, decree -- by decree
  • aṙ -- preposition; <aṙ> to, toward (a person); beside; in the time of; in addition to -- to
  • ayr -- noun; accusative singular of <ayr> man -- man
  • mi -- adjective; accusative singular of <mi> one -- an
  • erēcʿ -- adjective; accusative singular of <erēcʿ> elderly -- elderly
  • oroy -- relative pronoun; genitive singular of <or> who, what, which -- whose
  • anun -- noun; accusative singular of <anun> name -- name
  • Habēl -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Habel> Habel -- Habel # or accusative; see comment on Daniēl above
  • kočʿēin -- verb; 3rd plural imperfect of <kočʿem> I call, name -- they called
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- who
  • ēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <em> I am -- was
  • merjawor -- noun; nominative singular of <merjawor> acquaintance -- an acquaintance
  • Daniēli -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Daniēl> Daniel -- of... Daniel
  • asorwoy -- adjective; genitive singular of <asori> Assyrian, Syrian -- the Assyrian
  • episkoposi -- noun; genitive singular of <episkopos> bishop -- bishop

Lesson Text

Ew aynpēs trtmakan hogovkʿ pašareal ew tʿakardapateal ew ankeal i cupʿs xorhrdocʿ, etʿē orpisi ardeōkʿ els iracʿn gtanicʿē : Ew ibrew awurs bazums andēn i nmin degerēr, yarucʿeal aynuhetew hasanēr aṙ surb Katʿołikos Hayocʿ mecacʿ, oroy anunn čanačʿēr Sahak, zor patrastakan gtanēr, nmin pʿutʿoy hawaneal : Ew miangamayn yōžarutʿeamb gumareal handerj ałōtʿiwkʿ mecovkʿ aṙ Astuac kanxēin, vasn amenayn ogwocʿ kʿristosaber pʿrkutʿeann hasaneloy: ew zayn aṙnēin awurs bazums : Apa elanēr nocʿa pargewakan yamenabarin Astucoy žołovel zašxarhahog xorhurdn eraneli miabanelocʿn, ew girs nšanagroy Hayastan azgin hasanel: bazum harcʿ pʿorji ew kʿnnutʿean zanjins parapecʿucʿeal, ew bazum ašxatutʿeancʿ hambereal, azd aṙnēin apa ew zkanxagoyn xndrelin iwreancʿ tʿagaworin Hayocʿ, oroy anun kočʿēr Vṙamšapuh : Yaynžam patmēr nocʿa arkʿayn, vasn aṙn urumn asorwoy episkoposi aznuakani` Daniēl anun kočʿecʿeloy, oroy yankarc uremn nšanagirs ałpʿabetacʿ hayerēn lezui : Ew ibrew patmecʿaw nocʿa yarkʿayē vasn greloyn i Daniēlē, yōžarecʿin zarkʿay` pʿoytʿ aṙnel vasn pitoyicʿn aynocʿik : Ew na aṙakʿēr zomn Vahrič anun hrovartakōkʿ aṙ ayr mi erēcʿ, oroy anun Habēl kočʿēin: or ēr merjawor Daniēli asorwoy episkoposi :

Translation

And thus he was caught and surrounded by vile spirits and fell into torrents of thoughts about what sort of escape he might find from those affairs. And when he had spent many days there upon this, he rose up and forthwith approached the holy Catholicos of greater Armenia, whose name was known as Sahak, whom he found willing, having acceded to this concern. And thus inclined, assembled together, they rose up with powerful prayers to God for obtaining Christ-borne salvation for all the souls; and they continued to do this for many days. Then it occurred to them, granted by benevolent God, to collect the patriotic counsel of the blessed monks and to obtain letters of the alphabet for the Armenian people; having devoted themselves to a great examination of experiment and investigation, and having endured great labors, they then made an announcement of their own searching to the king of the Armenians, whose name was called Vramshapuh. Then the king told them about a certain man called Daniel by name, an Assyrian bishop of noble origin, who had elsewhere devised letters of the alphabet for the Armenian language. And when this was related to them by the king about the writing from Daniel, they prompted the king to take care according to their needs. And by decree he sent someone, Vahrich by name, to an elderly man whose name they called Habel, who was an acquaintance of the Assyrian bishop Daniel.

Grammar

16 Reciprocal, Collective and Distributive Pronouns
16.1 Reciprocal Pronouns

There are two reciprocal pronouns, mimeans and irears, both meaning 'each other, one another'. mimeans is the more common pronoun. These are found only in the plural, and only in oblique cases. Their declensions are as follows.

N Pl.   mimeans   irears
Ac   mimeans   irears
G   mimeancʿ   ireracʿ
D   mimeancʿ   ireracʿ
L   mimeans   irears
Ab   mimeancʿ   ireracʿ
I   mimeambkʿ   irerawkʿ

Note the change ea > e in the accusative, locative, and instrumental forms.

Examples are ew hražarecʿakʿ i mimeancʿ 'and we took leave of each other'; zi siricʿēkʿ zmimeans 'that you may love each other'; ein hakaṙakkʿ ireracʿ 'they were opposites to each other'.

16.2 Collective Pronouns

A collective suffix -kʿean, chiefly used with the numerals, is also used with the adjectives amen 'all' and bolor 'the entire' to form collective pronouns. These new pronouns, amenekʿean 'everyone, all the individuals' and bolorekʿean 'all together', have only plural forms.

    amenekʿean   bolorekʿean
    'everyone, all individuals'   'all together'
N Pl.   amenekʿean, amenekʿin   bolorekʿean, bolorekʿin
Ac   amenesean, amenesin   boloresean, boloresin
G   amenecʿun, amenecʿuncʿ   bolorecʿun, bolorecʿuncʿ
D   amenecʿun, amenecʿuncʿ   bolorecʿun, bolorecʿuncʿ
L   amenesean, amenesin   boloresean, boloresin
Ab   amenecʿun, amenecʿuncʿ   bolorecʿun, bolorecʿuncʿ
I   amenekʿumbkʿ   bolorekʿumbkʿ
16.3 Distributive Pronoun

The word iwrakʿančʿiwr 'each individually' is used in a distributive sense both as an adjective and as a substantive. As a substantive it is usually followed by okʿ. Examples are kalan ziwrakʿančʿiwr išxanutʿiwn 'they held each one his own principality'; ew na iwrakʿančʿiwr umekʿ i nocʿanē dnēr jeṙs 'and he placed hands on each one of them'.

17 Numerals
17.1 Cardinal Numbers

The numbers mi 'one', erku 'two', erekʿ 'three', and čʿorkʿ 'four' are adjectives which are declined whether preceding or following the noun they modify. Of course mi occurs only in the singular and is sometimes used as the indefinite adjective 'a, an' when placed after the noun: ayr mi 'a man'. The numbers erku, erek, and čʿorkʿ occur only in the plural. Their declensions are as follows.

    mi   erku   erekʿ   čʿorkʿ
    'one'   'two'   'three'   'four'
N   mi   erku, erkukʿ   erekʿ   čʿorkʿ
Ac   mi   erkus   eris   čʿors
G   mioy, mioǰ   erkucʿ   ericʿ   čʿoricʿ
D   mium, mioǰ   erkucʿ   ericʿ   čʿoricʿ
L   mium, mioǰ   erkus   eris   čʿors
Ab   mioy, mioǰē   erkucʿ   ericʿ   čʿoricʿ
I   miov   erkukʿ   eriwkʿ   čʿoriwkʿ

The numerals 5 through 10 remain uninflected in the N Ac L, and are usually only declined in the other cases when they follow the noun they qualify. Their declensions are as follows.

    hing   vecʿ   ewtʿn   utʿ   inn   tasn
    5   6   7   8   9   10
N Pl.   hing   vecʿ   ewtʿn   utʿ   inn   tasn
Ac   hing   vecʿ   ewtʿn   utʿ   inn   tasn
G   hngicʿ, hngacʿ   vecʿicʿ   ewtʿancʿ   utʿicʿ   ənnicʿ, inuncʿ   tasancʿ, tasin
D   hngicʿ, hngacʿ   vecʿicʿ   ewtʿancʿ   utʿicʿ   ənnicʿ, inuncʿ   tasancʿ, tasin
L   hing   vecʿ   ewtʿn   utʿ   inn   tasn
Ab   hngicʿ, hngacʿ   vecʿicʿ   ewtʿancʿ   utʿicʿ   ənnicʿ, inuncʿ   tasancʿ, tasin
I   hngiwkʿ, kngawkʿ   vecʿiwkʿ   ewtʿambkʿ   utʿiwkʿ   ənniwkʿ, inambkʿ, innambkʿ   tasambkʿ, tasamb

All remaining numbers are typically not declined unless used as substantives, and if inflected, only in the G D Ab I. When declined, the numbers 11 through 16 follow the declension of hing, and 17 through 19 follow tasn -- that is, only tasn is inflected. The numbers 11 through 19 are listed below.

  • 11. metasan, metasanicʿ
  • 12. erkotasan, -icʿ
  • 13. erekʿtasan, -icʿ
  • 14. čʿorekʿtasan, -icʿ
  • 15. hngetasan, -icʿ
  • 16. veštasan, -icʿ
  • 17. ewtʿn ew tasn, ewtʿn ew tasancʿ
  • 18. utʿ ew tasn, ... tasancʿ
  • 19. inn ew tasn, ... tasancʿ

The tens, when declined, have have G D Ab Sg. -i, Pl. -icʿ and I Sg. -iw, Pl. -iwkʿ. After 20, the tens are formed by means of the suffix -sun. The tens are listed below.

  • 20. kʿsan
  • 30. eresun
  • 40. kʿaṙasun
  • 50. yisun
  • 60. vatʿsun
  • 70. ewtʿanasun
  • 80. utʿsun
  • 90. innsun

The word hariwr 'one hundred' is the basis for the ensuing multiples of 100; 200, 300, ..., 900 are composites built from hariwr. When declined, these numbers have G D Ab Sg. -oy, Pl. -ocʿ and I Sg. -ov, Pl. -ovkʿ. The word hazar 'one thousand' follows the a-declension of invariable stem nouns, e.g. am, with G Sg. hazari and Pl. hazaracʿ. bewr 'ten thousand', also written biwr, follows the u-declension of invariable stem nouns, cf. cov. Thus it has G Sg. biwroy, Pl. biwrocʿ. The hundreds and above are listed below,

  • 100. hariwr
  • 200. erkeriwr
  • 300. erekʿhariwr
  • 400. čʿorekʿhariwr
  • 500. hinghariwr
  • 600. vecʿhariwr
  • 700. ewtʿnhariwr
  • 800. utʿhariwr
  • 900. innhariwr
  • 1,000. hazar, G Sg. hazari, Pl. hazaracʿ
  • 2,000. erku hazar
  • ...
  • 10,000. bewr or biwr, G Sg. biwroy, Pl. biwrocʿ

When compound numbers are formed, the larger numbers are placed first and the last number joined after the conjunction ew, much as in English. For example,

  • 99. innsun ew inn;
  • 1,335. hazar erekʿ hariwr eresun ew hing;
  • 41,500. kʿaṙasun ew mi hazar ew hing hariwr.

When the cardinal number is inflected, the substantive which it modifies is inflected: z-eris awurs 'for three days'; i čʿorcʿ hołmocʿ 'from the four winds'. When the cardinal number is uninflected, the substantive is often in the singular after the number: i veray tasn kʿałakʿi 'over ten cities'; but ewtʿn kreštakag'n 'to the seven angels'. When the cardinal number follows the substantive, the substantive is declined, the numeral may be or may not: aṙakʿelocʿn erkotasancʿ 'of the twelve apostles' (both declined); lucʿs hing 'five yokes' (only substantive declined); ogis ewtʿanasun ew hing 'seventy-five souls' (only substantive declined).

Note several numerals may slightly change form when in compounds. For example, erku 'two' gives erkotasan 'twelve' and erkeam (< erki + am) 'two-year period', erksayri 'double-edged'; erekʿ 'three' gives eṙapatik 'triple'; čʿorkʿ 'four' gives čʿorekʿtasan 'fourteen', čʿorekʿhariwr 'four hundred', čʿorekʿkin 'quadruple'. Note also the element kʿaṙ 'four' used in compounds, e.g. kʿaṙasun 'forty', kʿaraniwtʿ 'composed of the four elements'.

17.2 Ordinal Numbers

The ordinal aṙaǰim 'first' is declined in the same manner as im 'my, mine':

    aṙaǰim
    'first'
N Sg.   aṙaǰim
Ac   aṙaǰim
G   aṙaǰnoy
D   aṙaǰnoy
L   aṙaǰnum
Ab   aṙaǰnmē
I   aṙaǰnov

The remaining ordinals are formed by means of the suffix -rord, for 2 through 4, or -erord, from 5 onward. This inflects as am, according to the a-declension of invariable stems. The first few ordinals are as follows.

  • 2nd erkrord
  • 3rd errord
  • 4th čʿorrord
  • 5th hingerord, without reduction of -i-
  • 6th vecʿerord
  • ...

The form aṙaǰnord occurs as a substantive meaning 'leader'.

In forming ordinals from numbers containing ew, typically only the last numeral takes the ordinal suffix. This however is not a hard and fast rule, different authors even using different conventions for the same number:

  • 24th kʿsan ew čʿorrord;
  • 66th vatʿsunerord vecʿerord.

Ordinals, when modifying nouns, obey the usual rules for adjectives discussed in the first lesson. Note however that at times a cardinal number is found where an ordinal might be expected.

17.3 Collective, Multiplicative, Iterative, Distributive, and Fractional Forms

Classical Armenian makes use of several suffixes to further shade the meaning of numerals.

Collective

The suffixes -kʿean and -kʿin denote a collective use of numerals:

  • erkokʿean 'both';
  • erekʿean 'all three';
  • čʿorekʿean 'all four';
  • hingekʿean 'all five', without reduction of -i-;
  • ... .

Sample declensions are as follows.

    erkokʿean   erekʿean   erkokʿin
    'both'   'all three'   'both'
N   erkokʿean   erekʿean   erkokʿin
Ac   erkokʿean   erekʿean   erkosin
G   erkocʿuncʿ, erkocʿun   erecʿuncʿ   erkocʿuncʿ
D   erkocʿuncʿ, erkocʿun   erecʿuncʿ   erkocʿuncʿ
L   erkokʿean   erekʿean   erkosin
Ab   erkocʿuncʿ, erkocʿun   erecʿuncʿ   erkocʿuncʿ
I   erkokʿumbkʿ   erekʿumbkʿ   erkokʿumbkʿ

Abstract Collectives

The suffix -eak, with genitive -eakacʿ, is used to form abstract collectives, e.g. erreak 'trinity', tasneak 'decade', hariwreak 'the (entire) hundred'.

Multiplicative

The suffixes -kin, -krkin, and -patik are used to form multiples of numerals: erekʿkin 'threefold', hingkrkin 'five-fold', hariwrapatik 'hundred-fold'. Note erekʿkin has G Sg. erekʿni or erekʿnoy, Pl. ereknacʿ. Such multiplicative forms may be found in verbs: erekʿknem 'I repeat three times'.

Iteratives

The suffixes -icʿs and -(e)kin may be used as iteratives: erkicʿs 'twice', ewtʿanasnekin 'seventy times'.

Distributive

Distributive meaning is often conveyed through doubling of the numeral: mi mi 'one each'. The same effect, however, may also be gained by use of the collective forms: erkokʿean 'two each'.

Fractional

Fractions are for the most part denoted by the ordinal, e.g. errord '(a) third'.

17.4 Numeral Interrogative and Iterative Adverb

The question of quantity is specified through the use of the word kʿan⁰i 'how much?, how many?': kʿan⁰i nkanak unikʿ 'how many loaves have you?' The same word, kʿani, may be used in an exclamatory role: kʿani varjkankʿ icʿen i tan hawr imoy hacʿalicʿkʿ 'how many hired servants there are in my father's house sated with bread!'

There is a similar distinction made with the iterative adverb kʿanicʿs. In an interrogative role it has the sense of 'how often?, how many times?': kʿan⁰icʿs angam etʿe mełicʿē inj ełbayr im, ew tʿołicʿ nma 'how many times, if my brother sins against me, shall I forgive him?' When not used interrogatively, it may have the sense 'as often as': kʿanicʿs angam etʿe uticʿēkʿ zhacʿs zays ew zbažaks əmpicʿēkʿ 'as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup'.

18 Participle, Infinitive, and Verbal Adjectives
18.1 Participle Formation

Classical Armenian has one true participle. This is a past participle formed from the aorist stem by addition of the ending -eal. This is then declined according to the o-declension, e.g. N Ac Sg. asacʿeal, G D Ab Sg. asacʿeloy (from *-eal-oy), etc. For verbs whose presents are formed with simple -em or -im, the stem may lack the -ecʿ suffix of the aorist. When simple present stems are paired with root aorists, the participle is formed from the simple verbal root as expected. Examples are given below.

    Present   Aorist   Participle
    grem 'I write'   grecʿi   greal
    bazmim 'I sit'   bazmecʿay   bazmeal
             
    hayim 'I look'   hayecʿay   hayecʿeal
    kočʿem 'I call'   kočʿecʿi   kočʿecʿeal, kočʿeal
             
    hanem 'I draw'   hani   haneal
    nstim 'I sit down'   nstay   nsteal
    tʿołum 'I let'   tʿołi   tʿołeal

Root aorists in -eay, built from original i-stems as in pʿaxeay 'I fled' < *pʿaxi-ay and sarteay 'I startled' < *sarti-ay, do not form participles from this stem. The participle is instead formed from the corresponding causative base: pʿax-ucʿ-eal 'having fled', from pʿaxucʿanem 'I put to flight, chase', supplies the participle for pʿaxčʿim 'I flee'. Aorist stems in -u- are not defective in this manner, simply adding -eal to the stem: tu-eal 'given' from etu, aorist of tam 'I give'; erdu-eal 'having sworn' from erduay, aorist of erdnum 'I swear'.

18.2 Participle Usage

The Classical Armenian participle is a past participle and makes no distinction between active or passive voice. For example asacʿeal 'having spoken' or 'having been said'; meṙeal 'dead'; bereal 'having carried' or 'having been carried'. The participle may be inflected to function as an attributive or predicate adjective, e.g. ztueal hramans katarēr 'he fulfilled the commands that had been given'. It may also be used as a substantive: asacʿealkʿ margarēin 'the sayings of the prophet, the prophet's words'; ənkalay zgreals kʿo 'I received your letter'.

The participle may also be used in periphrastic verbal constructions to denote completed actions. The tense of such constructions follows that of the auxiliary verb, present tense of the auxiliary yielding a perfect construction, imperfect auxiliary yielding a pluperfect. A future perfect is found with the subjunctive of em 'I am'. Some statements may omit the auxiliary altogether. In these constructions, the form of the participle remains unaltered, even in the plural. Examples are hramayeal ē yAstuacoy zi... 'it is commanded by God that...'; tʿo'\eal licʿin mełkʿ kʿo 'may your sins be forgiven'; žamanak im čʿew ē haseal 'my time has not yet come'; ... ur dpirkʿn ew cerkʿ žołoveal ein '... where the scribes and elders had gathered'.

There is a noteworthy construction involving what is termed the genitive subject. The participle may be used in an impersonal construction, whereby the -eal from remains in the singular with a singular copula, and takes an accusative object. The subject, however, is placed in the genitive. For example, ekełecʿin zor šineal ēr mecin Grigori 'the church which Gregory the great had built'; ew zays o⁰čʿ ē əntʿercʿeal jer 'and have you not read this?'; arkeal ēr nocʿa uṙkans i cov 'they had thrown (their) nets into the lake'. Such expression seems to have arisen as a sort of possessive construct, with a phrase like nora (Gen.) ē gorceal 'his is (the thing) done' > 'he has done' in parallel to nora (Gen.) ē handerj 'his is clothing' > 'he has clothing'.

The -eal participle may be used in conjunction with another finite verb where English might have two separate finite verbs, e.g. matucʿeal borot mi erkir paganēr mna 'a leper approached and worshipped him'. The genitive subject is sometimes found in these constructions, even though it expresses the subject of both the participle and finite verb: tʿołeal Yisusi zžołovurdsn ekn i tun 'Jesus left the crowds and went to the house'; ew nocʿa aṙeal zarcatʿn ararin orpēs usann 'and they took the money and did as they had been told'. The -eal participle may also be used alone as a main verb in historical narrative: zaysu žamanakaw miabaneal Alankʿ... mecaw amboxiw taraceal ənd ašxarhs mer 'about this time the Alans united... and in a great host spread over our land'.

18.3 Infinitive

There is only one infinitive in Classical Armenian, formed from the present stem by addition of the suffix -l. The infinitive functions as a substantive and declines according to the o-declension. It does not distinguish active and passive. The -l ending is preceded by the characteristic vowel of a verb's conjugation, except that both e- and i-conjugation verbs form the infinitive with e. For example:

Class   Present   Infinitive
e   sirem   sirel, G sireloy
i   sirim   sirel, G sireloy
a   lam   lal, G laloy
u   hełum   hełul, G hełloy < *hełu-loy
o   (gom)   (gol, G goloy)

In post-classical times a mediopassive form in -il developed to distinguish verbs of the i-conjugation.

The infinitive is regularly used as a complement after certain verbs, such as kamim 'I wish to', unim 'I have to', tam 'I have (someone) do (something)', sksim 'I begin to', erknčʿim 'I am afraid to', tʿołum 'I allow to'. Certain expressions are also common with the infinitive, e.g. law ē 'it is good to', aržan ē 'it is right to'. The infinitive may be used with verbs of motion to indicate purpose: gayr yaytnel zawetisn 'he came (in order) to reveal the news'. Result may be indicated by use of minčʿew with the infinitive: minčʿew zarmanal amenecʿun 'so that everyone was amazed'. Used as a substantive, the infinitive may be found in any case: mis utel (N) očʿ en mełkʿ 'eating meat is not a sin'; yaṙaǰ kʿan zlineln (A) ašxarhi 'before the world came into being'; vasn imoy tanǰeloy (G) i kʿēn 'because I am being tortured by you'; akn unein ǰrocʿn yuzeloy (D) 'they were waiting for the movement of the waters'; i baṙnal (L) tērutʿeann jArtawanay, i spananel (L) zna Artašri 'when rule was taken from Artavan and when Artashir killed him'; gtakʿ zsa zi argeloyr i taloy (Ab) harks kayser 'we found him preventing the giving of tribute to Caesar'; zayd bans aselov (I) ew zmez tʿšnamanes 'by saying these words you also insult us'.

The instrumental case of the infinitive is widely used, sometimes occuring where a participle might otherwise occur: awrinadrē tʿagaworn zinkʿn ew ztun iwr, skizbn aṙnelov (I) i glxoyn iwrmē ew i tʿagē 'the king set in order his own person and his house, beginning with himself and the crown'. The infinitive may be used in the instrumenal in an absolute sense; the logical subject in these contructions is expressed by a genitive: ekn Nersēs i meǰ nocʿa ew arar xałałutʿiwn, lselov nma tʿagaworin ew naxararacʿn 'Nerses came into their midst and made peace, the king and nobles obeying him'.

18.4 Verbal Adjectives

There are two verbal adjectives often termed 'participles' by grammarians. These are derived by means of the suffixes -locʿ and -li. These are added to the same present stem from which the infinitive is derived, that is, to the present tense stem without the personal endings. Neither form makes a distinction between active and passive. The verbal adjective in -locʿ is generally used as a predicate and does not occur in oblique cases. Often termed the future participle or participium necessitatis, the -locʿ form often connotes futurity or necessity: sirelocʿ e 'he should love, he should be loved'; or galocʿn e 'that which is to come, that which shall come'. The verbal adjective in -li, termed the participle of possibility, is used as a true adjective and may be found in any case. Its declension follows that of tełi. Examples are sireli 'lovable, beloved', zarmanali 'admirable' from zarmanam 'I marvel', əntʿeṙnli 'readable' < *-nu-li from əntʿeṙnum 'I read'.

Consult also the section on Word Formation in Lesson 5 for other nominalized verbal derivatives.

19 Comparison

There is one intensive suffix, -a-goyn, which may be added to adjectives to produce forms with comparative or superlative sense: imastnagoyn 'very wise' from imastun 'wise'; vołagoyn 'sooner, very soon' from voł 'soon'; baregoyn (< *bari-a-goyn) 'very good' from beri 'good'. Otherwise, there are no separate suffixes which serve to derive comparative or superlative forms from adjectives. There are, however, some common collocations used to indicate direct or indirect comparison.

19.1 Comparative

The comparative degree may be indicated by constructions involving the adverbs aweli 'more', aṙawel 'more', ews 'yet, still, even'. For example, ew ews čʿar pataṙumn lini 'and the split became even worse'; or sirē zhayr kam zmayr aṙawel kʿan zis 'whoever loves his father or mother more than me'. The last example illustrates the use of kʿan in the role 'than'. If the object of comparison is expressed through a noun, pronoun, or adjective, z- is prefixed to this elements as in the preceding example. The adverbs aweli or aṙawel need not be present for kʿan to fulfill this comparative role: cʿankali ē na kʿan zoski 'it is more desirable than gold'. Note that the adjective need not take any special form: pʿokʿr ē zamenayn sermanis 'it is smaller than all seeds'. kʿan may stand alone, without the prefix z-, as in the following: law ē koyr ačʿawkʿ kʿan koyr mtawkʿ 'it is better to be blind with the eyes than blind with the mind'. kʿan may mark the comparative of adverbs as well as adjectives: kʿan amenays urekʿ aṙawel yEpʿesos paštein zArtemis 'they (i.e. people) worshipped Artemis more in Ephesus than anywhere else'.

19.2 Superlative

The superlative degree is often denoted through constructions involving amenayn 'all, every' or amenekʿean 'all individuals' (cf. the section on Collective Pronouns above). An example was given in the preceding paragraph which straddles the comparative and superlative: pʿokʿr ē zamenayn sermanis 'it is smaller than all seeds', giving the sense 'it is the smallest of all seeds'. Another example is or pʿokʿrikn ē jamenesean i jez 'whoever is the smallest among you all'. The notion of 'all', however, need not be expressed explicitly: gełecʿikd i kanays 'O you most beautiful among women!'

There are also special adjectival formations which elicit the sense of the superlative. The form amen-a- may be prefixed to an adjective: amenabari 'very good'; amenasurb 'most holy'. Reduplication, or iteration, is another common means of intensifying the force of an adjective. A linking vowel -a- often intercedes: barjrabarj or barjraberj 'very high' from barjr 'high'; mec mec or mecamec 'greatest' from mec 'big'. Some such collocations may be used as substantives: mecameckʿ 'magnates, most important nobles'. Iteration may also intenstify adverbs: arag arag 'very fast'. See also the section on Word Formation in Lesson 5 for further details on iteration.

19.3 Comparative Clauses

Comparison may also be made though employment of constuctions spanning entire clauses. Some of the more common among such constructions are listed below for reference.

Correlative Comparison: The separate clauses are generally correlated by orpēs (zi)... aynpēs 'just as... , so...', though the latter conjunction is often omitted. Examples are: orpēs pʿapʿagi ełǰeru yałbers ǰurcʿ, aynpēs pʿapʿagi anjn im aṙ kʿez 'just as the deer yearns for the waters' springs, so my soul yearns for you'; orpēs zi očʿ əntrecʿin zAstuac unel i gitutʿean, natneacʿ znosa Astuac i mits anargutʿean 'as I did not care to hold God in esteem, so he betrayed them to a careless mind'; arar tər, orpēs asacʿn Movsēe 'the master did as Moses had said'.

Increasing Comparison: This heading here denotes statements of the form 'better that A should B, than that C should D', where the A-B clause as a whole is compared to the C-D clause. In such statements, kʿan tʿe fills the role of the English 'than that...'. Examples are law ēr nma, tʿe vēm erkanakʿar kaxēr zparanocʿē nora..., kʿan tʿe gaytʿagłecʿucʿanē zmi okʿ... 'it would be better if a millstone were placed round his neck than that he should offend someone'; mez law licʿi meṙanel kʿan tʿe əst awrēns ancʿanicʿem 'it would be better for us to die than that we transgress the laws.' When the 'that that...' clause is placed first, kʿan may be found without tʿe. In this situation, kʿan has the sense of 'rather than that...': kʿan znosa arkanēr i gehen, zna... əndē⁰r očʿ arkanēr... 'rather than that he throw them into Hell... why did he not throw...?'

Correlative Increasing Comparison: Under this heading fall constructions like the English 'the more... the merrier'. Such constructions in Classical Armenian are signalled by orčʿapʿ... aynčʿapʿ or orčʿapʿ... ews. For example, orčʿapʿ na patuirēr nocʿa, nokʿa ews aṙawel kʿarozein 'the more he ordered them, the more they proclaimed.'

Unreal Comparison: These are introduced by the conjunctions orpēs zi, ibrew zi tʿe, orpēs tʿe, ibrew tʿe 'as if'; ibr očʿ etʿe, ibrew očʿ etʿe 'not as if'. The verbal mood in such clauses is variable, though the subjunctive is typical following orpēs zi, orpēs tʿe, ibrew zi and the indicative is typical following the negative ibr očʿ etʿe. The indicative is also found in clauses which are not negated, e.g. orpēs tʿe ēg okʿ inčʿ ēr hiwłn 'as if the matter were something female.' Other examples are orpēs zi ayr mi arkanicʿē sermanis jerkir 'as if a man casts seed upon the earth'; ararin iwreancʿ jeṙagorc ibrew zi tʿe anerewoytʿn Astuac stutʿeanb inčʿ pašticʿi 'they did their work as if the invisible God would be honored by falsehoods'; ibr očʿ etʿe anawrēn inčʿ ei Astucoy, ayl... 'not as if I was lawless before God, rather...'.

20 Time and Temporal Clauses
20.1 Time

Common words related to the expression of time are listed below:

  • žam, G žamu 'hour'
  • awr, G awur 'day'
  • amis, G amsoy, L amsean 'month'
  • am, G amacʿ 'year'
  • amaṙn, G amaraynoy 'summer'
  • jmeṙn, G jmeraynoy 'winter'
  • garun, G garnaynoy 'spring'
  • ašun, G ašnaynoy 'autumn'

Temporal expressions may be broken down into statements about the time at which (point) an event occurs, the time from which (origin), the time during which (expanse), and the time up to which (terminus). Each such expression is typically handled through a preposition with a corresponding nominal case. The most common are listed below.

  • at which -- i + Locative, e.g. i hingerord žanu 'at the fifth hour'; i tasnerordum awur amsoyn 'on the tenth day of the month'. The date is expressed by a cardinal number when awr is omitted: i kʿsan ew čʿors amsoyn 'on the twenty-fourth of the month'. Seasons are often found without the preposition i, thus amarayni or yamarayni 'in summer'.
  • from which -- i + Ablative, e.g. skseal i čʿorrord amēn minčʿew i metasan amn iwroy tērutʿeann 'beginning from the fourth year up to the eleventh year of his reign'.
  • during which -- Accusative, with or without z-; aṙ or z- + Instrumental; əst + Ablative. Examples of the accusative construction are zawurs eris 'for three days'; žam mi 'for one hour'. Examples of the instrumental construction are aṙ hnawkʿn tʿgaworawkʿn 'in the time of the ancient kings'; zaysu žamanakaw 'about this time'. An example of the ablative construction is awr əst awrē 'day by day'.
  • up to which -- minčʿew + cʿ/i + Accusative, e.g. et nocʿa datawors minčʿew i Samuēl margarē 'he gave them judges up to the prophet Samuel'; mincʿew cʿaysawr 'up to today'.
20.2 Temporal Clauses

Contemporaneous Action: Clauses denoting action simultaneous with the main clause are set off by the conjunction minčʿ. This may be reinforced by deṙ, written minčʿ deṙ or minčʿdeṙ, or by ew, written as minčʿew. Thus one finds minčʿder ancʿanēr, etes ayr mi 'while he was passing he saw a man'. The particle deṙ may stand alone: ibrew bazmecʿan ew deṙ utein 'when they had sat down and while they were still eating'.

The particles minčʿ and minčʿew may be used to express 'until': minčʿew gam es, mit dir əntʿercʿuacocʿ 'until I come, attend to the readings'. For the use of minčʿew to express result, see the section above on the infinitive.

Constructions with kʿan are often used, such as cʿ-or-kʿan 'as long as'. For example, cʿorkʿan unicʿin zpʿesayn 'as long as they have the groom'.

Antecedent Action: Expression of actions preceding that of the main clause may employ minčʿ čʿew, also written together as minčʿčʿew. Examples are minčʿ čʿew bnaw ēr inčʿ 'before anything at all existed'; minčʿčʿew hawu xawseal icʿē, ericʿs urascʿes zis 'before the cock crows you will deny me thrice'.

The conjunction yaṙaǰ kʿan may express 'before'. The infinitive is often employed instead of a finite verb. For example, yaṙaǰ kʿan zlineln Abrahamu em es 'before Abraham came into being, I am'.

The conjunction ibrew may be used with the aorist indicative to express 'when' or 'after': ibrew tesin zna, erkir pagin nma 'when they saw him, they worshipped him'.

Future Action: The conjunctions ibrew and y-or-žam express 'when' or 'as' in a future sense: ibrew mtanicʿēkʿ i kʿałakʿn, patahescʿē jez ayr mi 'when you enter the city, a man will meet you'; minčʿew cʿawrn cʿayn joržam arbicʿ zna nor 'until that day when I shall drink it afresh'.

Classical Armenian Online - Romanized

Lesson 5

Todd B. Krause, John A.C. Greppin, and Jonathan Slocum

Arshak II and the Partitioning of Armenia

Under Constantine, rumblings of division within the Roman empire shifted attention away from the eastern provinces. This left Armenia with little hope of assistance against the onslaughts of the new Sasanid king, Shapur II (309 - 379 A.D.). It was amidst his attacks on Armenia and Syria, and in response to the Zoroastrian proselytizing, that Trdat the Great had chosen to make Armenia a Christian state.

Just who ruled Armenia after Trdat the Great remains veiled in obscurity. The next ruler to emerge, about whom some certain information is known, was Arshak II. It is not clear, however, if his reign began in 338 or 350 A.D. Under his rule, Armenia entered a period of restructuring, which began with the Church. A descendant of Gregory, Nerses I, became the catholicos and forbade the practice of any non-Christian religions. Permitting married men to join the clergy, he established church hierarchy wherein non-celibate clergy were subordinate to the celibate clerics. Arshak, however, was a proponent of the Arian doctrine, and when Nerses would not fall in line with this view, Arshak had him replaced. Such leniency was not granted to other nobles, whom Arshak had killed if they voiced any opposition.

Arshak's position of relative security faltered when Shapur II defeated the emperor Julian and forced his successor Jovian to cede Armenia to Persia in 364 A.D. Arshak and his general Vasak Mamikonian were taken to Persia and blinded, and Arshak's wife was likewise killed. Only his son Pap escaped to Pontus. Armenia was thus subject to Persian domination, and Zoroastrianism was imposed as the state religion.

Rome finally took initiative in 367 A.D., supplying troops to Arshak's son Pap and an Armenian general Mushegh Mamikonian, who managed to re-take Armenia from the Persians. Pap invited Nerses to return as catholicos; but Pap's pro-Arian views, in line with those of the emperor Valens, led to dissent within the Church. Nerses was eventually killed and Mushegh Mamikonian, together with several nobles, turned against Pap. The nobles split the region of Dsopk into five districts, independent and under the protection of Rome. Pap was murdered in 374 A.D., and the nephew who succeeded him was soon replaced by a Mamikonian. The death of Shapur in 379 A.D. and the partition of the Roman empire into the Western and Eastern empires changed the political climate, and the Mamikonians eventually restored Pap's two sons to the throne, marrying them to Mamikonian women.

Pap's younger son, Arshak III, was forced to flee to the western regions in 385 A.D., and the Arshakuni prince Khosrov IV was elevated to king by the pro-Persian nobles. In 387 A.D., the emperor Theodosius and Shapur III decided to partition Armenia, and Arshak III was given reign over the Byzantine-controlled western region. Khosrov IV continued to rule over Greater Armenia subject to Sasanid domination. When Arshak died, no new Armenian king was appointed, and the Arshakuni line came to an end in Byzantine Armenia. In the east, Khosrov was followed by Vramshapuh (389 - 417 A.D.). Under Vramshapuh, Sahak was named catholicos, the last one of the line of Gregory the Illuminator.

The Armenian Alphabet

The partition of Armenia into west and east divisions subject to the dominion of different empires was a force threatening to dissolve the sense of a national Armenian identity. A similar problem plagued the Armenian Church: in much of Armenia the Syrian liturgy was used and threatened the authority of the Armenian Church; Byzantium was rapidly becoming the dominant regional power in church matters; paganism and Zoroastrianism still had a foothold in Armenian territory. This was the situation which faced Vramshapuh and the catholicos Sahak. Their solution was to codify the identity of the Armenian people through their language. For this an alphabet was needed, one distinct from those of the neighboring regions. This was the task which they charged to Mesrop Mashtots, a cleric born in the province of Taron, and who had studied Greek and Syriac.

Sometime between 400 and 407 A.D., having studied other alphabets and having consulted different calligraphers, Mesrop created the Armenian alphabet. The Sasanid rulers of the time were tolerant, and Mesrop's students were able to open schools for teaching the alphabet. The Byzantine emperor Theodosius II allowed them to do the same in Byzantine Armenia. The Armenians then entered into a period of translating works from other languages, beginning with the Bible and other liturgical material. Translations of classical works of philosophy, rhetoric, and grammar soon followed, with manuscripts of Aristotle's works becoming particularly prevalent. Voluminous translation continued from the fifth to seventh centuries, when Arab invasion curbed their efforts. Original works began to be composed after the end of the Arshakuni line, signalled by the death of Vramshapuh's son Artashes IV in 428 A.D.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Yeznik Kolbatsi, that is, Yeznik of Kolb, was probably born in A.D. 400, but the date of his death is not known. The purpose of his writing was to maintain orthodoxy and to repel heresies and other religious systems that opposed Christianity. His work Against the Sects is in four books: (1) Against the Heresy of Sects; (2) Against the Religion of the Persians; (3) Against the Religion of the Greek Philosopher; (4) Against the Marcion Heresy. This passage is from Book 1, Chapter 12.

Ard ew zayn ews harcʿanen: etʿē čʿar inčʿ čʿkayr aṙaǰi, usti⁰ ōjn` zor satanay kočʿēkʿ` imacʿaw zhangamans čʿarin :
  • ard -- adverb; <ard> now; so, then -- accordingly
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- But
  • zayn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular of <ayn> that, that over there -- this
  • ews -- adverb; <ews> also, too -- also
  • harcʿanen -- verb; 3rd plural present of <harcʿanem> I ask -- they ask
  • etʿē -- conjunction; <etʿe> that; if; or -- If
  • čʿar -- adjective; undeclined form of <čʿar> bad, evil -- evil
  • inčʿ -- noun; nominative singular of <inčʿ> thing -- thing
  • čʿkayr -- negative prefix; <čʿ‘> not + verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <kam> I am, exist -- no-... existed
  • aṙaǰi -- adverb; <aṙaǰi> before, earlier -- before
  • usti -- interrogative adverb; <usti> from where, whence -- whence
  • ōjn -- noun; nominative singular of <awj> snake, serpent + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- the serpent
  • zor -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + relative pronoun; accusative singular of <or> who, what, which -- which
  • satanay -- proper noun; accusative singular of <satanay> Satan -- Satan
  • kočʿēkʿ -- verb; 2nd plural present of <kočʿem> I call, name -- you call
  • imacʿaw -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <imanam> I learn, understand -- did... learn
  • zhangamans -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <hangamankʿ> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature -- the characteristics
  • čʿarin -- adjective used as substantive; genitive singular of <čʿar> bad, evil + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- of Evil

Asemkʿ, etʿē satanay čʿar zstunganeln mardoyn Astucoy imacʿaw, vasn oroy zmardn yayn yōžarecʿoycʿ :
  • asemkʿ -- verb; 1st singular present of <asem> I say -- We say
  • etʿē -- conjunction; <etʿe> that; if; or -- that
  • satanay -- proper noun; nominative singular of <satanay> Satan -- Satan
  • čʿar -- noun; accusative singular of <čʿar> evil -- (as) evil
  • zstunganeln -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + verb; infinitive accusative singular of <stunganem> I disobey, am disobedient + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- disobedience
  • mardoyn -- noun; genitive singular of <mard> man + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- man's
  • Astucoy -- proper noun; dative singular of <Astuac> God -- to God
  • imacʿaw -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <imanam> I learn, understand -- understood
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- on account of
  • oroy -- relative pronoun; genitive singular of <or> who, what, which -- which
  • zmardn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative singular of <mard> man + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- man
  • yayn -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular of <ayn> that, that over there -- to this
  • yōžarecʿoycʿ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <yawžarecʿucʿanem> I incite, drive -- he induced # causative of yawžarem 'I stimulate, prompt; persuade'

Orpēs yoržam icʿē okʿ urukʿ tʿšnami, ew tʿagucʿeal ztʿšnamutʿiwnn` gałt kamicʿi vnasel, ew čʿgiticʿē zhangamans vnasakarutʿeann, ew šurǰ ekeal yacicʿi hnars xndrel:
  • orpēs -- relative adverb; <orpēs> just as, likewise -- It is like # correlates with Noynpēs below
  • yoržam -- relative adverb; <yoržam> when -- when
  • icʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <em> I am -- would be
  • okʿ -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular of <okʿ> someone, anyone -- one
  • urukʿ -- indefinite pronoun; genitive singular of <okʿ> someone, anyone -- another's
  • tʿšnami -- noun; nominative singular of <tʿšnami> enemy, adversary -- enemy
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • tʿagucʿeal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <tʿagucʿanem> I hide, conceal -- having concealed
  • ztʿšnamutʿiwnn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative singular of <tʿšnamutʿiwn> enmity + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- (his) enmity
  • gałt -- adverb; <gałt> in secret -- secretly
  • kamicʿi -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <kamim> I wish -- he would... wish
  • vnasel -- verb; infinitive used as complement <vnasem> I harm -- to harm (him)
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- yet
  • čʿgiticʿē -- negative prefix; <čʿ‘> not + verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <gitem> I know -- he would not know
  • zhangamans -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <hangamankʿ> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature -- the nature
  • vnasakarutʿeann -- noun; genitive singular of <vnasakarutʿiwn> harm, damage + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- of the harm
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • šurǰ -- adverb; <šurǰ> around -- around
  • ekeal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <gam> I come, go -- having come
  • yacicʿi -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <yacim> I wander, roam -- he would wander
  • hnars -- noun; accusative plural of <hnarkʿ> means; inventiveness, skill; cure -- means
  • xndrel -- verb; infinitive used as complement <xndrem> I search, seek -- in search of

apa gteal žamanak` yoržam okʿ i bžškacʿ tʿšnamwoyn nora patuēr taycʿē yays inčʿ čʿhpel, ew yays niš kerakrocʿ čʿčašakel, orov aṙołǰutʿeann karicʿē hasanel, ew nora lueal` vałvałaki i kełcis barekamutʿean kełcaworeal` zbžiškn parsawicʿē, ew zōgtakarsn nma vnasakars tʿeladreal karcecʿucʿanicʿē, ew hakaṙak patuērs hramanacʿ bžškin taycʿē, ew aynu aṙnicʿē nma vnas:
  • apa -- conjunction; <apa> but; then, afterwards, later -- then
  • gteal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <gtanem> I find, get, obtain -- having found
  • žamanak -- noun; accusative singular of <žamanak> time -- the time
  • yoržam -- relative adverb; <yoržam> when -- when
  • okʿ -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular of <okʿ> someone, anyone -- someone
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- among
  • bžškacʿ -- noun; ablative plural of <bžšik> physician, healer -- the physicians
  • tʿšnamwoyn -- noun; dative singular of <tʿšnami> enemy, adversary -- to... adversary
  • nora -- pronoun; genitive singular of <na> he, she, it -- his
  • patuēr -- noun; accusative singular of <patuēr> command, order -- an order
  • taycʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <tam> I give; permit, let -- would give
  • yays -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + demonstrative adjective; accusative singular of <ays> this, this right here -- this
  • inčʿ -- noun; accusative singular of <inčʿ> thing -- thing
  • čʿhpel -- negative prefix; <čʿ‘> not + verb; infinitive accusative singular of <hpem> I approach, near, touch -- not to touch
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • yays niš -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + demonstrative adjective; accusative singular of <ays> this, this right here + noun; accusative singular of <niš> sign, mark -- such a (type)
  • kerakrocʿ -- noun; genitive plural of <kerakur> different dishes; food; meal -- of food # if niš is here truly nominal, then kerakrocʿ is a genitive dependent on niš; if ays niš is treated together as an adjectival whole, then kerakrocʿ could be an ablative in a construction with čašakel i + abl. 'to partake of', and ays niš would be an undeclined adjective preceding its noun
  • čʿčašakel -- negative prefix; <čʿ‘> not + verb; infinitive accusative singular of <čašakem> I taste -- not to taste
  • orov -- relative pronoun; instrumental singular of <or> who, what, which -- by which # i.e. 'and by this method of restraint, by not touching... and by not tasting...'
  • aṙołǰutʿeann -- noun; dative singular of <aṙołǰut\iwn> health + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- to health
  • karicʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <karem> I can, am able -- he could
  • hasanel -- verb; infinitive used as complement <hasanem> I approach, arrive; obtain -- arrive
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • nora -- pronoun; genitive singular of <na> he, she, it -- he # genitive subject of participle
  • lueal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <lsem> I hear -- having heard (of it)
  • vałvałaki -- adverb; <vałvałaki> quickly, soon -- soon
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- under
  • kełcis -- noun; locative plural of <kełcikʿ> (pl.) sham, pretense -- the guise
  • barekamutʿean -- noun; genitive singular of <barekamutʿiwn> friendship -- of friendship
  • kełcaworeal -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <kełcaworem> I pretend, feign -- pretending
  • zbžiškn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative singular of <bžšik> physician, healer -- the healer
  • parsawicʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <parsawem> I criticize, blame -- would blame
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • zōgtakarsn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + adjective used as substantive; accusative plural of <awgtakar> useful + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- useful (things)
  • nma -- pronoun; dative singular of <na> he, she, it -- to him
  • vnasakars -- adjective; accusative plural of <vnasakar> harmful -- (as) harmful
  • tʿeladreal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <tʿeladrem> I instigate, incite; advise; hint, indicate; keep, store -- labelling
  • karcecʿucʿanicʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <karcecʿucʿanem> I make believe, persuade -- he would persuade (him) # causative verb
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • hakaṙak -- adjective; undeclined form of <hakaṙak> opposite -- contrary
  • patuērs -- noun; accusative plural of <patuēr> command, order -- directions
  • hramanacʿ -- noun; dative plural of <hraman> command, order -- to the orders
  • bžškin -- noun; genitive singular of <bžšik> physician, healer -- of the physician
  • taycʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <tam> I give; permit, let -- he would give
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • aynu -- demonstrative pronoun; instrumental singular of <ayn> that, that over there -- by this
  • aṙnicʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <aṙnem> I do, make -- do
  • nma -- pronoun; dative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • vnas -- noun; accusative singular of <vnas> harm -- harm

or očʿ etʿē yaṙaǰagoyn gitēr zhangamans vnasakarutʿeann, ayl i patuireloy bžškin gteal hnars` ełew vnasakar :
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- and... he
  • očʿ -- adverb; <očʿ> no, not -- not
  • etʿē -- conjunction; <etʿe> that; if; or -- if
  • yaṙaǰagoyn -- adverb; <yaṙaǰ> before, earlier + superlative suffix; <‘agoyn> most, very -- beforehand
  • gitēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <gitem> I know -- did... recognize
  • zhangamans -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <hangamankʿ> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature -- the nature
  • vnasakarutʿeann -- noun; genitive singular of <vnasakarutʿiwn> harm, damage + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- of the harm
  • ayl -- conjunction; <ayl> but -- rather
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- in
  • patuireloy -- verb; infinitive locative singular of <patuirem> I command, order -- in the... order
  • bžškin -- noun; genitive singular of <bžšik> physician, healer + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- physician's
  • gteal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <gtanem> I find, get, obtain -- having found
  • hnars -- noun; accusative plural of <hnarkʿ> means; inventiveness, skill; cure -- the cure
  • ełew -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <ełanim> I become -- it was
  • vnasakar -- adjective; nominative singular of <vnasakar> harmful -- harmful

Noynpēs karci ew zsatanayē` naxanjeln nma ənd naxastełc mardoy, ew čʿgitel zhangamans, vnasakarutʿeann:
  • noynpēs -- adverb; <noynpēs> thus, similarly, likewise -- Thus # correlates with orpēs above
  • karci -- verb; 3rd singular present mediopassive of <karcim> I believe, think -- it is thought
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- also
  • zsatanayē -- preposition; <z‘> during; for; concerning; around, about + proper noun; ablative singular of <satanay> Satan -- of Satan
  • naxanjeln -- verb; infinitive nominative singular of <naxanjim> I am jealous of + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- envying # 'be jealous' + ənd 'of'
  • nma -- pronoun; dative of <na> he, she, it -- his
  • ənd -- preposition; <ənd> through, along, by way of; against; during; instead of, in exchange for; with, in the company of; under -- of
  • naxastełc -- adjective; undeclined form of <naxastełc> first-created -- the first-created
  • mardoy -- noun; genitive singular of <mard> man -- man
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • čʿgitel -- negative prefix; <čʿ‘> not + verb; infinitive nominative singular of <gitem> I know -- (his) not knowing
  • zhangamans -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <hangamankʿ> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature -- the nature
  • vnasakarutʿeann -- noun; genitive singular of <vnasakarutʿiwn> harm, damage + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- of the evil-doing

kʿanzi očʿ etʿē čʿar inčʿ aṙaǰi kayr` usti zhangamansn martʿ ēr aṙnul:
  • kʿanzi -- conjunction; <kʿanzi> because -- because
  • očʿ -- adverb; <očʿ> no, not -- no
  • etʿē -- conjunction; <etʿe> that; if; or -- though
  • čʿar -- noun; nominative singular of <čʿar> evil -- evil
  • inčʿ -- noun; nominative singular of <inčʿ> thing -- ...
  • aṙaǰi -- adverb; <aṙaǰi> before, earlier -- before
  • kayr -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <kam> I am, exist -- there was
  • usti -- relative adverb; <usti> from where, whence -- from which
  • zhangamansn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + noun; accusative plural of <hangamankʿ> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- (its) nature
  • martʿ -- adjective; nominative of <martʿ> possible -- possible
  • ēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <em> I am -- it was
  • aṙnul -- verb; infinitive of <arnum> I take, accept -- to recognize

useal yAstucoy patuiranēn` or mardoyn tuaw argelul zna i čašakeloy i tnkoy imekʿē i mahaberē, zayn yaṙaǰadreacʿ mardoyn: or očʿ etʿē anpitan inčʿ i kerakurs mardoy ēr, ew očʿ bnutʿeamb tunkn mahaber, ew vasn aynorik inčʿ argelaw mardn i čašakeloy i nmanē, ayl ansastutʿiwnn ełew patčaṙ mahuan mardoyn, ibrew yancʿawori` or ancʿanicʿē zhramanaw hramanatui` or nma kargeal icʿē :
  • useal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <usanim> I learn -- (nevertheless) having learned
  • yAstucoy -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + proper noun; genitive singular of <Astuac> God -- from God's
  • patuiranēn -- noun; ablative singular of <patuiran> commandment + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- commandment
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- which
  • mardoyn -- noun; dative singular of <mard> man + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- to man
  • tuaw -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <tam> I give; permit, let -- was given
  • argelul -- verb; infinitive used as complement <argelum> I hinder, prohibit, deny -- to keep
  • zna -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + pronoun; accusative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- from
  • čašakeloy -- verb; infinitive ablative singular of <čašakem> I taste -- partaking
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- of
  • tnkoy -- noun; genitive singular of <tunk> shrub, plant -- of the plant # perhaps ablative
  • imekʿē -- indefinite pronoun; ablative singular of <imn> something, anything -- some # perhaps adjective modifying an ablative tnkoy
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- ...
  • mahaberē -- adjective; ablative singular of <mahaber> death-bearing -- deadly (part) # is the preceding i redundant, so this just modifies tnkoy or imekʿē? or is this a substantive without a demonstrative suffix?
  • zayn -- direct object marker; <z‘> ... + demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular of <ayn> that, that over there -- that
  • yaṙaǰadreacʿ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <yaṙaǰadrem> I propose, offer -- he offered
  • mardoyn -- noun; dative singular of <mard> man + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- to man
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- which
  • očʿ -- adverb; <očʿ> no, not -- not
  • etʿē -- conjunction; <etʿe> that; if; or -- though
  • anpitan -- adjective; undeclined form of <anpitan> futile, useless; base, common -- useless
  • inčʿ -- noun; nominative singular of <inčʿ> thing -- a... bit
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- of
  • kerakurs -- noun; locative plural of <kerakur> different dishes; food; meal -- food
  • mardoy -- noun; dative singular of <mard> man -- for man
  • ēr -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <em> I am -- it was
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- and
  • očʿ -- adverb; <očʿ> no, not -- not
  • bnutʿeamb -- noun; instrumental singular of <bnutʿiwn> nature -- by nature
  • tunkn -- noun; nominative singular of <tunk> shrub, plant + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- a... plant
  • mahaber -- adjective; nominative singular of <mahaber> death-bearing -- deadly
  • ew -- conjunction; <ew> and; even, also, too -- nevertheless
  • vasn -- preposition; <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- on... count
  • aynorik -- emphatic pronoun; genitive singular of <ayn> that, that over there -- this
  • inčʿ -- indefinite adjective; undeclined form of <inčʿ> some, any -- very # as an adjective following its head, this should be declined, but is not. accusative of a middle verb?
  • argelaw -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <argelum> I hinder, prohibit, deny -- was prohibited
  • mardn -- noun; nominative singular of <mard> man + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- man
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- from
  • čašakeloy -- verb; infinitive ablative singular of <čašakem> I taste -- partaking
  • i -- preposition; <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- of
  • nmanē -- pronoun; ablative singular of <na> he, she, it -- this
  • ayl -- conjunction; <ayl> but -- rather
  • ansastutʿiwnn -- noun; nominative singular of <ansastutʿiwn> disobedience; obstinacy + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- disobedience
  • ełew -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <ełanim> I become -- was
  • patčaṙ -- noun; nominative singular of <patčaṙ> basis, cause, reason -- the basis
  • mahuan -- noun; genitive singular of <mah> death -- of death
  • mardoyn -- noun; dative singular of <mard> man + demonstrative suffix; <‘n> that, that over there, the -- for man # or genitive
  • ibrew -- conjunction; <ibrew> when -- as
  • yancʿawori -- adjective used as substantive; dative singular of <yancʿawor> guilty, criminal -- for a criminal # or genitive
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- who
  • ancʿanicʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <ancʿanem> trespass, break; insult -- would disobey
  • zhramanaw -- preposition; <z‘> during; for; concerning; around, about + noun; instrumental singular of <hraman> command, order -- the dictum
  • hramanatui -- adjective used as substantive; genitive singular of <hramanatu> ordering, commanding; (subst.) commander -- of an authority
  • or -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <or> who, what, which -- that
  • nma -- pronoun; dative singular of <na> he, she, it -- him
  • kargeal -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <kargem> arrange, order; manage well; apply, prescribe; place, appoint -- restrain
  • icʿē -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <em> I am -- would

Lesson Text

Ard ew zayn ews harcʿanen: etʿē čʿar inčʿ čʿkayr aṙaǰi, usti⁰ ōjn` zor satanay kočʿēkʿ` imacʿaw zhangamans čʿarin : Asemkʿ, etʿē satanay čʿar zstunganeln mardoyn Astucoy imacʿaw, vasn oroy zmardn yayn yōžarecʿoycʿ : Orpēs yoržam icʿē okʿ urukʿ tʿšnami, ew tʿagucʿeal ztʿšnamutʿiwnn` gałt kamicʿi vnasel, ew čʿgiticʿē zhangamans vnasakarutʿeann, ew šurǰ ekeal yacicʿi hnars xndrel: apa gteal žamanak` yoržam okʿ i bžškacʿ tʿšnamwoyn nora patuēr taycʿē yays inčʿ čʿhpel, ew yays niš kerakrocʿ čʿčašakel, orov aṙołǰutʿeann karicʿē hasanel, ew nora lueal` vałvałaki i kełcis barekamutʿean kełcaworeal` zbžiškn parsawicʿē, ew zōgtakarsn nma vnasakars tʿeladreal karcecʿucʿanicʿē, ew hakaṙak patuērs hramanacʿ bžškin taycʿē, ew aynu aṙnicʿē nma vnas: or očʿ etʿē yaṙaǰagoyn gitēr zhangamans vnasakarutʿeann, ayl i patuireloy bžškin gteal hnars` ełew vnasakar : Noynpēs karci ew zsatanayē` naxanjeln nma ənd naxastełc mardoy, ew čʿgitel zhangamans, vnasakarutʿeann: kʿanzi očʿ etʿē čʿar inčʿ aṙaǰi kayr` usti zhangamansn martʿ ēr aṙnul: useal yAstucoy patuiranēn` or mardoyn tuaw argelul zna i čašakeloy i tnkoy imekʿē i mahaberē, zayn yaṙaǰadreacʿ mardoyn: or očʿ etʿē anpitan inčʿ i kerakurs mardoy ēr, ew očʿ bnutʿeamb tunkn mahaber, ew vasn aynorik inčʿ argelaw mardn i čašakeloy i nmanē, ayl ansastutʿiwnn ełew patčaṙ mahuan mardoyn, ibrew yancʿawori` or ancʿanicʿē zhramanaw hramanatui` or nma kargeal icʿē :

Translation

But accordingly they also ask this: "If nothing evil existed before, whence did the serpent, which you call Satan, learn the characteristics of Evil?" We say that Satan understood as evil man's disobedience to God, on account of which he induced man to this. It is like when one would be another's enemy, and having concealed his enmity, he would secretly wish to harm him; yet he would not know the nature of the harm, and having come he would wander around in search of means; then, having found the time when someone among the physicians would give an order to his adversary not to touch this thing, and not to taste such a type of food, by which he could arrive to health; and having heard of it, soon pretending under the guise of friendship, he would blame the healer; and, labelling the useful things as harmful to him, he would persuade him, and he would give directions contrary to the orders of the physician, and by this do him harm; and, if he did not recognize beforehand the nature of the harm, rather having found the cure in the physician's order, it was harmful. Thus it is thought also of Satan, his envying of the first-created man, and his not knowing the nature of the evil-doing; because, though there was no evil before, from which it was possible to recognize its nature, nevertheless having learned from God's commandment -- which was given to man to keep him from partaking of some deadly part of the plant -- he offered to man that which, though it was not a useless bit of food for man, and not by nature a deadly plant, nevertheless on this very count man was prohibited from partaking of this -- rather disobedience was the basis of death for man, as for a criminal who would disobey the dictum of an authority that would restrain him.

Grammar

21 Interrogatives and Relatives
21.1 Interrogative Adjectives, Prounouns, and Adverbs

The interrogative adjective o⁰r 'which?' is declined as follows.

    Sing.   Pl.
N   o⁰r   o⁰rkʿ, o⁰r
Ac   o⁰r   o⁰rs, o⁰r
G   oro⁰y   oro⁰cʿ
D   oru⁰m   oro⁰cʿ
L   oru⁰m   o⁰rs, oru⁰m
Ab   ormē⁰   oro⁰cʿ
I   oro⁰v   oro⁰vkʿ

The form o⁰r of the singular is often used in place of the N Ac plural forms o⁰rkʿ and o⁰rs. Less frequently, the L singular oru⁰m replaces the L plural o⁰rs. The interrogative adjective does not distinguish between animate or inanimate referents. For example, o⁰r tʿagawor taycʿē paterazm 'which king will wage war?'; oro⁰v zawrutʿeamb kam oro⁰v anuamb ararēkʿ dukʿ zays 'by what power or by what name did you do this?'; yoru⁰m žamanaki 'at what time?'

Other interrogative adjectives are o⁰rpisi, G o⁰rpiseacʿ 'what sort of?' and kʿani⁰ 'how many?'

The interrogative pronoun is formed from two stems, o- for persons and i- for things. The i-forms exhibit no plural. The declensions are as follows.

    Persons   Things
    o-   i-
         
N Sg.   o⁰v, o⁰   zi⁰, zi⁰nčʿ
Ac   o⁰v, o⁰   zi⁰, zi⁰nčʿ
G   o⁰yr   ē⁰r
D   u⁰m   i⁰m, hi⁰m
L   u⁰m   i⁰m, hi⁰m
Ab   u⁰mē, u⁰mmē   i⁰mē
I   oro⁰v   i⁰w
         
N Pl.   o⁰ykʿ   -
Ac   o⁰ys   -
G   o⁰ycʿ   -
D   o⁰ycʿ   -
L   o⁰ys   -
Ab   o⁰ycʿ   -
I   oro⁰vkʿ   -

The instrumental forms oro⁰v and oro⁰vkʿ are borrowed from the interrogative adjective. The forms zi⁰ and zi⁰nčʿ display the accusative marker z-, which has spread analogically to the nominative. zinčʿ may also be used as an interrogative adjective for things, e.g. zi⁰nčʿ gorc gorceal ē kʿo 'what deed have you done?'

The forms zi⁰ and hi⁰m may mean 'why?', as well as the form zmē built from the ablative with z-. ənd and vasn may be used with the genitive in the same role: əndē⁰r, vasn ē⁰r 'why?'

There are several interrogative adverbs, referring to

  • place: yo⁰ 'whither?', u⁰r 'where?', usti⁰ 'whence?';
  • time: e⁰rb 'when?', which may be used as either interrogative or relative adverb, e.g. e⁰rb linicʿi ayd 'when will that happen?', minčʿew cʿe⁰rb icʿem ənd jez 'how long shall I be with you?', e⁰rb gnacʿin 'when they had gone...';
  • manner: o⁰rpēs and zia⁰rd 'how?'
21.2 Relative Pronoun

The relative pronoun has no distinct forms; rather the forms of the interrogatives are used in this role. Understanding of their usage, however, requires distinguishing between two types of relative clause: the attributive relative clause and the substantive relative clause. An attributive relative clause is one which serves to describe its antecedent noun, much as an attributive adjective does. Some English examples would be 'the person who is writing the Armenian lessons has brown hair', or 'send all email enquiries to the person by whom the Armenian lessons were written.' In both examples the relative clauses serve an adjectival, or attributive, role modifying 'the person'. By contrast a substantive relative clause is a relative clause which, as a whole, fills the place of a noun. Again, this parallels the substantive use of an adjective. Some English examples would be 'who stole the last cookie is no friend of mine', which in slightly smoother English becomes 'whoever stole the last cookie is no friend of mine'; or 'do what I say.' In the first example, the relative clause in its entirety functions as the subject of the verb 'is'; in the second example, the whole relative clause is the object of the verb 'do'. In either situation the relative clause could be replaced by a single noun, e.g. 'Cicero is no friend of mine' or 'do something.'

Once the distinction is made between types of relative clause, relative pronoun usage becomes straightforward. Namely, in

  • attributive relative clauses one uses or as relative.
  • substantive relative clauses one uses or, less often ov, o, for persons, or zinčʿ for things.

The forms are the same as those listed for the interrogative adjective and pronoun, without the question mark .

Examples of attributive relative clauses are vasn banicʿn zor pʿawsecʿan hoviwkʿn 'on account of the words which the shepherds had said'; ewtʿn łambarkʿ... or en ewtʿn hogikʿn Astucoy 'seven torches... which are the seven spirits of God'; əntreacʿ erkotasans, zors ew aṙakʿeals anuaneacʿ 'he chose twelve, whom he also called Apostles'; vecʿ awr ē, yors aržan ē gorcel 'there are six days in which working is permitted'. Note in this last example that yors < i + ors is locative.

Examples of substantive relative clauses are or hawatay yordi, ənduni zkeansn yawitenakans 'who(ever) believes in the Son obtains eternal life'; or zinčʿ asicʿē jez, arasǰikʿ 'do what he tells you'.

21.3 Indefinite Pronoun

As with the interrogative pronouns, the indefinite pronouns exibit a base o- for persons and a base i- for things. Two series of pronouns are formed from these, one with an indefinitizing suffix -mn, the other with -kʿ. Both series may be used in either adjectival or pronominal roles. The declensions are as follows.

    omn   imn   okʿ   *ikʿ
    'someone'   'something'   'someone'   'something'
                 
N Sg.   omn   imn   okʿ   *ikʿ, inčʿ
Ac   omn   imn   okʿ   -, inčʿ
G   urumn   -   urukʿ   irikʿ
D   umemn   -   umekʿ   imikʿ
L   umemn   -   umekʿ   imikʿ
Ab   umemnē   imemnē   umekʿē   imekʿ(ē)
I   omamb   -   -   iwikʿ
                 
N Pl.   omankʿ   -   -   -
Ac   omans   -   -   -
G   omancʿ   -   -   -
D   omancʿ   -   -   -
L   omans   -   -   -
Ab   omancʿ   -   -   -
I   omambkʿ   -   -   -

The form *ikʿ is not found alone, but only in combination with the negative čʿ- in the form čʿikʿ 'there is not, there does not exist', e.g cʿikʿ jez keankʿ 'there is no life for you', čʿikʿ okʿ ayl Astuac 'there is no other God'. In place of *ikʿ the noun inčʿ, G ən′i 'thing' is used. This word is also found with a prefixed negative, očʿinčʿ, G očʿənčʿi 'nothing', e.g. yočʿəčʿēn arar znosa 'He created them from nothing.' As adjective, inčʿ remains in the singular even with plural substantive: awurs inčʿ (Ac Pl.) 'for some days'.

The instrumental singular form omamb from omn fills in for the missing instrumental singular of okʿ.

The indefinite pronouns are often used to strengthen the interrogatives, e.g. o⁰v okʿ 'who indeed?, who in the world?'; orpisi okʿ kin 'what a woman!' The okʿ and *ikʿ series of indefinites, however, are not used in general declarative statements; they only occur in negative, interrogative, conditional, and relative clauses, and with the pronoun iwrakʿančʿiwr 'each', adverb haziw 'hardly' and particle tʿerews 'perhaps'. This does not hold true for the forms inčʿ. For example, ēr omn hiwand 'someone was ill', but očʿ okʿ ē 'it is no one'.

The indefinite adverb of time has two forms parallel to the pronouns: erbemn and erbekʿ 'sometime'. The same restrictions of usage apply as to okʿ, e.g. očʿ erbrkʿ 'never'.

22 Word Formation

Word formation typically treats the formation of new lexical items from old. In rare instances, such new items may be derived from complete phrases, e.g. erkrpagu 'worshipper' from erkir paganem 'I kiss the earth, I worship'; zgetnem 'I throw down' from z-getni 'to the ground'. Alternately, two lexical items may be compounded to create a new word. When this occurs, the two words are typically connected by the vowel -a-, unless the second member begins with a vowel: čʿar-a-xaws 'slanderer' < čʿar 'malicious' + xawsim 'I speak'; leṙn-a-kołmn 'hill country' < leaṙn 'mountain' + kołmn 'side, country'; barekam 'benevolent, friend' < *bari-a-kam < bari 'good' + kamim 'I will, wish'; cov-ezr 'sea-side'; jkn-ors 'fisher' < jukn 'fish' + ors 'hunter'.

Generally speaking, new lexical items derived from old may be split into two categories: derivatives from verbs and derivatives from nouns. More precisely, words are derived from noun or verb stems. Typically the noun stem is the same as the nominative-accusative form; the verb stem is either the root aorist stem or the -cʿ aorist stem. In both noun and verb derivation, the stem vowels may be subject to vocalic alternation.

22.1 Derivatives from Verbs

The most common derivatives from verbal stems are listed below.

Causative Verbs: These are usually derived from intransitive verbs, though some transitive verbs are also subject to causative derivation, e.g. bnakem 'I dwell' yields bnakecʿu'anem 'I make to dwell, I establish'. Causatives are built from the aorist stem by addition of the suffix -oycʿ- / -ucʿ-. The form -ucʿ- occurs word-internally, -oycʿ- appearing otherwise. The -e- found in -eay aorists drops before the causative suffix is added. Examples are listed below.

    Present   Aorist   Causative Base
    bnakem 'I dwell'   bnakecʿi   bnakecʿoycʿ-
    molorim 'I err'   molorecʿay   molorecʿoycʿ-
    kam 'I stand'   kacʿi   kacʿoycʿ-
    usanim 'I study'   usay   usoycʿ-
    daṙnam 'I turn'   darjay   darjoycʿ-
    pʿaxčʿim 'I flee'   pʿaxeay   pʿaxoycʿ-
    yaṙnem 'I rise'   yareay   yaroycʿ-

The present stem of causative verbs has the extension -an-. The aorist stem is the same as the base. Thus there are the following examples.

    Causative Present   Causative Aorist   Caus. Aor. 3 Sg.
    molorecʿucʿanem 'I lead astray'   molorecʿucʿi   molorecʿoycʿ
    kacʿucʿanem 'I set up, place'   kacʿucʿi   kacʿoycʿ
    usucʿanem 'I teach'   usucʿi   usoycʿ
    pʿacucʿanem 'I chase'   pʿaxucʿi   pʿaxoycʿ

The 2 Sg. Imperative of causative verbs shows -oycʿ > -o, e.g. bnakecʿo 'establish!', uso 'teach!'.

Action Nouns: These are dervied by means of several suffixes. The more frequent suffixes are listed below.

  • -umn (3-stem (c) decl.) E.g. katarumn 'accomplishment' from katarem 'I achieve'; korcanumn 'destruction' from korcanem 'I destroy'; šaržumn 'motion' from šaržim 'I move'.
  • -utʿiwn (2-stem (b) decl.) E.g. pʿorjutʿiwn 'temptation' from pʿorjem 'I tempt'; mkrtutʿiwn 'baptism' from mrktem 'I baptize'; yarutʿiwn 'resurrection' from yaṙnem 'I rise'.
  • -st E.g. imast (i-decl.) 'intelligence' from imanam 'I understand'; govest (i-decl.) 'praise' from govem 'I praise'. Nouns in -ist and -ust follow the declension of serund in the singular, e.g. hangist 'repose', GDL hangstean, from hangčʿim 'I rest'.
  • -iwn (2-stem (b) decl.) E.g. kʿrtʿmnǰiwn 'grumbling' from kʿrtʿmnǰem 'I grumble'.
  • -an(kʿ) (a-decl.) E.g. patuiran 'order' from patuirem 'I command'.
  • -uac (o-decl.) E.g. xndruac 'request' from xndrem 'I seek'; yaweluac 'abundance' from yawelum 'I increase'; herjuac 'division' from herjanem 'I cleave'.
  • -urd, -und (declined as serund) E.g. xorhurd 'thought' from xorhim 'I meditate'; cnund 'birth, progeny' from cnanim 'I produce; I am born'.

Agent Nouns: There are a few suffixes denoting agent nouns which are worthy of mention.

  • -ičʿ (a-decl.) E.g. araričʿ 'creator' from aṙnem 'I make'; tuičʿ 'giver' from tam 'I give'; pʿrkičʿ 'saviour' from pʿrkem 'I rescue'; cnucʿičʿ 'midwife' from cnucʿanem 'I make to give birth, I deliver'.
  • -, -awł (a-decl.) E.g. nmanoł 'resembling' from nmanim 'I resemble'; arbecʿoł 'drunkard' from arbenam 'I get drunk'; cnawł 'parent' from cnanim 'I give birth'. This particular form of agent noun is often referred to as a present participle, on the same level in the verbal system as forms in -eal. In this classification, there is a threefold distinction with a verb such as šinem 'build': šinoł 'building', šinawł 'builder', šineal 'built, having built'. In Modern Armenian these forms have indeed come to function as present participles. In Classical Armenian, however, forms in -, -awł seem to be too infrequent to fill the role of a true participle, occurring less than one-tenth as often as forms in -eal.

Adjectives: The suffix -un is commonly used to derive adjectives from verbs. It follows the o-declension. Examples are šaržun 'movable, moving' from šaržim 'I move'; zelun 'running over' from zelum 'I pour, overflow'; pʿaylun 'bright' from pʿaylem 'I shine'.

22.2 Derivatives from Nouns

The most common derivatives from nominal stems are listed below.

Denominative Verbs: Nominal stems may form the base for verbs in -em and -im, more rarely -am. Examples are vkayem 'I testify' from vkay 'witness'; bžškem 'I cure' from bžišk 'physician'; anuanem 'I name' from anun 'name' (note the stem for the oblique cases is anuan-); nawem 'I sail' from naw 'ship'; srbem 'I clean' from surb 'clean, pure'; yusam 'I hope' from yoys 'hope'.

Inchoative Verbs: The suffix -anam is typically appended to adjectives to derive inchoative verbs. These fall into category (D) in the classification of verbs. Examples are ōǰanam 'I recover' from ołǰ 'healthy'; čʿoranam 'I become dry' from čʿor 'dry'. In certain instances such verbs are derived from nouns: kʿahanayanam 'I become a priest' from kahanay 'priest'; veranam 'I am extolled', cf. i ver 'upwards'.

Nouns of State or Quality: The suffix -utʿiwn may also be used to derive nouns denoting quiality. Examples are bazmutʿiwn 'multitude' from bazum 'many'; čšmartutʿiwn 'truth' from čšmarit 'true'; kʿahanayutʿiwn 'priesthood' from kʿahanay 'priest'.

Collective Nouns: Collective nouns may be derived by means of the suffixes -ik (serund-decl.), -ti (tełi-decl.), -ean. Examples are mardik 'men, people' from mard 'man'; mankti 'children' from manuk 'child'; xozean 'pigs' from xoz 'pig'. Such nouns are declined in the singular only.

Diminutive Nouns: The suffixes -ak (a-decl.) and -ik (serund-decl.) serve to derive diminutive nouns. Examples are covak 'lake' from cov 'sea'; eramak 'small herd' from eram 'herd'; ordeak 'son' from ordi 'son'; mankik 'little child' from manuk 'child'; pʿokʿrik 'little' from pʿokʿr 'little'.

Nouns of Place or Containment: Nouns denoting placement are derived by means of the suffixes -(an)ocʿ, -astan, -aran (a-decl.). Examples are žołurdanocʿ 'place of assembly' from žołowurd 'meeting'; ganjaran 'treasure-house' from ganj 'treasure'; Hayastan 'Armenia' from Hay 'Armenian'; vardastan 'rose-garden' from vard 'rose'; dprocʿ 'school' from dpir 'teacher'; amaranocʿ 'summer quarters' from amaṙn 'summer'.

Possessives and Relationals: There are several formations which yield adjectives and nouns denoting possession or relation.

  • -akan (a-decl.), -ayin (o-decl.), -eay (i-decl.), -in (o-decl.) These have the connotation 'pertaining to' or 'belonging to'. Examples are yawitenakan 'eternal' from yawiteankʿ 'eternity'; korstakan 'perishable, ruinous' from korust 'perdition'; maryakan 'motherly' from mayr 'mother'; amsakan 'monthly' from amis 'month'; vačaṙakan 'trader' from vačaṙ 'trade'.
  • -acʿi (o-decl.) This suffix forms adjectives denoting origin or possession. They refer only to people and are often used as substantives. Examples are Kołbacʿi 'coming from Kołb' from Kołb (place name); Israyelacʿi 'Israelite' from Israyēl 'Israel'; kʿałakʿacʿi 'citizen' from kʿałakʿ 'city'; dracʿi 'neighbor' from duṙn, Pl. durkʿ 'doors'.
  • -awor (a-decl.) This suffix typically connotes 'possessing' or 'related to'. Derivatives stemming from this suffix are often used as substantives. Examples are tʿagawor 'king, the one wearing the crown' from tʿag 'crown'; zawrawor 'mighty' from zawr 'strength'; meławor 'sinner' from meł 'sin'; datawor 'judge' from dat 'judgement'; marmnawor 'bodily' from marmin 'body'.
  • -eay (i-decl.), -ełen (a-decl.) These suffixes generally have the sense 'made of' or 'consisting of'. Examples are arcatʿeay 'of silver' from arcatʿ 'silver'; tasnawreay 'consisting of ten days' from tasn 'ten' + awr 'day'; sewačʿeay 'having black eye' from seaw 'black' + akn, Pl. ačʿkʿ 'eye'; garełēn nkanak 'barley loaf'.
  • -ean (a-decl.) In addition to rather general relational derivatives such as arewelean 'eastern' from arewelkʿ (Pl.) 'East', this suffix is often used to form patronymics. Examples are płatonean 'platonic' from Płaton 'Plato'; Aramean 'son/progeny of Aram'; Mamkionean 'son/progeny of Mamikon'.
  • -eni (tełi-decl.) This is a possessive suffix often used in names of fruit-bearing trees. Examples are mayreni 'motherly' from mayr 'mother'; xozeni 'of pigs' from xoz 'pig'; jitʿeni 'olive tree' from jētʿ 'olive'; tʿzeni 'fig tree' from tʿuz 'fig'; vardeni 'rosebush' from vard 'rose'.
  • -i (tełi-decl.) This suffix has a general possessive or relational sense. Examples are ałi 'salty' from 'salt'; erkatʿi 'of iron' from erkatʿ 'iron'; arambi 'living with a man' from ayr, I Sg. aramb 'man'; bazmačʿi 'having many eyes' from bazum 'much' + akn, Pl. ačʿkʿ 'eye'; mecazgi 'noble' from mec 'big' + azg 'family'.
  • -ord (a-decl.) This is an unspecialized relational suffix. Examples are orsord 'hunter' from ors 'game'; aṙaǰnord 'leader' from aṙajin 'first'.

General: The following derivatives do not fit into the other categories listed above.

  • -agoyn (i-decl.) This is an intensifying suffix, meaning 'more' or 'very'. Examples are diwragoyn 'easier, very easy' from diwr 'easy'; kʿałcʿragoyn 'sweeter, very sweet' from kʿałcʿr 'sweet'.
  • -kicʿ This means 'associate, fellow, co-', as in the verb kcʿem 'I add, join'. Examples are orsakicʿ 'fellow hunter'; ułekicʿ 'fellow traveller' from ułi 'way'.
22.3 Iteration

Iteration is a process which may be used to derive new words from old. It applies equally to verbs, nouns, and adjectives. For example one finds the verbs hot-ot-im 'I smell' from hot 'scent' and kaz-kaz-em 'I run back and forth'. There are substantives xor-xor-at 'pit' from xor 'deep', leṙn-leṙn-ayn 'hill country' from leaṙn 'hill', heł- 'current' from hełanim 'I flow'. There are adjectives mec-a-mec 'very big', ǰerm-a-ǰerm 'very warm', arag-arag 'very quick'. In most instances the reduplication serves as intensification, as many of the above examples illustrate. The same effect may be achieved merely by doubling a word in context, without deriving a new combined word. For example one finds luṙ luṙ 'totally quiet' and canr canr 'very tough'.

In contrast to the notion of intensification, although in some sense allied to it, is the use of iteration in a distributive function. Examples are gund-a-gund 'in swarms' (also gund gund); goyn-a-goyn 'multicolored'; ami ami 'throughout the year'; awur awur 'day by day' (also awr awur).

At times the doubling occurs with m- preceding the second member, as in ałx-a-małx 'goods' from ałx 'equipment', and in sut mut 'completely wrong' from *sut sut.

23 Case Syntax

The most common uses of the nominal cases are outlined below. For the use of cases with simple or compound prepositions, see Section 5 of Lesson 1.

23.1 The Nominative Case

The nominative case is the case of the grammatical subject, e.g. koyrkʿ tesanen 'the blind regain their sight', astełkʿ ankcʿin yerknicʿ 'stars will fall from heaven'. When the verb is a copula, the nominative is also the case of the predicate: ein ardarkʿ erkokʿin 'they were both just'. The nominative, with or without ov, may be used in forms of address: patani du, ari 'get up, young man!' The nominative is also used when quoting a person's name, even if the noun representing the person so named is in another case: aṙ komsi umemn Likianēs anun kočʿecʿeloy 'with an earl, called Likianos by name'. Here komsi is in the locative case, modified by kočʿecʿeloy, but the name quoted, Likianēs, remains in the nominative form.

The nominativus pendens is a usage whereby a word, which in its own clause should grammatically be in another case, is placed at the head of the statement in the nominative, and then taken up again by a pronoun in the correct oblique case. For example, caṙay or ənd unkn očʿ lsē, ənd mkanuns tan lsel nma 'the servant, who does not listen with the ear, they make him listen with the back.' Here caṙay is in the nominative, marked in the main clause by the pronoun nma.

23.2 The Accusative Case

The accusative case is the case of the direct object, e.g. or očʿ berē ptuł 'which does not bear fruit'. Rarely a verb may take an internal object: erkean erkiwł mec 'they had a great fear', lit. 'they feared a great fear.' Some verbs take a double accusative, such as harcʿanem 'I ask': harcʿicʿ inčʿ zkʿez 'I ask you (something)'. The accusative may be predicate: Stoyikeankʿn... zamenayn inčʿ marmin karcecʿin 'the Stoics held everything (to be) body.' The accusative may denote an extent of space or time. From this use come such adverbs as aynawr '(during) this day', hence 'today'. An accusative of respect is found in the use of zayn awrinak 'by this means, thus', and in the use of anun in the accusative to mean 'by name, in respect of name': aṙ komsi umemn Likianēs anun kočʿecʿeloy 'with an earl, called Likianos by name'. The accusative form of adjectives may be used adverbially: barwokʿ margarēacʿaw 'they prophesied well'.

The accusative is often marked with the preposition z-. This is generally used with demonstrative pronouns, relatives, personal pronouns, proper names, and nouns with a demonstrative suffix. Examples are zna 'this', zor 'which', zis 'me', zhayrn 'the father', zAbraham 'Abraham'. The marker z- is not an inherent feature of the accusative case. It is often employed simply to distinguish the accusative form from the nominative or locative forms, e.g. yoržam dustr zmayr antrgicʿē, ew nu zkesur iwr, ew kin zayr, ew caṙay ztēr, ew ełbayr zełbayr 'as the daughter reviled her mother, and the daughter-in-law her mother-in-law, and the wife her husband, and the servant his master, and the brother his brother.' The particles kʿan 'than', ibrew 'like, as', and orpēs 'like, as' are often followed by z- plus the accusative of the point of comparison, e.g. očʿ Sołomovn... zgecʿaw ibrew zmi i nocʿanē 'Solomon... did not dress as one of them.'

23.3 The Genitive Case

The genitive case is the possessive case. More generally, it is a relational case, covering a wide range of nuanced meaning, usually delimiting or specifying the sphere of validity of its referent. In Classical Armenian, the genitive case is distinguished morphologically from the dative only by personal pronouns and demonstratives. The genitive may qualify a substantive, e.g. anun nora 'her name' or awur mioy čanaparh 'a day's journey'. The genitive may be used as a predicate: erku partapankʿ ein urumn pʿoxatui 'two debtors were of a certain lender', i.e. 'there were two debtors of a certain lender', 'a certain lender had two debtors.' A genitive modifying an infinitive used as a substantive may indicate the logical subject of the action: diwrin icʿē erknicʿ ew erkri ancʿanel, kʿan yawrinacʿn mioy nšanaxecʿi ankanel 'it is easier for heaven and earth to perish than for one stroke of the law to fall away.' The partitive genitive is more often expressed by the preposition i with the ablative, in the sense 'from among'.

Perhaps the most idiosyncratic use of the genitive in Classical Armenian is with the participle in -eal. When the subject of a clause is modified by the past participle, this subject may be in either the nominative or the genitive case, e.g. nora aṙeal zna taraw 'he, having seized (him), led him'; matucʿeal ašakertacʿn nora asen cʿna 'his disciples, having come, say to him...'. This usage is extended to impersonal constructions involving the participle, where the genitive denotes the logical subject: zpayn isk im ačʿawkʿ teseal ē 'I have seen the fairy with my own eyes'; aṙ ekełecʿeawn, zor šineal ēr aṙaǰnoyn mecin Grigori 'at the church which the first great Grigor had built.'

23.4 The Dative Case

The dative case is the case of the indirect object, or, more generally, the case of the party interested in, but not directly affected by, the actions of the statement. The dative is used frequently with verbs. Examples are cʿucʿēkʿ inj zdahekan 'show me the money'; kin kʿo cnčʿi kʿez ordi 'your woman bore you a son.' Several verbs take their object in the dative, such as tirem 'I rule', išxem 'I have power', aṙaǰnordem 'I lead', sastem 'I command', tʿagaworem 'I rule as king', yałtʿem 'I overwhelm'; hnazandim 'I comply', caṙayem 'I serve', ansam 'I conform'; hawatam 'I believe', ołormim 'I have compassion', spasem 'I tend', nerem 'I forgive'; karawtim and karawtanam 'I use'; cʿankanam 'I wish'; vnasem 'I harm', barkanam 'I become angry', spaṙnam 'I threaten'; tełekanam 'I learn of'. Examples are apa tʿe očʿ tirescʿen inj 'if they not have power over me'; inj spasecʿin meławorkʿ 'sinners served me'; tełekacʿaw hayreni gorcocʿn 'he learned of his father's deeds.' The dative may serve as a predicate when the verb is a copula, e.g. ełew nma čʿar ew očʿ inčʿ 'no evil befell him.'

The dative is also used with adjectives. These may denote similarity, e.g. nman 'similar, like', hasarak 'common, public', hamemat 'proportional, commensurate'; or they may denote knowledge, e.g. gitak 'knowing', tełeak 'well-informed, instructed, skilled-in', hmut 'knowledgeable, skilled, learned', xelamut 'taught, informed, learned'; or usefulness, e.g. pitani, pitoy 'helpful', anpitan 'useless', hačoy 'pleasing', vnasakar 'harmful', patrast 'prepared', partakan 'guilty'. Examples are erkrordn nman smin 'the second similar to this one'; meṙealkʿ očʿ en gitak ew očʿ imikʿ 'the dead know nothing'; čʿē aynm partakan Astuac 'God is not to blame for this.'

In clauses with the infinitive, the dative may often be considered to be related to one word in particular, usually the infinitive itself. In these situations the dative often supplies the subject of the action denoted by the infinitive, e.g. ełew šabatʿu... ančʿanel nma ənd artoraysn 'it happened on the sabbath... that he went through the fields'; part ē inj awetaranel 'it is necessary for me to preach.' Such constructions occur where Latin and Greek might employ an accusative and infinitive.

23.5 The Locative Case

The locative case denotes static position in space or time, generally equivalent to the English 'in', 'on', or 'at'. In Classical Armenian the locative is only found with prepositions. By far the most common preposition is i, e.g. yaynm kłzwoǰ očʿ gtanēr očʿ ǰur... ew očʿ... 'on this island was found neither water nor...'. It is also used with aṙ 'beside', e.g. nstēr aṙ durs 'he sat by the door'; with ənd 'with', e.g. xawsel ənd nosa 'to speak with them'; seldom with z-, e.g. zgetni harkanel 'to cast on the ground'; with əst 'after', e.g. hatucʿanes iwrakʿančʿiwr əst gorcs iwr 'you shall repay each according to his deeds.'

23.6 The Ablative Case

The ablative case denotes the source or origin, and separation therefrom. The ablative is used without a preposition only in certain fixed situations, generally in conjunction with a monosyllabic substantive in the accusative, often marked by i. Examples are z'amē i žam 'from time to time'; am yamē 'each year'; tanē i tun 'from house to house'; azgē yazg 'from people to people'; minčʿew i nawasardē nawasard 'from new year to new year', that is, 'till the new year'; i kʿałakʿē i kʿałakʿ 'from city to city'. The ablative forms of personal pronoun, such as injēn and kʿezən, may be used without propositions, typically with the meaning 'self': es injēn as′awkʿ tesi 'I have seen it with my own eyes.'

23.7 The Instrumental Case

The instrumental case denotes the means or instrument of an action, whether physical or other. It roughly takes the place of the English preposition 'with'. Examples are očʿ okʿ gay aṙ hayr, etʿe očʿ imew 'no one approaches the father, except though me'; eleal... i gerezmanē anti ahiw ew xndutʿeamb bazmaw 'having gone... from the grave with awe and great joy'; li xnkov 'filled with incense'. The instrumental may be used predicatively: orearn ayn xałałutʿeamb en ənd mez 'these men are peaceful with us'; mer keankʿs čʿen yusahatutʿeamb 'our life is not (fallen) into despair.' The instrumental is used in the sense of accompaniment, usually in conjunction with following handerj 'with, together with': and nstēr ašakertawkʿn handerj 'he sat there with his disciples'; Yisus ašakertawkʿn iwrovkʿ gnacʿ 'Jesus withdrew with his disciples.'

24 Future Expression and the Subjunctive

Classical Armenian lacks a morphologically distinct future tense. Inasmuch as the subjunctive expresses purpose, wish, demand, or prospect, its sense is linked to the expression of future events. It is therefore common to find the Greek future translated by the aorist subjunctive. Within native treatments of Armenian grammar it has thus been common to find the aorist subjunctive called the future tense. Since there is also a present subjunctive, some treatments refer to two future tenses. The subjunctive is not, however, the only means of relating future time in Classical Armenian. When particular emphasis or clarity is required, the present tense may express future action, e.g. očʿ hawatam 'I will not believe'. When there is an attendant sense of necessity, the verbal adjective in -locʿ is often employed in periphrastic constructions: du es or galocʿn es 'Art thou He who is to come?'.

25 Adverbial Clauses

The term adverbial clauses is here used as a catch-all term for several types of clauses which modify a statement as a whole. This is in contrast to, say, relative clauses, which usually modify a substantive within a given statement. Typically in such clauses the subjunctive and indicative moods of the verb stand in free contrast. That is to say, the indicative is generally used for actual action, otherwise the subjunctive. Some of the more important types of clauses are listed below with general comments on construction.

Final Clauses: The verb of final clauses is always subjunctive. The beginning of such clauses is typically signalled by zi, less often by tʿe, etʿe, or orpēs zi. Examples are ayl ays amenayn ełew, zi lcʿcʿi or asacʿawn i teaṙnē 'this all happened so that what the Lord had said be fulfilled'; ...etʿe gawravarin hačoy linicʿi '... so that he be pleasing to the one enlisting'; orpēs zi tescʿen zgorcs jer baris 'so that they may know your good deeds'. If the subject or object is the same as in the main clause, the final clause is typically expressed by an infinitive: taran zna i xačʿ hanel 'they led him out to crucify (him)'. A final clause with a subject different from that of the main clause may be expressed with a dative plus infinitive construction: xnayecʿi es i kʿez, čʿmełančel kʿez yis 'I look after you that you not sin against me.'

Consecutive Clauses: Also termed resultative clauses, these are introduced by orpēs zi, ibrew zi 'so that'; or simply zi 'that' or zi ew (when the preceding clause contains a word meaning 'so' or 'in such a way'). Less frequently etʿe or minčʿew introduce these clauses. Examples are čʿaračʿarkʿ yoyž, orpēs zi čʿer hnar ancʿanel umekʿ ənd ayn čanaparh 'exceedingly harsh, so that it was not possible for any one to proceed by that path'; aynčʿapʿ emkʿ ołormeli ibrew zi aṙancʿ jorjoy mi awr čʿkaremkʿ hamberel 'we are so dejected that we cannot go one day without a coat'; Astuac aynpēs patuel zmardn kamecʿaw, zi ganjničʿxanutʿiwnn pargeweacʿ nma 'God wanted to so honor man that He granted him free will.' An extended example of the use of etʿe is the following: kʿanzi očʿ etʿe anmit inčʿ okʿ ełew na jAstucoy, etʿe čʿgitēr, etʿe or inčʿ əst Astucoy kamacʿn lini, bari ē 'since there was none created by God so ignorant that he knew not that whatever happened by the will of God is good.'

Temporal Clauses: These have been treated separately in Lesson 4, Section 20.

Causal Clauses: These are usually introduced by zi, kʿanzi, vasn zi, tʿe or etʿe, orovhetew 'since, because'; manawand zi 'especially since'. If the causal clause treats a factual occurrence, the verb is conjugated in the indicative; if the clause treats an assumed occurrence or one which is denied or refuted, the verb may be either indicative or subjunctive. Examples are zia⁰rd linicʿi inj ayd, kʿanzi zayr očʿ gitem 'how will this be, since I do not know a man'; əndē⁰r zxawss im očʿ gitēkʿ dukʿ, vasn zi očʿ karēkʿ lsel zbann im 'on what account do you not know my speech? since you are not able to hear my word'; manawand zi gtanemkʿ 'especially since we find'. zi may be strengthened by the demonstrative ays or its instrumental form aynu, e.g. aynu zi əst čʿareacʿ gorcočʿn vrēžs pahanǰicʿē, yayt ē etʿe... 'since he imposes penalties according to the wicked deeds, so it is clear that...'.

Concessive Clauses: These are introduced by tʿēpēt, tʿepēt 'though, although', usually followed by ew; tʿe ew 'even though'; tʿepēt... tʿepēt 'be it that... be it that'; etʿe... (ew) etʿe 'either... or'. Examples are tʿēpēt ew ordi ē, usaw zhnazandutʿiwn 'though being the son, he learned obedience'; ew čʿem tʿepēt aržani 'though I am not worthy'; tʿe ew trtmecʿucʿi zjez tʿłtʿovn očʿ złǰanam 'even if I pained you in the letter, I am not sorry'; ard, əte uticʿēkʿ, etʿe əmpicʿēkʿ 'therefore, either eat or drink!'

Local Clauses: These are introduced either by relative adverbs jo 'to where, whither', ur 'where, to where', usti 'from where, whence' or by prepositional constructions involving relative adverbs. Examples are ur ganjkʿ jer en and ew sirtkʿ jer ełicʿin 'where your treasures are, there too will be your heart'; yor tun mtanicʿēkʿ, andēn awtʿewans kalǰikʿ 'in whichever house you enter, take accomodations there.'

Comparative Clauses: These have been treated in Lesson 4, Section 19.

Exceptional Clauses: Under this heading are grouped clauses often beginning in English with 'unless, except that..., save that..., save to...'. In some instances Classical Armenian uses a construction with infinitive and preposition, or with a negative participle: očʿinčʿ gorceal... matnecʿay 'but had I done something,... I was betrayed'. Elsewhere clauses with finite verb forms are employed. baycʿ etʿe often serves as English 'unless', usually followed by the subjunctive: o⁰v ē skizbn aynpisi anpatehicʿ, baycʿ etʿe icʿē inčʿ čʿar zawrutʿiwn 'who is the origin of such inconsistencies, unless it is an evil force.' pʿoxanak zi, and sometimes kʿan, renders English 'rather than that': pʿoxanak zi part er jez linel vardapets, pitoy ē jez usanel 'rather than that you should become teacher, it is proper that you learn.'

Conditional Clauses: The subordinate clause (protasis) is introduced by the conjunction etʿe, less often tʿe, and only rarely with zi. Use of zi in particular gives the sense 'when, in the case that': zi aṙancʿ kamacʿn Astucoy gorcin irkʿ inčʿ, linin čʿar 'in the case that things are done contrary to the will of God, they are bad.' The conjunction need not be the first word of the clause. očʿ is always used for negation. The main clause (apodosis) is signalled by apa, ew, or apa ew when it follows the protasis. There are three basic constructions:

  • Protasis: present indicative; Apodosis: indicative, subjunctive (as future), or imperative. These are the components of real conditions. Examples are etʿe očʿ lsen, ew očʿ hawatascʿen 'if they do not hear, they will not believe'; etʿe hogi bnakeal ē i jez, apa kendanacʿuscʿē 'if the spirit dwells in you, it will give life'; etʿe meṙealkʿ očʿ yaṙnen, apa ew Kʿristos čʿē yarucʿeal 'for if the dead do not rise, neither has Christ risen.'
  • Protasis: subjunctive; Apodosis: indicative, subjunctive (as future), or imperative. These are the components of conditions signifying assumption, possibility, uncertainty, or generalization. Examples are zays amenayn kʿez tacʿ, etʿe erkirpaganicʿes inj 'all these things I will give you, if you bow before me'; etʿe i meṙelocʿ okʿ ertʿicʿē aṙ nosa, ew apašxarescʿen 'if one of the dead journey to them, they will repent'; etʿe očʿ okʿ cncʿi verstin, očʿ karē tesanel zarkʿayutʿiwn Astucoy 'if one be not born from above, he is unable to behold the kingdom of God.'
  • Protasis: past indicative; Apodosis: past indicative. These describe unreal conditions. Unreal conditions concerning the present employ the imperfect indicative in both clauses: sa tʿe margarē okʿ ēr, apa gitēr... 'if this one were prophet, he would know...'; etʿe Astuac ēr hayr jer, sireikʿ ardeawkʿ zis 'if God were your father, you would love me.' Unreal conditions concerning the past typically employ a periphrastic pluperfect in either the protasis or apodosis, with a suitable past tense in the complementary clause. Examples are əte ast leal eir, ełbayrn im čʿēr meṙeal 'if you had been here, my brother would not have died'; im etʿe čʿēr ekeal, ew xawsecʿeal ənd nosa, meł inčʿ očʿ goyr nocʿa 'if I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have possessed sin.'

Classical Armenian Online - Romanized

Selected Annotated Bibliography

Todd B. Krause

Texts

For someone just beginning a study of Classical Armenian, several of the grammars have reading selections. Jensen's grammar has a separate volume dedicated to excerpts from major authors. In his work one may find references to more complete editions of the Classical Armenian authors:

  • Hans Jensen, Altarmenische Chrestomathie. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitaetsverlag, 1964. Contains selections from the New Testaments, as well as the works of Moses of Khoren, Faustus of Byzantium, Koriwn, and Eznik of Kolb. Contains a glossary in German.

Grammars

There is a severe lack of grammars for Classical Armenian written in English. There are several exceptional grammars written in German:

  • Hans Jensen, Altarmenische Grammatik. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitaetsverlag, 1959. A very thorough treatise on the language, giving the most complete discussion of syntax of any of the books listed. The organization, however, is idiosyncratic, making reference difficult at times.
  • A. Meillet, Altarmenisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg: Carl Winters Universitaetsbuchhandlung, 1913. A classic work. Gives a brief but thorough outline of grammar, and includes several text selections together with a glossary.
  • Ruediger Schmitt, Grammatik des Klassisch-Armenischen. Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beitraege zur Sprachwissenschaft, 1981. The most recent of the grammars, with the most attention to comparative issues of Classical Armenian and the other Indo-European languages. Some short reading selections with grammatical commentary.
  • Robert W. Thomson, An Introduction to Classical Armenian. New York: Caravan Books, 1975. Includes the text selections and glossary of Meillet's book, but structures the grammar presentation in the format of graded lessons, rather than the reference-grammar approach of the others.
  • Robert Godel, An Introduction to the Study of Classical Armenian. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 1975. A very terse account of the language, divided into two parts: a synchronic approach, and a diachronic approach. Purely a reference grammar, with no extended textual examples.

Dictionaries

There are no dictionaries, in English, for Classical Armenian. In German, the following is noteworthy:

  • H. Huebschmann, Armenische Grammatik. 1 Theil: Armenische Etymologie. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Haertel, 1897. An etymological dictionary of Classical Armenian. Only the first part was published.

Linguistic History

The following article sheds light on the position of Classical Armenian within the Indo-European language group:

  • Roberto Ajello, "Armenian," in The Indo-European Languages, ed. A. G. Ramat and P. Ramat; New York: Routledge, 1998. A brief survey of the linguistic heredity and phonological and morphological structure of Armenian.

History

A more detailed account of the history of the Armenian region may be found in the following:

  • George A. Bournoutian, A History of the Armenian People. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers, 1993. A very readable outline of Armenian history, especially useful because of numerous timelines relating events in Armenian history to other contemporaneous happenings around the world.