Hittite Online

Series Introduction

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Hittite is the oldest recorded Indo-European language, but it had remained completely unknown during the period in which Indo-European linguistics developed because its records are on clay tablets that were excavated only at the end of the 19th century. Even then, it was not identified as Indo-European until 1915, when Bedřich Hrozný made the discovery through his reading of tablets that had been brought to Vienna from the Istanbul Museum. Since the tablets were written in the cuneiform script, which is described in Lesson 1 Grammar point 2, they were easily read. After Hrozný documented their language as Indo-European in a book of 1917 entitled Die Sprache der Hethiter, many texts were published, some of them in cuneiform script and others in transcription. But it was not until 1951 that a comprehensive grammar was produced, A Comparative Grammar of the Hittite Language by Edgar H. Sturtevant.

As the texts were published, notable differences were recognized between Hittite and the other Indo-European languages. In the phonological system, sounds transcribed as h were found where the other languages had a long vowel, as in Hittite pahs- 'protect', Latin pāscō 'feed', and also initially where they had an a-vowel, is in Hittite hanza 'in front of', Latin ante 'before'. In 1878 Ferdinand de Saussure had proposed such consonants, and in the following year Möller labeled them laryngeals with a term taken from Hamito-Semitic linguistics of the time.

In the morphological system there are only two gender classes of nouns, common and neuter. And the verb is far simpler than that of Sanskrit or Greek, languages on which the reconstructed language, Proto-Indo-European, had been largely based. There are only two tenses: present and preterite; only two finite moods: indicative and imperative; and only two conjugations, one with first person singular ending in -mi, the other in -hi. After the implications of these for reconstructing the parent language became clear, they led to far-reaching changes in the presentation of Proto-Indo-European and the early Indo-European languages.

Among the phonological changes is the assumption of laryngeals in various positions that had been lost in the previously known Indo-European languages, but had left traces in vowels and other consonants. Under the assumption of such consonants in the so-called laryngeal theory, the roots that did not fit the typical structure of Indo-European roots, e.g. *sed- 'sit', *nem- 'take', *leg- 'pick up', previously had had comparable structure. For example, the roots *dhē- 'place', *stā- 'stand', *dō- 'give' were now posited with laryngeals rather than with long vowels: *dheh₁-, *steh₂-, *deh₃-. And the voiceless aspirated stops of Indo-Iranian, ph, th, kh were assumed to have developed from p t k plus a laryngeal. The laryngeal theory has been widely discussed, accepted in various forms, and even rejected by some scholars; but as illustrated by examples here, it is the basis for explaining many features of Proto-Indo-European and its dialects.

In the morphological system, efforts were made to account for a gender system of the two nominal classes in contrast with the three in the other languages. In the view of most scholars the twofold system was assumed to be earlier, but a minority assumed that the feminine was lost in the Anatolian languages. The greater simplicity in the verbal system, especially the position of the hi-conjugation, required especial attention. This corresponds in many ways to the perfect of Sanskrit and Greek; but with its function also in the medio-passive of Hittite it has been identified as a stative inflection. The twofold conjugations would then be based on active:stative opposition.

On the basis of its earlier attestation and differences from Proto-Indo-European as it had been reconstructed, Edgar Sturtevant and others assumed Hittite to be a sister language of Proto-Indo-European and labeled the language at that stage Indo-Hittite. The Indo-Hittite hypothesis then became dominant and has remained so for some scholars. But they failed to take into account the basis of the reconstructed Indo-European in our handbooks, such as Brugmann's Grundriss. It cannot be noted too often that Brugmann stated specifically in 1897 that his reconstructions did not represent a historically earlier language but that they were rather compilations of the data; he left the historical presentation to the future. After much discussion of the evidence for or against assumption of Indo-Hittite, it is now widely held that Hittite is not a sister language of the earlier common language from which the other dialects developed, but rather that it was recorded earlier and therefore maintained some features that were lost in the other dialects.

This position has strong support from the increased knowledge of Active/Stative languages. In such languages, nouns and verbs fall into one of two classes, either active/animate or stative/inanimate. Reconstructed Proto-Indo-European in its earlier form, of which elements are maintained in the Anatolian languages, fits the Active/Stative pattern. Both nouns and verbs belong to either of the two classes. The twofold gender distinction maintained in Hittite reflects the animate:inanimate structure in its contrast between common and neuter inflection. In the verb, the mi-conjugation reflects the earlier active inflection while the hi-conjugation reflects the stative inflection.

This understanding has affected the view of the language family in general. It is now clear that Sanskrit and Greek, with their large number of verbal inflections, developed these after the disruption of the Indo-European family. Among their new developments is the augment, which is found only in Indo-Iranian, Greek, and Armenian. Even in the Homeric language it is not yet used in all forms that require it in Classical Greek. Moreover, Germanic with its much simpler verbal inflection is closer to that of the proto-language and more similar to Hittite than are Sanskrit and Greek. We account for the similarity by assuming that Germanic, like Hittite, was one of the first to leave when the various languages split away from the parent language and that both maintained many of its features, which were later modified in Indo-Iranian, Greek, Latin, and other dialects.

The Source of the Hittites and their Dominance in Central Anatolia

It is generally assumed that the Hittites entered Anatolia some time before 2000 B.C. While their earlier location is disputed, there has been strong evidence for more than a century that the home of the Indo-Europeans in the fourth and third millennia was in what is now southern Russia and the Ukraine. The Hittites and other member of the "Anatolian" language-speaking family, then, came from the north, possibly along the Caspian Sea but perhaps more likely via the Balkans. The dominant inhabitants in central Anatolia at the time were the Hatti (from whom the word "Hittite" was later derived). There were also Assyrian colonies in the country; it was from these that the Hittites adopted cuneiform script.

It took some time for the Hittites to establish themselves, as is clear from some of the texts included here: for several centuries there were disparate Hittite and related Anatolian language groups, usually centered around various cities; but then strong rulers with their center in Hattusa (Turkish Boğazköy) succeeded in bringing these together and conquering large parts of central Anatolia to establish the Hittite kingdom. The Hittite period of dominance is divided into three periods, labeled the Old Kingdom from about 1650 B.C. to about 1500 B.C., then a Middle Kingdom about which there is relatively little information, and finally a New Kingdom continuing from ca. 1400 B.C. to the early 12th century. In this time frame, Hittite and Luvian and Palaic were the "big three" Anatolian languages, all being recorded in cuneiform inscriptions.

An early ruler in the second half of the 18th century, Anitta, left records indicating his achievements, such as capturing Hattusa (Boğazköy), but he did not create an empire or found a dynasty. The period after him was characterized by power struggles. Then the Old Kingdom was etablished by Labarna (ca. 1680-1650 B.C.). As the later Proclamation of Telepenus (ca. 1525-1500 B.C.) indicates, in the Old Kingdom beginning with the rule of Labana and his successor Hattusilis I (ca. 1650-1620) the chief aim was to gain control over the various Hittite groups and consolidate the kingdom. The grandson and successor of Hattusilis, Mursilis I (ca. 1620-1590), conducted raids as far as Babylon. Telepenus' proclamation goes on to indicate that he expected and maintained cooperation and peacefulness during his reign. But from the century after his death we have few records; hence little is known about this period, labeled the Middle Kingdom.

Then during the New Kingdom, roughly 1400-1180 B.C., the Hittites reached their greatest status under Suppiluliumas I (ca. 1380-1340). Suppiluliumas rebuilt the capital at Hattusa and reorganized the government; he also carried out campaigns against peoples in south and southwest Anatolia and established a Hittite presence in Syria that led to conflict with Egypt. During the rule of Muwatallis II (ca. 1306-1282), there was a tremendous battle between the two countries at Kadesh on the Orontes River; the result was chaos and carnage, but both sides proclaimed victory -- after hastily withdrawing from the area. Later, under Hattusilis III (ca. 1275-1250), the two countries arranged a peace treaty and a dynastic marriage. Then during the rule of Tudhalija IV (ca. 1250-1220), problems arose especially with the country of Ahhija [or Ahhijawa], often equated with the Achaeans i.e. Mycenaean Greeks. Early in the next century the kingdom was utterly destroyed and its capital city, like Troy before it, was burned.

Vestiges of Hittite power survived for a while in Syria, and other Anatolian languages were attested throughout the first millennium B.C., but the Hittite language died out and Anatolia remained fragmented for four centuries. The Hittites were mentioned as a people in Joshua 3:10, which is the source of the name now applied to them; and Uriah, husband of the beautiful Bathsheba and commander of a division of David's army, is identified as a Hittite in 2 Samuel 11:3 and elsewhere. Yet the identity of the Hittite people was lost to history until their magnificent library was dug out of the rubble and ash of Boğazköy.

The Hittite Documents

Among the Hittite documents, those dealing with religious concerns make up a greater share than those dealing with statecraft. But more of the statecraft texts are presented here for several reasons, among them that they provide information on the second millennium B.C. in the Middle East and also because the religious texts are much alike, following the same general pattern. Examples of the three types of religious texts are illustrated in the last three lessons: prayer, ritual, and festival.

Among the prayers, the most frequent type was the arkuwar; the petitioner treats the situation as though he has been accused of some crime for which he may make confession, even admitting of his blame. Presumably the god will then make a judgment. In the mugawar the petitioner simply calls on the mercy of the god to abandon his hostility.

The rituals are highly structured, as described in the introduction to Lesson 9. They are performed by a priest or priestess, known in the lesson and in other descriptions of rituals as Old Woman. She takes the worshipper through the various steps that will remove his shortcoming and restore him to a healthy condition.

While prayers and rituals concern individuals, festivals concern the entire community. They are performed especially at the crucial occasions for success in agriculture, at the time of sowing in spring between the middle of March and the middle of June, and at the time of reaping in the fall, between September and November. Festival texts deal with liturgies, lists of the items to be used in the ceremonies, the food and drinks for the god and his worshippers, and their involvement through song, dance, and also sports. They often included processions to holy sites. Reliefs on monuments at some of the most important sites, as at Alaca höyük and Yazılıkaya, may reflect these. They as well as many other accounts indicate the importance of festivals for the Hittites.

Brief Bibliography

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Hittite Online

Lesson 1

Sara E. Kimball and Jonathan Slocum

The so-called Proclamation of Anittas deals with events leading up to the founding of the Hittite state and is the earliest genuinely historical text found at Boğazköy. A distinctive characteristic of Hittite culture is their writing of history that attempts to draw conclusions from events. Historical texts center around the king as hero. Generally wiser and braver than his subordinates, he is the person who carries the day when the actions of the enemy or those of the king's subordinates threaten the Hittite military with defeat. In later texts, especially those of the Empire period, the king's success is usually attributed to divine protection and sometimes divine intervention in the course of events. One possible interpretation of a problematic line in this text is that the deified throne dais, Halmasuiz, led Anittas to victory over Hattusas. If this is correct, it foreshadows the latter theme of divine aid. Anittas himself was a real person who was active during the time of the Assyrian merchant colonies, the petty king, or strong man, ruling the city of Kussara. The city-states that Anittas conquers, Nesa, the city which the Hittites considered their city of origin, Zalpuwa, a city in northern Anatolia near the Black sea, and, of course, Hattusas, which was later the Hittite capital, were all important places during the Hittite empire.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The Anittas document is preserved in a copy written in the Old Kingdom period and in later copies, and it exhibits a number of archaic features of grammar and writing. The beginning of the document, with its Akkadian imperative QIBIMA "speak!" follows the pattern of early Akkadian letters in which the document itself is commanded to reveal its contents, something not found in later Hittite historical texts.

One of the culturally intriguing aspects of this text is the god DSiu-summin "our god," or "Our Sius," a god who appears nowhere else in Hittite texts. The word sius, which is otherwise the generic word meaning "god," is derived from Indo-European *dyeus, the father god of the sky. Anatolian speakers seem to have brought the worship of this god into Anatolia, since cognates exist in the other Anatolian languages and refer to a solar deity. It is not entirely clear whether the expression is to be translated as "our god" or "Our Sius", though the age of the text and the fact that the noun sius is twice found with an enclitic possessive pronoun in a combination that has undergone an archaic sound change, suggest that the latter interpretation is possible. Although neither Anittas nor his father Pithanas bore an Indo-European name, the struggle over possession of the god's statue might indicate that they venerated a god of Indo-European origin. This may suggest that the people later known to us as Hittites were an ethnically mixed group of speakers of an Indo-European language and indigenous Hattic inhabitants of Anatolia. The extracts given below record the deeds of Anittas' father Pithana, the beginning of Anittas' career, the rescue of DSiu-summin from the king of Zalpuwa, and Anittas' destruction of the city of Hattusas. Since Anittas places a curse on anyone who tries to settle Hattusas after he has devastated it, and sows weeds over the site as a way of rendering the land unfit for cultivation, it is puzzling that roughly 100 years later the first Hittite king from whose reign we have documents, Hattusilis I, founded the Hittite capital there.

MA-ni-it-ta DUMU MPi-it-ha-a-na LUGAL URUKu-us-sa-ra QÍ-BÍ-MA
  • MA-ni-it-ta -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as nominative singular animate <Anitta-> Anittas -- Anittas # Personal names and place names were often written in their stem forms regardless of syntactic function.
  • DUMU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU> son, child -- son # The Hittite reading of DUMU is uncertain.
  • MPi-it-ha-a-na -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Pithāna-> Pithanas -- of Pithanas
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <LUGAL> king -- king # The Hittite reading is hāssuwas.
  • URUKu-us-sa-ra -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Kussara-> Kussara -- the city of Kussara
  • QÍ-BÍ-MA -- verb; Akkadian imperative of <qabū> speak + Akkadian enclitic participle; <-MA> so, thus -- speak thus

ne-pi-is-za-as-ta DIŠKUR-un-ni a-as-su-us e-es-ta
  • ne-pi-is-za-as-ta -- noun; genitive singular of <nēpis> heaven + locatival particle; <-asta> (indicating continuing action) -- of heaven # The form of the genitive here is archaic.
  • DIŠKUR-un-ni -- proper noun; Sumerogram <DIŠKUR> Stormgod + Hittite phonetic complement; <-un-ni> (indicating dative singular) -- to the Stormgod # The phonetic complement indicates that the Hittite reading of this divine name may be Tarhunni.
  • a-as-su-us -- adjective; nominative singular animate of <āssu-> good, dear -- dear
  • e-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- was

na-as-ta DIŠKUR-un-ni-ma ma-a-an a-as-su-us e-es-ta URUNe-e-sa-as LUGAL-us URUKu-us-sa-ra-as LUGAL-i ...
  • na-as-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle; <-asta> (indicating continuing action) -- and
  • DIŠKUR-un-ni-ma -- proper noun; Sumerogram <DIŠKUR> Stormgod + Hittite phonetic complement; <-un-ni> (indicating dative singular) + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- to the Stormgod
  • ma-a-an -- conjunction; <mān> if, when -- when
  • a-as-su-us -- adjective; nominative singular animate of <āssu-> good, dear -- dear
  • e-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- was
  • URUNe-e-sa-as -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Nēsa-> Nesas -- of the city of Nesa
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king # The Hittite reading is hāssus.
  • URUKu-us-sa-ra-as -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Kussara-> Kussara -- of the city of Kussara
  • LUGAL-i -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-i> (indicating dative singular) -- to the king # The text is broken off here, but a verb is probably to be restored.

LUGAL URUKu-us-sa-ra URU-az kat-ta pa-an-ga-ri-it ú-e-et nu URUNe-e-sa-an is-pa-an-di na-ak-ki-it da-a-as
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <LUGAL> king -- the king
  • URUKu-us-sa-ra -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Kussara-> Kussara -- of Kussara
  • URU-az -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + Hittite phonetic complement; <-az> (indicating ablative singular) -- from the city # The Hittite reading is hāpperiyaz.
  • kat-ta -- postposition; <katta> down, downwards -- down from
  • pa-an-ga-ri-it -- adverb; <pangarit> in large numbers, in force -- in force
  • ú-e-et -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- came
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • URUNe-e-sa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Nēsa-> Nesas -- the city of Nesa
  • is-pa-an-di -- noun; dative singular of <ispant-> night -- in the night
  • na-ak-ki-it -- adverb; <nakkit> in force, by force -- by force
  • da-a-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- took

URUNe-e-sa-as LUGAL-un IṢ-BAT Ù DUMUMEŠ URUNe-e-sa-as i-da-a-lu na-at-ta ku-e-da-ni-ik-ki tak-ki-is-ta
  • URUNe-e-sa-as -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Nēsa-> Nesas -- of the city of Nesa
  • LUGAL-un -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-un> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- the king
  • IṢ-BAT -- verb; Akkadogram 3rd person singular preterite of <ṣabātu> seize, take -- took captive # The Hittite reading is ēpta.
  • Ù -- conjunction; Akkadogram <Ù> and -- and
  • DUMUMEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative animate <DUMU> son, child + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- to the inhabitants
  • URUNe-e-sa-as -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Nēsa-> Nesas -- of the city of Nesa
  • i-da-a-lu -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <idālu> evil, harm -- evil
  • na-at-ta -- negative; <natta> not -- did not
  • ku-e-da-ni-ik-ki -- indefinite pronoun; dative singular of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- to anyone
  • tak-ki-is-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <taks-, takkis-> construct, contrive, use -- did # The stem form probably alternated between takis- before consonants and taks- before vowels, since the vowel [i] was regularly inserted between a velar stop and consonant or word boundary in other words.

an-nu-us at-tu-us i-e-et
  • an-nu-us -- noun; accusative plural animate of <anna-> mother -- mothers # The text is broken off before this sentence, although it can be assumed that the subject of the sentence was Pithanas.
  • at-tu-us -- noun; accusative plural animate of <atta-> father -- fathers
  • i-e-et -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- made # This sentence may indicate that Pithanas honored the inhabitants of Nesa. Since the Hittites considered Nesa their original territory, it is interesting that Pithanas, whose name is not Hittite, treated Nesa's people as "mothers and fathers."

nu MPi-it-ha-a-na-as at-ta-as-ma-as a-ap-pa-an sa-ni-ya ú-et-ti hu-ul-la-an-za-an hu-ul-la-nu-un
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • MPi-it-ha-a-na-as -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Pithāna-> Pithanas -- Pithanas
  • at-ta-as-ma-as -- noun; genitive singular animate of <atta-> father + enclitic pronoun; 1st person singular genitive of <-mi-> my -- my father
  • a-ap-pa-an -- postposition; <āppan> after, following -- after
  • sa-ni-ya -- adjective; dative-locative singular of <sani-> one, the same + enclitic conjunction; <-ya> and -- and in the same
  • ú-et-ti -- noun; dative-locative singular of <wētt-> year -- year
  • hu-ul-la-an-za-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <hullanza-> battle -- a revolt
  • hu-ul-la-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <hulla-> fight, defeat -- I suppressed

DUTU-az ut-ne-e ku-it ku-it-pat a-ra-is nu-us hu-u-ma-an-du-us-pat hu-ul-la-nu-un
  • DUTU-az -- proper noun; Sumerogram <UTU> Sungod + Hittite phonetic complement; <-az> (indicating ablative singular) -- from the direction of the sunrise # In other words, "from the east."
  • ut-ne-e -- noun; nominative singular neuter of <utnē-> land, country -- country
  • ku-it ku-it-pat -- indefinite relative pronoun; nominative -acc.sg. neut. of <kui- kui-> whoever, whichever, whatever + emphasizing particle; <-pat> ... -- whatever
  • a-ra-is -- 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation; <arai-> arise, rise, rise up -- rose up
  • nu-us -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-a> he, she, it -- them # Since udnē "country" is neuter singular, the animate plural pronoun and the following adjective should refer to the people of the lands in revolt.
  • hu-u-ma-an-du-us-pat -- adjective; accusative plural animate of <hūmant-> all, each, every + emphasizing particle; <-pat> ... -- each of the aforementioned
  • hu-ul-la-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <hulla-> fight, defeat -- I defeated

ka-ru-ú MU-uh-na-as LUGAL URUZa-a-al-pu-wa DSi-ú-sum-mi-in URUNe-e-sa-az URUZa-a-al-pu-wa pe-e-da-as
  • ka-ru-ú -- adverb; <karū> before, previously -- previously
  • MU-uh-na-as -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Uhna-> Uhnas -- Uhnas
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <LUGAL> king -- king
  • URUZa-a-al-pu-wa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Zālpuwa-> Zalpuwas -- of the city of Zalpuwas
  • DSi-ú-sum-mi-in -- noun; accusative singular animate of <Siusummin> our god, our Sius -- our Sius # The expression Siusummin presumably refers to a statue of the deity. Siusummin acts as a quasi-compound made up of an archaic accusative siun plus the first person plural enclitic personal pronoun -summin. In other texts, the first word in the compound, sius, from IE *dyeus, is the generic word for god, but in this text it probably refers to a particular god. The original form of the compound would have been *siun-summin. Since the synchronic outcome of sequences of n-s is nz while inherited sequences of *ns became ss, and the accusative itself is old, the formation is presumably archaic.
  • URUNe-e-sa-az -- proper noun; ablative singular of <Nēsa-> Nesas -- from the city of Nesa
  • URUZa-a-al-pu-wa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as allative singular <Zālpuwa-> Zalpuwas -- to the city of Zalpuwas
  • pe-e-da-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pēda-> bring, take -- removed

ap-pe-ez-zi-ya-na MA-ni-it-ta-as LUGAL.GAL DSi-ú-sum-mi-in URUZa-a-al-pu-wa-az a-ap-pa URUNe-e-sa pe-e-tah-hu-un
  • ap-pe-ez-zi-ya-na -- adverb; <appezziyan> later, subsequently + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- but subsequently
  • MA-ni-it-ta-as -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Anitta-> Anittas -- Anittas
  • LUGAL.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <LUGAL> king + adjective; Sumerogram <GAL> chief, great -- the Great King
  • DSi-ú-sum-mi-in -- noun; accusative singular animate of <Siusummin> our god, our Sius -- Our Sius
  • URUZa-a-al-pu-wa-az -- proper noun; ablative singular of <Zālpuwa-> Zalpuwas -- from Zalpuwas
  • a-ap-pa -- preverb; <āppa> back -- back
  • URUNe-e-sa -- proper noun; allative of <Nēsa-> Nesas -- to Nesa
  • pe-e-tah-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pēda-> bring, take -- brought back # Here the preverb āppa is separated from the verb pētahhun.

MHu-uz-zi-ya-na LUGAL URUZa-a-al-pu-wa hu-su-wa-an-ta-an URUNe-e-sa ú-wa-te-nu-un
  • MHu-uz-zi-ya-na -- proper noun; accusative singular of <Huzziya-> Huzziyas + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- but Huzziyas
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate <LUGAL> king -- the king
  • URUZa-a-al-pu-wa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Zālpuwa-> Zalpuwas -- of Zalpuwas
  • hu-su-wa-an-ta-an -- adjective; accusative singular animate of <huswant-> alive -- alive
  • URUNe-e-sa -- proper noun; allative of <Nēsa-> Nesas -- to Nesa
  • ú-wa-te-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <uwate-> bring -- brought

URUHa-at-tu-sa
  • URUHa-at-tu-sa -- proper noun; <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- Hattusas # The front side of the tablet ends here, and since the text is broken off, the case is unknown.

tak-ki-is-ta
  • tak-ki-is-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <taks-, takkis-> construct, contrive, use -- contrived # This verb begins the first line of the back of text. It is not clear whether it belongs in the same sentence with Hattusa above.

sa-an ta-a-la-ah-hu-un
  • sa-an -- sentence particle; <su> and, but + enclitic pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-a-> him, her, it -- and it # Since the enclitic pronoun -an is animate, and place names are always animate, the pronoun should refer to Hattusas, which Anittas has apparently been besieging.
  • ta-a-la-ah-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <dāla-> leave, leave alone -- I abandoned

ma-a-na-as ap-pe-ez-zi-ya-na ki-is-ta-an-zi-at-ta-at
  • ma-a-na-as -- conjunction; <mān> if, when + enclitic pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-a-> him, her, it -- when it # The pronoun presumably refers to the city. The tablet is broken here, but most of the sentence seems to have been preserved.
  • ap-pe-ez-zi-ya-na -- adverb; <appezziyan> later, subsequently + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- but afterwards
  • ki-is-ta-an-zi-at-ta-at -- 3rd person singular preterite middle of; <kistiyanziya-> be hungry, suffer famine -- suffered famine

sa-an DHal-ma-su-i-iz Dsi-i-us-mi-is pa-ra-a pa-is
  • sa-an -- sentence particle; <su> and, but + enclitic pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-a-> him, her, it -- but it
  • DHal-ma-su-i-iz -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Halmasuitt-> deified throne dais -- Halmasuitt-
  • Dsi-i-us-mi-is -- noun; nominative singular animate of <sius> god + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-mi-> my -- my god # A break in the tablet at the end of the word Halmasuitt- makes it impossible to determine the word's case and makes the interpretation of the sentence difficult. If the word is to be restored as nominative DHal-ma-su-i-iz then the sentence should be interpreted as "My goddess, DHalmasuwiz, handed it over to me." However, the ending can plausibly be restored as a dative DHal-ma-su-it-ti and an interpretation "My god, Sius, handed it over to the deified throne dais" cannot be ruled out. There is evidence from other texts that the throne dais was deified.
  • pa-ra-a -- preverb; <parā> forth -- forth
  • pa-is -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- handed over # The preverb parā changes the meaning of the verb from "give" to "hand over".

sa-an is-pa-an-di na-ak-ki-it da-a-ah-hu-un
  • sa-an -- sentence particle; <su> and, but + enclitic pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-a-> him, her, it -- but it
  • is-pa-an-di -- noun; dative singular of <ispant-> night -- in the night
  • na-ak-ki-it -- adverb; <nakkit> in force, by force -- by force
  • da-a-ah-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- I took

pe-e-di-is-si-ma ZÀ.AH-LI-an a-ne-e-nu-un
  • pe-e-di-is-si-ma -- noun; dative-locative singular of <pēda> place + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular dative of <-sis> his, her, its + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- and in its place
  • ZÀ.AH-LI-an -- noun; Sumerogram <ZÀ.AH-LI> cress, weed + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- weeds
  • a-ne-e-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <anniya-> do, work -- I sowed

ku-is am-me-el a-ap-pa-an LUGAL-us ki-i-sa-ri nu URUHa-at-tu-sa-an a-ap-pa a-sa-a-si na-an ne-pi-sa-as DIŠKUR-as ha-az-zi-e-et-tu
  • ku-is -- relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- whoever
  • am-me-el -- pronoun; 1st person singular genitive of <ūk> I -- me
  • a-ap-pa-an -- postposition; <āppan> after, following -- after
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- king
  • ki-i-sa-ri -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <kīs-> become, happen -- becomes
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • URUHa-at-tu-sa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- the city of Hattusas
  • a-ap-pa -- adverb; <āppa> again -- again
  • a-sa-a-si -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <asās-> settle -- settles
  • na-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- it
  • ne-pi-sa-as -- noun; genitive singular of <nēpis> heaven -- heaven
  • DIŠKUR-as -- proper noun; Sumerogram <DIŠKUR> Stormgod + Hittite phonetic complement; <-as> (functioning here as nominative singular animate) -- the Stormgod
  • ha-az-zi-e-et-tu -- verb; 3rd person singular imperative of <hazziya-> strike, engrave -- smite

Lesson Text

MA-ni-it-ta DUMU MPi-it-ha-a-na LUGAL URUKu-us-sa-ra QÍ-BÍ-MA
ne-pi-is-za-as-ta DIŠKUR-un-ni a-as-su-us e-es-ta
na-as-ta DIŠKUR-un-ni-ma ma-a-an a-as-su-us e-es-ta URUNe-e-sa-as LUGAL-us URUKu-us-sa-ra-as LUGAL-i ...
LUGAL URUKu-us-sa-ra URU-az kat-ta pa-an-ga-ri-it ú-e-et nu URUNe-e-sa-an is-pa-an-di na-ak-ki-it da-a-as
URUNe-e-sa-as LUGAL-un IṢ-BAT Ù DUMUMEŠ URUNe-e-sa-as i-da-a-lu na-at-ta ku-e-da-ni-ik-ki tak-ki-is-ta
an-nu-us at-tu-us i-e-et
nu MPi-it-ha-a-na-as at-ta-as-ma-as a-ap-pa-an sa-ni-ya ú-et-ti hu-ul-la-an-za-an hu-ul-la-nu-un
DUTU-az ut-ne-e ku-it ku-it-pat a-ra-is nu-us hu-u-ma-an-du-us-pat hu-ul-la-nu-un
ka-ru-ú MU-uh-na-as LUGAL URUZa-a-al-pu-wa DSi-ú-sum-mi-in URUNe-e-sa-az URUZa-a-al-pu-wa pe-e-da-as
ap-pe-ez-zi-ya-na MA-ni-it-ta-as LUGAL.GAL DSi-ú-sum-mi-in URUZa-a-al-pu-wa-az a-ap-pa URUNe-e-sa pe-e-tah-hu-un
MHu-uz-zi-ya-na LUGAL URUZa-a-al-pu-wa hu-su-wa-an-ta-an URUNe-e-sa ú-wa-te-nu-un
URUHa-at-tu-sa
tak-ki-is-ta
sa-an ta-a-la-ah-hu-un
ma-a-na-as ap-pe-ez-zi-ya-na ki-is-ta-an-zi-at-ta-at
sa-an DHal-ma-su-i-iz Dsi-i-us-mi-is pa-ra-a pa-is
sa-an is-pa-an-di na-ak-ki-it da-a-ah-hu-un
pe-e-di-is-si-ma ZÀ.AH-LI-an a-ne-e-nu-un
ku-is am-me-el a-ap-pa-an LUGAL-us ki-i-sa-ri nu URUHa-at-tu-sa-an a-ap-pa a-sa-a-si na-an ne-pi-sa-as DIŠKUR-as ha-az-zi-e-et-tu

Translation

Anitta, Son of Pithana, King of Kussara, speak! He was dear to the Stormgod of Heaven, and when he was dear to the Stormgod of Heaven, the king of Nesa [verb broken off] to the king of Kussara. The king of Kussara, Pithana, came down out of the city in force, and he took the city of Nesa in the night by force. He took the King of Nesa captive, but he did not do any evil to the inhabitants of Nesa; instead, he made them mothers and fathers. After my father, Pithana, I suppresed a revolt in the same year. Whatever lands rose up in the direction of the sunrise, I defeated each of the aforementioned.
Previously, Uhna, the king of Zalpuwas, had removed our Sius from the city of Nesa to the city of Zalpuwas. But subsequently, I, Anittas, the Great King, brought our Sius back from Zalpuwas to Nesa. But Huzziyas, the king of Zalpuwas, I brought back alive to Nesa. The city of Hattusas [tablet broken] contrived. And I abandoned it. But afterwards, when it suffered famine, my goddess, Halmasuwiz, handed it over to me. And in the night I took it by force; and in its place, I sowed weeds. Whoever becomes king after me and settles Hattusas again, may the Stormgod of Heaven smite him!

Grammar

1 The Sound System

Given the limitations of the cuneiform syllabary and the fact that there are no current speakers of Hittite, the exact pronunciation of Hittite will never be known. However there is consensus on some major points. The following description takes into account some points of controversy but omits many minor details.

1.1 Vowels

Old Hittite had at least three short vowel phonemes and three long vowel phonemes. Subsequent sound change may have altered this system somewhat. At least there are indications that sound change altered the distribution of some of these sounds.

Short Vowels   Front       Back
High   [i]       [u]
Mid   [e]        
Low       [a]    

Long vowels are indicated by double writing, also called plene writing, for example: da-a-at-ti [dāti] 'you take', pe-e-da-as [pēdas] '(s)he took away', or i-it [īd] 'go!' (see section 2.2). There is no evidence for back rounded mid vowels [o] and [ō]. Indo-European *a and *o had probably merged in a-type vowels by the time the Hittite texts are attested, and there is no evidence that sound change created new o-type vowels. Hittite may also have had two mid front close vowel phonemes that were pronounced like the vowels of English bet and bed, although the existence and distribution of these vowels is not a matter of general agreement.

Long Vowels   Front       Back
High   [ī]       [ū]
Mid   [ē]        
Low       [ā]    
1.2 Diphthongs

There are several diphthongs, although the exact number is under dispute. [āi] and [āu] were probably long diphthongs, from several sources. It is not clear whether there were also two corresponding short diphthongs [ai] and [au]. There were probably also at least three other diphthongs: [eu], [iu], and [ui], which were created by various sound changes. The length of the vowel element in these diphthongs is not known.

1.3 Stops

There were eight stops, and there is no evidence to indicate that their distribution was affected by sound change during the 500 years during which Hittite was written.

    Labial   Dental   Velar   Labiovelar
    [p]   [t]   [k]   [kw]
    [b]   [d]   [g]   [gw]

Some scholars consider [p], [t], [k] and [kw] to have been voiceless stops, and [b], [d], [g] and [gw] to have been voiced stops. Other scholars, however, consider the first series to have been fortis, or long, stop consonants and the second series to have been lenis, or short, stops. Members of the first series are written as double consonants between vowels (for example, a-ap-pa adv. 'back' [āpa]), and members of the second are written as single consonants (e.g., a-pa-a-at 'it' [abāt]). See section 2. There is also some evidence for the existence of true geminate, or doubled, stops, for example perhaps at-ta-as 'father' [attas], though the distribution of such sounds is disputed.

1.4 Glides, Nasals, and Liquids

There were two glides, a palatal [y] and a labial [w]. There were also at least two nasal phonemes [n] and [m] and two liquid phonemes [l] and [r]. Nasals and liquids are written double in a number of contexts, and the evidence suggests that [n], [m], [l], and [r] were opposed to geminate, or doubled, nasals and liquids. In some cases a clear contrast can be established, indicating that the difference was at least in part phonemic, e.g., a-a-ri '(s)he arrives' [āri] as opposed to a-ar-ri '(s)he washes' [ārri].

1.5 Fricatives and Affricates

Hittite had at least one voiceless dental fricative [s], which may have contrasted with a geminate [ss]. The existence of corresponding voiced [z] and [zz] is uncertain. Hittite probably also had at least two h-like phonemes from the Indo-European (IE) laryngeals *h₂ and *h₃. IE *h₃ was retained only initially, and it is unclear whether it was distinct from the descendant of *h₂, which was also retained initially. Between vowels, there are two sounds [h] and [hh], which are both descended from *h₂, and which may have been voiced and voiceless, or fortis and lenis, counterparts of one another. There was at least one affricate, [ts], which is spelled with signs containing Z.

1.6 References on Hittite Phonology

For more detailed current analyses of the Hittite sound system see H.C. Melchert, Anatolian Historical Phonology, Amsterdam-Atlanta, GA, 1994, and S.E. Kimball, Hittite Historical Phonology, Innsbruck, 1999. The two books differ in emphasis and arrangement, and although they are in basic agreement on a number of issues, they disagree on others. This account tries to present some of the differences.

2 The Cuneiform Syllabary

Hittite is written in a form of the cuneiform syllabary, a writing system in use in Sumerian city-states in Mesopotamia by roughly 3100 B.C.E. and used to write a number of languages in the ancient Near East until the first century B.C.E. Most documents in cuneiform were produced by impressing a wedge-shaped stylus cut from a reed into tablets of moist clay, and the name cuneiform, applied to the writing by modern scholars, means "wedge-shaped." In the early third millennium B.C.E. speakers of dialects of Akkadian, a Semitic language, conquered the Sumerian city states, and by approximately 2350 B.C.E. documents were written in cuneiform in Akkadian. Sumerian, a long extinct language, is related to no known language, ancient or modern, and its structure differed from that of Akkadian, which made it necessary to modify the writing system. These modifications are important, because the Hittites borrowed them when they borrowed the writing system, probably from a north Syrian source, in the early second millennium B.C.E. In borrowing this system, the Hittites retained conventions established for writing Sumerian and Akkadian and made few undisputed innovations of their own. For the use of Sumerian and Akkadian in Hittite texts, see section 3.

Unlike an alphabet, in which characters, or letters, represent single sounds, a syllabary is a form of writing in which characters, or signs, represent syllables. Most of the signs that stand for syllabic values are of the shape: V = vowel, CV = consonant + vowel, or VC = vowel plus consonant. There are also a number of signs used to represent sequences of the shape CVC = Consonant-Vowel-Consonant. A standard convention for transcribing Hittite texts is to separate each sign with a hyphen. For example, in the Hittite version of the syllabary the signs AT, TA, and AS (at-ta-as) represent attas 'father' and the signs TAR, RA, AN, ZI (tar-ra-an-zi) represent taranzi 'they speak'.

2.1 Spellings for Consonants

There are some important points to bear in mind about the relationship of the syllabary to the probable pronunciation of Hittite. Because of the spelling practices of the version of Akkadian cuneiform that the Hittites borrowed, the transcription of stops as voiced or voiceless is neither a reliable guide to Hittite pronunciation nor to Indo-European etymology. Signs with T, K, or Q, a sign used for a particular type of consonant in Akkadian, can reflect etymologically voiced or voiceless sounds; for example:

  • a-ta-an-zi, a-da-an-zi 'they eat', and e-te-er 'they ate' pronounced: [adantsi] and [ēder] from the IE root *h₁ed-;
  • pe-e-da-an, pe-e-di, pe-e-ti 'place' pronounced [pēdan] and [pēdi] from IE *pedom;
  • te-e-eh-hi 'I put', da-it-ti and ta-it-ti 'you (sg.) put', da-a-i '(s)he puts', ti-ya-an-zi 'they put' pronounced [dēhhi], [dāiti], [dāi], and [diyantsi] from the IE stem *dheh₁y-;
  • ge-e-nu, ke-nu-un 'knee' pronounced [gēnu], [gēnun] from IE *genu-;
  • ke-es-sar-az 'from the hand' pronounced [gissrats] from IE *ghesr-;
  • du-ug-ga-a-ri, du-uq-qa-a-ri, tu-uq-qa-a-ri 'is important' pronounced [tukāri] from the IE root *tuk-;
  • ku-en-zi '(s)he kills' pronounced [gwēntsi] from IE *ghwenti.

The reasons for this are complicated. The original version of the syllabary didn't regularly distinguish voiced and voiceless stops in vowel-plus-stop signs. Such signs are transcribed according to the value of a following sign. For example, the sign transcribed as UK or UG in du-ug-ga-a-ri, du-uq-qa-a-ri and tu-uq-qa-a-ri is the same sign, but the signs that follow it are GA and QA. Even where the syllabary theoretically offered ways of indicating a distinction, for example as is the case with most CV signs and many CVC signs, the distinction was not indicated. The original syllabary could distinguish PV from BV, but the Hittites normally used only the former in writing words syllabically. Thus PV signs can indicate [pV] or [bV]; for example: pa-a-ah-hur 'fire' pronounced [pāhur] (IE root *peh₂) but par-ku-us 'high', pronounced [bargus] (IE root *bhergh-).

Between vowels, doubled stops usually indicate etymologically voiceless stops, while single stops indicate etymologically voiced stops; for example: a-ap-pa 'after' pronounced [āpa] (IE *apō) but a-pa-a-as 'that' pronounced [abās] (IE *h₁obho-) or ú-e-ek-ka-an-zi 'they ask' pronounced [wekantsi] (IE *wek-) but te-e-kan 'earth' pronounced [dēgan] (IE *dheghōm).

Liquids, nasals, [s], and [h] may also be written single or double between vowels. Sometimes, they are also written this way before or after consonants, but there is little agreement on the interpretation of these spellings. The glide [y] may be represented with the sign I, for example: i-e-et '(s)he made' [yēt], si-i-e-es-sar 'beer' [syēssar], i-ú-ga-an 'yoke' [yugan], or pi-an-zi 'they give' [pyantsi]. Between a-vowels it is often represented with YA (e.g., sal-la-ya-as 'big' (gen. sg.) [sallayas]), and before [a] it is often spelled Ci-ya (e.g., pi-ya-an-zi 'they give' [pyantsi]). Before [a] it is often represented with I-YA (e.g., i-ya-an-zi 'they make' [yantsi]). The glide [w] tends to be written with WA before [a] (e.g., wa-a-tar 'water' [wādar]) and with the signs U and Ú before other vowels; the latter tends to be favored before I and E, for example: ú-e-el-lu-wa-as 'meadow' [wēllwas]. A spelling CU-WA- or Ú-WA-, U-WA- may be used to indicate the sequence [wa], for example: ú-wa-an-du 'let them look' [wantu], u-wa-it-ta-ri '(s)he sees' (3 sg. midd.) [waitari], and ú-wa-a-tar 'water' [wādar]. There is no evidence to indicate that the signs U and Ú ("u-two") indicated different sounds.

Signs transcribed with Z indicate a sound [ts] like the final two sounds of the English word cats, for example zi-ik 'you' (nom. sg.) [tsik], az-zi-ik-kan-zi 'they keep on eating' [atsikantsi], pa-a-iz-zi '(s)he goes' [pāitsi], par-na-az 'from the house' [parnats]. Any evidence for the use of Z to indicate the voiced counterpart of [s] (i.e., with a value like that of English z in zoo) is limited and controversial.

2.2 Spellings for Vowels

Vowels may be doubled by writing CV-V, V-VC or CV-V-VC, a device sometimes known as plene writing. In many cases, this is done to indicate long vowels; for example: da-a-i '(s)he takes' [dāi], ka-a-an-ki 'it hangs' [gānki], i-it (imp.) 'go' [īd], ak-ku-us-ke-e-wa-ni 'we keep drinking' [akwskēwani], si-i-e-es-sar 'beer' [syēssar], and as-su-u 'goods' (neut. pl.) [āssū]. The use of plene writing to indicate long vowels is not necessarily consistent. Generally, however, it's used more often in older texts than in more recent ones.

The version of the cuneiform syllabary used by the Hittites did not always allow the front vowels [e], [ē] and [i], [ī] to be distinguished. Signs with front vowel plus stop were indifferent to the distinction. Thus, the sign composed of front vowel plus dental stop could be read as [et], [ed], [it], or [id]. Sometimes plene writing or etymological knowledge allows us to discriminate the vowel. For example, e-et 'eat' (imp.) is from IE *eh₁d and should be read as [ēd], but i-it 'go' (imp.) is from IE *ih₁dhi and is read [īd]. Some CV signs for stop plus vowel did not allow the distinction to be made (e.g., KI can represent [ki], [ke], [ge], or [gi]). Other CV signs for stop plus vowel, however, allowed the distinction to be indicated (e.g., there is one sign for TE and another for TI). Many CV and VC signs with other types of consonants also allowed the distinction (e.g., SE vs. SI, HE vs. HI, ME vs. MI, EL vs. IL, EN vs. IN, and ES vs. IS), but the distinction was not always preserved in spelling. For example, after consonants, the nominative plural ending, which was [-ēs], is found as -CE-E-ES, -CE-ES, -CI-IS, and even -CE-IS and CI-ES. There are a number of reasons for this apparent anarchy. The source from which the Hittites borrowed cuneiform probably did not observe a distinction between [e] and [i] or [ē] and [ī] consistently. Sometimes the Hittite scribes preferred one sign over another regardless of its value in the syllabary. For example, HI, which is a less complex sign than HE, is much more common than HE. ZE, which is more complicated than ZI, is quite rare. Sometimes the use of one sign instead of another seems to have been a matter of habit. DI, for example, is hardly ever found at the beginnings of words, although TI and TE are. Both TI and DI may be found at the ends of words, though TE is relatively rare in this position. It is also possible that at some point the long vowel [ī] and [ē] and the short vowels [i] and [e] had merged, at least in some phonological environments, but such a merger is subject to considerable dispute.

2.3 Spellings for Consonant Clusters

We know that Hittite had initial, internal, and final consonant clusters. But, because the syllabary offers no way of writing a consonant that is not preceded or followed by a vowel, such clusters sometimes had to be written with a so-called "dead" vowel; that is a vowel that is written but not pronounced. In the clearest cases, the designated dead vowel is A, written CA or AC. Some examples are pa-ra-a 'forth, to' [pr:a], par-as-du-us 'foliage' [parstus], e-ez-za-at-te-en 'eat' (2 pl. imp.) [ētsten], ka-a-as-za 'hunger' [kāsts], and ki-is-sa-ri beside ki-is-ri 'in the hand' [gissrī]. Descendents of IE words in initial *s plus stop are normally written with the initial sign IS, (e.g., is-ta-na-a-an-as 'at the altar tables' from the IE root *stah₂-), though forms of the verb meaning "make a libation" (from IE *spend-) are written with SI-PV (e.g., si-pa-an-ti '(s)he makes a libation') except in the early period, where a spelling with IS-P is occasionally found (e.g., is-pa-an-ti '(s)he makes a libation'). It is possible that the initial IS represents a genuine vowel, in which case a spelling is-ta-na-a-na-as would represent [istanānas], indicating a development comparable to the development of an initial vowel before [s] plus stop in Spanish (e.g. espada 'sword' from Latin spatha). However, it is also possible that IS was a sign with the dead vowel used as a fairly conventional spelling for initial clusters of [s] plus stop, in which case the spelling is-ta-na-a-an-as would represent [stanānas].

3 The Use of Sumerian and Akkadian

Since the Cuneiform syllabary was invented by Sumerians and later borrowed and adapted by speakers of the Semitic language Akkadian, the Hittite scribes inherited a number of writing conventions from Sumerian and Akkadian. The most notable of these is the use of Sumerian and Akkadian words as ideograms representing Hittite words and distinguishing grammatical functions. The typical Hittite text is a mixture of syllabic writing of Hittite words, Sumerian, Akkadian, and odd hybrids in which Hittite syllabic writing is combined with Sumerian and/or Akkadian or in which Akkadian and Sumerian are combined.

3.1 Sumerograms

Although Hittite could be spelled with syllabic signs, the Hittite scribes also used Sumerian signs (or Sumerograms) ideographically. In other words, a word might be written in Sumerian, but it was read in Hittite. This is a practice that the Hittites borrowed and adapted from Akkadian cuneiform, which also used Sumerograms. In transcribing Hittite texts, it is conventional to render Sumerograms in capitals. For example, the Hittite word for "king" was usually written as LUGAL, the Sumerian word for "king," but we know that when a text was read, the word was pronounced in Hittite as [hāssus]. Similarly, the Sumerogram EN 'lord, master' was read in Hittite as [ishās], and HUL 'evil, bad' was read as Hittite [idālu]. The Sumerian plural markers MEŠ, HI.A, and DIDLI were also used to indicate plurals. For example, we find ŠEŠ 'brother' (Hitt. nom. sg. [negnas]) beside ŠEŠMEŠ 'brothers' (Hitt. nom. pl. [negnēs]), UDU 'sheep' (Hitt. nom. sg. *[pekkus] or [yants]) beside plural UDUHI.A, or URU 'city' (Hitt. nom.sg. [happeriyas]) beside plural URUDIDLI. Occasionally, one finds two Sumerian plural markers attached to a word, for example, ERINMEŠHI.A 'troops' or URUDIDLI.HI.A 'cities'.

3.2 Phonetic Complements

Often, probably to distinguish grammatical function, to disambiguate synonyms, or simply to remind the scribe of the Hittite reading, Sumerograms were followed by one or more syllables to indicate the reading. Such syllabic tags are called phonetic complements, and they are another practice borrowed from Akkadian. For example, The sentence LUGAL a-us-zi could mean either "(S)he sees the king" or "The king observes." However, LUGAL-us a-us-zi with the syllabic complement -us indicating that LUGAL is to be read in Hittite as nominative singular [hāssus] clearly means "The king observes" (pronounced [hāssus austsi]). But LUGAL-un a-us-zi with the syllabic complement -un, indicating that the word for "king" is accusative singular ([hāssun]) clearly means that someone sees the king (pronounced [hāssun austsi]). The spelling UDU-us 'sheep' (nom. sg.) indicates that the Hittite word underlying the Sumerogram was a u-stem (probably *[pekkus], which is not attested in syllabic writing). HUL-lu-un (Sumerian HUL 'evil' plus Hittite phonetic complement -lu-un) was read as "evil" (noun or adjective) accusative singular (in Hittite, [idālun]), but HUL-ah-mi (HUL plus phonetic complement -ah-mi) was read as first person singular present [idālawahmi] 'I (will) harm, I (will) do evil'. As with words written in Hittite, Sumerograms are also found with enclitic pronouns and particles, for example: LUGAL-ma-mu UDU pa-is 'But the king gave the sheep to me.' Enclitics could also follow phonetic complements; for example: LUGAL-us-ma-mu a-us-zi 'The king sees me'. (LUGAL = "the king" plus -us indicating nominative singular, plus enclitic conjunction -ma 'but' plus first person singular accusative-dative enclitic personal pronoun -mu 'to me'.)

3.3 Akkadograms and Use of Akkadian

The Hittite scribes also used Akkadian words as ideograms. Such words, called Akkadograms, are conventionally italicized in transcriptions of Hittite texts and they may be capitalized to distinguish them as Akkadograms as opposed to Akkadian words borrowed into Hittite. (The Hittites did borrow some words from Akkadian; for example: Hittite tuppi 'tablet' from Akk. tuppu, ultimately from Sum. dub.) For example, the Hittite word ish:as, 'lord, master' could not only be written in Sumerian as EN but also in Akkadian as BEL (Akk. bēlu). The third person singular preterit of Akkadian ṣābatu 'seize', for example, is sometimes used as an Akkadogram IṢ-BAT to stand for for Hittite ēpta 'seized'. Akkadian was a more highly inflected language than Sumerian, with endings for gender, case and number in the noun and adjective and endings for number, tense, gender and aspect in the verb. These endings were sometimes written in Hittite texts. For example, we find inflected forms of the Akkadogram meaning "lord, master": nom. sg. BE-LU and gen. sg. BE-LAM. Similarly, the word for "father" is found as nom. sg. ABU and gen. sg. ABI. Akkadian also had a special form of the noun, called the construct state (essentially the stem), to which enclitic possessive pronouns were added (e.g., Akk. ab-ī 'my father', abi-ya 'of my father'). The Hittites used these Akkadian possessive pronouns too, but their Akkadian was often faulty, and one finds Akkadograms like ABI-YA, or BĒLI-YA with the pronoun attached to the Akkadian genitive. Sometimes such forms were used syntactically as nominatives, vocatives, or accusatives. Akkadian possessive pronouns could also be used with Sumerograms (e.g., DUMU-ŠU 'his son'). Although Akkadograms were pronounced in Hittite, in writing combinations of nouns and possessive ponouns, the scribes followed Akkadian spelling rules. When possessive suffixes beginning in š were attached to Akkadian words ending in dental stops, the suffixes were spelled with z in the version of Akkadian which the Hittites borrowed, indicating a pronunciation [-ts]. For example, in Akkadian, qāt 'hand' plus the third person singular suffix šu is spelled quazzu. The Hittite scribes followed this practice in writing the suffixes after Sumerograms when the Akkadian equivalent ended in a dental stop, even if neither the Sumerogram nor the underlying Hittite word had a final dental stop. For example, the Hittite word for "land" or "country" was [udnē]. It is often spelled with the Sumerogram KUR, and spellings for "his country" as KUR-ZU, reflecting Akkadian mā-zu for māt 'country' plus possessive suffix -šu are sometimes found.

The scribes used Hittite phonetic complements with Akkadian words less commonly than they did with Sumerian, perhaps because Sumerian was a dead language by the second millennium but Akkadian was a living language used, for example, by the Hittites in diplomatic correspondence. Akkadian could also be used to indicate grammatical relations among Hittite words. For example, the Akkadian prepositions ina, 'in, into' and ana 'to' were used as Akkadograms to indicate the dative and locative as in: IN-A ÉGAL 'into the palace', INA URUHattusi, 'in the city of Hattusas', A-NA TUPPI 'on the tablet', or I-NA kisri-ssi 'in his hand'. The Akkadian preposition ša was used as an Akkadogram to indicate the Hittite genitive, e.g., ŠA LUGAL-u-wa-as 'of the king'. Since Hittite could indicate these relations both with case forms (e.g., hāssuwas 'of the king' or tuppiyas 'of the tablet') and with postpositions (e.g., udnē andan 'in(to) the country') such prepositions serve as graphic indicators only; they were not pronounced. One often finds the dative-locative, for example, marked three times (e.g., I-NA par-ni an-da-an 'into the house' = Akk prep. INA 'into' + Hitt dat. sg. parni 'into the house' + Hitt. postposition andan 'into'). Finally, although Hittite had enclitic and free-standing conjunctions, the Akkadogram Ú could be used to indicate 'and'.

Fragments of Akkadian could also be used after Sumerograms as phonetic complements; for example: DINGIRLUM (from Sumerian DINGIR 'god' plus Akkadian nominative singular ilum 'god'), DINGIRLIM (from DINGIR plus Akkadian genitive singular ilim), or DUMU-ru from Sumerian DUMU 'son' plus Akkadian -ru from nom. sg. māru 'son'). Again, the scribes' command of Akkadian was spotty, and a form like DINGIRLIM was not restricted to the genitive (e.g., with Akkadian phonetic complement from the genitive ilim and Hittite phonetic complement -ni indicating the dative DINGIR-LIM-ni 'to the god' (pronounced in Hittite as [siuni]).

3.4 Determinatives

A characteristic of Sumerian cuneiform that was borrowed by both the Akkadians and the Hittites is the use of determinatives. These are signs that were not pronounced (though most could be used as independent Sumerograms) that indicated what class of items a particular word belonged to. Although most determinatives precede the words they specify, a few customarily follow. One common way of distinguishing determinatives from words in modern transcriptions of cuneiform texts is to superscript the determinatives. For example, the sign GIŠ, which could be used as an independent Sumerogram meaning "wood" or "tree," was also used as a determinative for objects customarily made of wood, such as: Sumerogram GIŠBANŠUR 'table', or Hittite GIŠhapūti, a type of chair. Similarly, the sign URU, used independently to write the word for "city," usually preceded the names of cities or settled areas; for example: URUHa-at-tu-sa-as '(the city of) Hattusas'. The sign MUŠEN, meaning 'bird', was also used as a determinative following the names of birds, for example, ha-ra-a-asMUŠEN 'eagle' (or, as a Sumerogram with a determinative, ÁMUŠEN). Divine names were preceded by the determinative DINGIR 'god', which in modern transcription is normally abbreviated D (e.g., DTe-le-pe-nu-us, a god of vegetation). Determinatives were also used indicate the sex of persons referred to by proper names or occupational titles. The sign MUNUS, used independently to mean "wife" or "woman," preceded names of women. When it precedes women's names it may be rendered in transcriptions as superscript F (e.g. FPu-du-he-pa, Puduhepa, the name of a powerful Hittite queen of the thirteenth century B.C.E. and wife of Hattusilis III). Before the names of men a single vertical stroke was used. This is often rendered in transcriptions as superscript M (e.g. MTe-le-pe-nu-us, the name of an early Hittite king). Before male occupational titles, the Sumerian sign 'man' was used (e.g., A.ZU 'physician' or 'ritual healer'), and the sign MUNUS was used before female occupational titles, e.g., MUNUSŠU.GI, or, in Hittite, MUNUShāsawas 'wise woman, female ritual healer'. The use of determinatives is somewhat like the use of signs like $ or % in English to indicate that what follows is a sum of money or that what precedes is a percentage, although we typically pronounce the non-phonetic signs in, e.g., $100 and 60%, saying "one hundred dollars" (or "one hundred bucks") and "sixty percent."

3.5 Rebus Spellings

Finally, so-called "rebus spellings" involving the use of homonyms were used, especially in writing proper names. This is a strategy comparable to writing the English phrase "I see" with a picture of an eye followed by wavy lines to indicate the waves of the sea, or modern Internet abbreviations such as CU l8tr for "See you later." For example, the word for "man" in Luvian is ziti, and it is an element in a number of names of men in later Hittite. The proper name Uhhaziti is spelled with both Hittite syllables and the Sumerogram 'man' as MU-uh-ha-LÚ in the Annals of Mursilis. One gets the impression that the scribes were having fun with such punning spellings.

4 Active verbs

Compared with the classical languages, Greek and Latin, Hittite has a verb system that is fairly simple. There are two types of endings for active verbs: "mi-endings," which characterize the mi-conjugation and "hi-endings," which characterize the hi-conjugation. Both conjugations include verbs that are transitive, intransitive, and stative. The verb system has two voices, active and middle; the latter is also used as a passive. The verb also has two tenses, present and preterit, or past. The present, often accompanied by appropriate adverbs, is used for the future. The verb system also has two moods: indicative and imperative; the optative and subjunctive of other ancient IE languages are lacking. Modal, aspectual, and other nuances of meaning can, however, be distinguished through the use of adverbial particles, through the addition of derivational suffixes, and through the use of periphrastic constructions. The imperative also has modal functions. Each active conjugation and the middle show some variation in the forms of particular endings. This variation is sometimes the result of the language having inherited variant forms. However, it is often the result of sound changes and analogical innovations, some of which took place in the prehistoric period and some of which can be observed by looking at texts composed at different periods.

4.1 Active Endings

The conjugations take their names from the form of the first person singular present, which is -mi in the mi-conjugation and -hhi in the hi-conjugation. It is only in the singular of the present, preterit, in the third person singular imperative, and partially in the second person singular imperative that the distinction between the two conjugations is maintained; both share a set of endings in the present, preterit, imperative plural, and first person singular imperative. Although we speak of mi- and hi-conjugation forms, each conjugation influenced the other. Some verbs may occur with endings from both conjugations.

Some of the endings provided in the paradigms below have doubled consonants. In the cuneiform syllabary, however, spellings with doubled consonants are only possible after vowels. Such spellings are regular for endings beginning with dental stops or [hh], but the third person singular present mi-conjugation ending may be spelled -zzi or -zi after vowels.

4.2 Inflection of the mi- and hi-conjugations
Present   mi-conjugation       hi-conjugation
1 sg.   -mi       -hhi
2 sg.   -si       -tti
3 sg.   -zzi       -i
1 pl.       -weni    
2 pl.       -tteni    
3 pl.       -anzi, -nzi    
             
Preterit            
1 sg.   -un       -hhun
2 sg.   -s, -ta       -tta
3 sg.   -ta       -s, -ta
1 pl.       -wen    
2 pl.       -tten    
3 pl.       -ēr, -er    
             
Imperative            
1 sg.       -allut    
2 sg.   -0, -t       -0
3 sg.   -ttu       -u
2 pl.       -tten    
3 pl.       -antu, -ntu    
4.3 Paradigms of mi-conjugation verbs

The following are paradigms of two common mi-verbs, ēs- 'be' and daske-, the iterative of dā- 'take'. The former has a stem that alternates between ēs- and as-. The iterative is composed of a root da- to which a suffix that takes the form -ske- or -ska- is added; thus the stem of the iterative is daske-, daska-. In the second person singular imperative of the iterative, the stem final vowel [-e] regularly becomes [-i] in final position. Since not all forms of these verbs are attested, where possible, reconstructions based on attested forms of similar verbs are indicated with an asterisk. Blanks indicate unattested forms for which reconstructions cannot be made with confidence.

Present        
1 sg.   ēs-mi   daske-mi
2 sg.   ēs-si   daske-si
3 sg.   ēs-zi   daske-zzi
1 pl.   *as-weni   dasga-weni
2 pl.   *as-teni   daske-tteni
3 pl.   as-anzi   daska-nzi
         
Preterit        
1 sg.   ēs-un   dasga-nun
2 sg.   *ēs-ta   daske-s
3 sg.   ēs-ta   daske-t
1 pl.   ēs-wen   dasga-nun
2 pl.   *ēs-ten    
3 pl.   es-ēr   dask-ēr
         
Imperative        
1 sg.   as-allu    
2 sg.   ēs   dask-i
3 sg.   ēs-tu   daske-ddu
2 pl.   ēs-ten   daske-tten
3 pl.   as-antu   daska-ndu
4.4 Paradigms of hi-conjugation verbs

The following are paradigms of two common hi-conjugation verbs. The first verb, ār- 'arrive, reach', a consonant stem, shows an alternation between long and short root vowels. The third person singular preterit of ār- is spelled a-ar-sa, ar-sa, and a-ar-as, indicating that it was probably pronounced [ārs]. The verb dā- 'take' has a stem that alternates between [dā-] and [d-]. The ending -umēni of the first person plural preterit indicates that a prehistoric form of the second person plural was *duweni, since a prehistoric sequence of *u followed by *w became um.

Present        
1 sg.   ār-hi   dā-hhi
2 sg.   ār-ti   dā-tti
3 sg.   ār-i   dā-i
1 pl.   *ar-weni   t-umēni
2 pl.   ār-teni   dātteni
3 pl.   ar-anzi   d-anzi
         
Preterit        
1 sg.   ār-hun   dā-hhun
2 sg.   *ār-ta   dā-tta
3 sg.   [ār-s]   dā-s
1 pl.   ar-wen   dā-wen
2 pl.       dā-tten
3 pl.   ār-er   dā-er
         
Imperative        
1 sg.        
2 sg.   *ār  
3 sg.   ār-u   dā-u
2 pl.   ār-tten   dātten
3 pl.   *ar-antu   d-andu
5 Gender and Case

Unlike Greek and Latin, Hittite distinguishes only two genders: animate (or common) and neuter. Some nouns attest both animate and neuter forms. There is evidence that within Indo-European the development of a true feminine gender was later than that of the masculine and neuter. Although it has been argued that the Anatolian languages reflect this early state of affairs, there is evidence that Anatolian did inherit a grammatical feminine but later lost it, and inherited masculine and feminine nouns merged in the animate. In the neuter singular and plural, the forms of the nominative and accusative are identical. Most animate nouns make a nominative singular in -s (from Indo-European *-s) and an accusative singular in -n (from Indo-European *-m). In the animate plural, the regular nominative ending was originally -ēs and the accusative plural ending was -us, though archaic texts attest a rare animate nominative plural ending -as. Both genders share case forms in the genitive, dative, ablative, instrumental and allative. (See subsequent lessons for more thorough discussions of the functions of the cases).

In the singular, there are seven regular case distinctions: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative-locative, ablative, instrumental, and allative. A handful of nouns and adjectives with the suffix -u make a distinct vocative, but the vocative was moribund, even in the early period. For direct address the nominative was normally used instead. A few nouns have a locative formed without a case ending. The allative eventually died out, its function, to indicate direction towards, being taken over by the dative-locative.

The plural shows a tendency to reduce the number of separate case endings. The distinction between the nominative plural in -ēs and the accusative plural in -us is maintained in early texts, but in later texts forms with the original nominative ending -ēs may show up in accusative function and forms with the accusative -us may show up in nominative function. The most common neuter nominative-accusative plural ending is -a. However, a few neuter nouns and adjectives that do not take this ending show lengthening of the vowel of a suffix, at least in early texts. An archaic genitive plural ending -an (from Indo-European *-o:m) is found sporadically in early texts, but it was eventually replaced by the ending -as, identical to the ending of the dative-locative plural. A few nouns attest an instrumental plural ending -it. Sample paradigms of nouns and adjectives made from various stem forms will be provided in subsequent lessons.

5.1 Noun and Adjective Endings
Singular   Anim.       Neut.
nom.   -s       -n
acc.   -n       -n
gen.       -as    
dloc.       -i    
abl.       -az    
inst.       -it    
all.       -a    
Plural            
nom.   -ēs       -a
acc.   -us       -a
gen.       -as    
dat.       -as    
abl.       -az    

The animate nominative singular ending is spelled -s after stems ending in vowels or dipthongs, for example: at-ta-as 'father' = [attas], or ú-e-el-lu-us 'meadow' = [wēllus]. The nominative ending appears as -za, prepresenting a pronunciation [ts] when it occurs with stems ending in dental stops (e.g., ka-a-as-za 'hunger' = [kāsts], or ap-pa-an-za 'captive' = [apānts]). The final consonant of the ending of the ablative singular and ablative-instrumental plural was pronounced [ts]. The ablative endings are normally spelled -az (e.g., ha-as-sa-a-az or É-az and par-na-az, both meaning 'from the house'), although sometimes a spelling -za is found. A few nouns attest an ablative ending -anza, pronounced [-ants] (e.g., lu-ut-ta-an-za 'window'). In some archaic paradigms, the instrumental ending has the form -ta or -da after consonants, (e.g., ú-i-ta-an-ta 'with water', but later ú-e-te-ni-it). After u-stems, the ending may show up as -t. (e.g., ge-nu-ut 'with the knee').

5.2 Sample A-stem Noun Paradigms

A-stems are nouns and adjectives which have stems ending in [-a-] or [-ā-] in the nominative and accusative singular. The first set of paradigms are for the animate nouns lāhha- 'expedition' and anna- 'mother' and for the neuter pēda- 'place'. Since particular forms of some words are not attested, reconstructed forms, marked with an asterisk, are given where reconstructions can be made with confidence. Blanks indicate unattested forms that cannot be reconstructed with confidence.

Singular   Anim.   Anim.   Neut.
nom.   *lāhha-s   anna-s   pēda-n
acc.   *lāhha-n   *anna-n   pēda-n
gen.   *lāhh-as   ann-as   pēd-as
dloc.   lāhh-i   ann-i   pēd-i
abl.   lāhh-az   ann-az   pēd-az
inst.   *lāhh-it       *pēd-it
all.   lāhh-a        
Plural            
nom.   *lāhh-ēs   ann-ēs   *pēd-a
acc.   lāhh-us   ann-us   *pēd-a
gen.   *lāhh-as   *ann-as   pēd-as
dloc.   *lāhh-as   *ann-as   pēd-as
abl.   *lāhh-az   *ann-az   *pēd-az
5.3 A-stem Adjectives

A-stem adjectives, like a-stem nouns, have a stem ending in -a- in the nominative and accusative singular. As adjectives, they may be declined as animate or neuter, depending on the case of the noun which they modify. The paradigm provided below gives forms of the adjective kūnna- 'right' (direction), 'favorable'. This adjective, though sometimes spelled out as ku-u-un-na-, is often written with the Sumerogram ZAG plus phonetic complement, providing information about the shape of the stem and endings. Forms with an asterisk are not attested but can be reconstructed with confidence on the model of other a-stem nouns and adjectives and by considering the phonetic complements attached to the Sumerogram ZAG.

Singular   Anim.       Neut.
nom.   kūnna-s       kūnna-n
acc.   kūnna-n       kūnna-n
gen.       *kūnn-as    
dloc       kūnn-i    
abl.       kūnn-az    
inst.       kūnn-it    
all.       kūnn-a    
Plural            
nom.   kūnn-ēs       kūnn-a
acc.   kūnn-us       kūnn-a
gen.       *kunn-as    
dloc.       *kūnn-as    
abl.       *kūnn-az    

Hittite Online

Lesson 2

Sara E. Kimball and Jonathan Slocum

A number of the Hittite texts concern mythological topics from Sumerian or Hurrian sources. The Telepenus Myth provided in extract form here, however, is one of a group of myths known to modern scholars as "Old Anatolian Myths." These are stories, learned and adapted by the Hittites during the early years of their spread throughout Anatolia, that played various roles in Hittite religious cult. The Telepenus Myth is one of a group of Old Anatolian myths, which modern scholars term "Vanishing God" myths. In these, a deity is offended and stomps off angrily, or is otherwise removed from the world of gods and humans with dire consequences for that world. Telepenus, son of the Hattic Stormgod, was a god of agriculture. His angry departure leaves the divine, human, and, animal world suffering hunger, thirst, and, sterility as described in the extract. The theme of these "Vanishing God" myths is, of course, reminiscent of the Greek myth of Persephone.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The text exists in several copies, the earliest of which follows the writing conventions of the Middle Hittite period, but is probably a copy of an even earlier version. For an English translation, see H. Hoffner, Hittite Myths 2nd. ed. Atlanta, GA, 1998, pp. 14-20. The very beginning of the Telepenus Myth is broken, so the exact cause of the deity's rage is not known. From what can be made out from the surviving fragments, however, the god was angry enough to have put his right shoe on his left foot and vice versa. After the failed feast described in the extract, the gods try various ways of finding Telepenus. The Sungod sends a swift eagle to fly over high mountains and deep valleys to look for him, but the eagle returns without success. Then the Stormgod searches for his son himself, again without luck. Finally, the Mother Goddess, Hannahanna, sends a bee. The little bee, although small and weak finds Telepenus asleep in a meadow and stings him awake. Needless to say, Telepenus is still very angry, but the gods appease him with various offerings in a ceremony that is a model of Hittite ritual practice. At the end of the story Telepenus releases the world from the consequences of his rage and departure, restoring the world to its normal order.

GIŠlu-ut-ta-a-us kam-ma-ra-a-as IṢ-BAT
  • GIŠlu-ut-ta-a-us -- noun; accusative plural animate of <luttāi-> window -- the windows
  • kam-ma-ra-a-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <kammarā-> mist, swarm -- mist
  • IṢ-BAT -- verb; Akkadogram 3rd person singular preterite of <ṣabātu> seize, take -- seized # The Hittite reading is ēpta.

É-er tuh-hu-is IṢ-BAT
  • É-er -- noun; Sumerogram <É> house + Hittite phonetic complement; <-er> (functioning here as accusative singular neuter) -- the house # The Hittite word for house was *pēr, parn-, but it was often written with the Sumerogram É.
  • tuh-hu-is -- noun; nominative singular animate of <tuhhui-> smoke -- smoke
  • IṢ-BAT -- verb; Akkadogram 3rd person singular preterite of <ṣabātu> seize, take -- seized # The Hittite reading is ēpta.

I-NA GUNNI-ma kal-mi-i-sa-ni-is ú-i-su-u-ri-ya-an-ta-ti
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • GUNNI-ma -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <GUNNI> hearth + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- and in the hearth # The Hittite reading of Sumerian GUNNI is hassī. The conjunction -ma functions in these lines to indicate a loose connection between clauses.
  • kal-mi-i-sa-ni-is -- noun; nominative plural animate of <kalmīsana-> log, thunderbolt -- the logs
  • ú-i-su-u-ri-ya-an-ta-ti -- verb; 3rd person plural middle preterite of <wisūriya-> oppress, stifle -- were stifled # The middle functions as a passive in these lines. The third person plural ending -antati is archaic.

is-ta-na-na-as an-da DINGIRMEŠ ú-i-su-u-ri-ya-an-ta-ti
  • is-ta-na-na-as -- noun; dative-locative plural of <istanāna-> altar table -- at the altar tables
  • an-da -- postposition; <anda> in, into, at -- at
  • DINGIRMEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DINGIR> god + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- the gods # The nominative plural of the Hittite word meaning 'god' was siwannes.
  • ú-i-su-u-ri-ya-an-ta-ti -- verb; 3rd person plural middle preterite of <wisūriya-> oppress, stifle -- were stifled # The middle functions as a passive in these lines. The third person plural ending -antati is archaic.

I-NA TÙR an-da UDUHI.A KI.MIN
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • TÙR -- noun; Sumerogram <TÙR> sheepfold -- the sheepfold
  • an-da -- postposition; <anda> in, into, at -- in
  • UDUHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram <UDU> sheep + Sumerian plural marker; <-HI.A> ... -- the sheep # In Hittite texts, the word for "sheep" is always written in Sumerian. There were at least two Hittite words for sheep, iyant- and *pekku-. The word used in this text is probably *pekku- to judge from the phonetic complement -us in nominative singular animate UDU-us = *pekkus below. The Hittite reading of the nominative plural of *pekku- is probably *pekkuēs.
  • KI.MIN -- noun; Sumerogram <KI.MIN> ditto -- (were stifled)

I-NA É.GU₄ an-da-an GU₄HI.A ú-i-su-u-ri-ya-an-ta-ti
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • É.GU₄ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <É.GU₄> cow barn -- the cow barn
  • an-da-an -- postposition; <andan> in, to -- in
  • GU₄HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram <GU₄> cow + Sumerian plural marker; <-HI.A> ... -- the cows
  • ú-i-su-u-ri-ya-an-ta-ti -- verb; 3rd person plural middle preterite of <wisūriya-> oppress, stifle -- were stifled # The middle functions as a passive in these lines. The third person plural ending -antati is archaic.

UDU-us-za SILA₄-ZU mi-im-ma-as
  • UDU-us-za -- noun; Sumerogram <UDU> sheep + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- the ewe # The combination of the word for sheep and the reflexive particle was probably read in Hittite as pekkus-st.
  • SILA₄-ZU -- noun; Sumerogram <SILA₄> lamb + Akkadian 3rd person singular enclitic possessive pronoun; <-ZU> ... -- her lamb # The Hittite word meaning "lamb" is unknown. The Akkadian noun, puhadu, is the equivalent of Sumerian UDU, and the Akkadian reading of the construct state plus possessive pronoun would be puhud-zu with the possessive pronoun spelled -zu after stems ending in dentals. Although the possessive pronoun is written as though the word underlying Sumerian SILA4 were Akkadian, the text was read in Hittite by the scribes.
  • mi-im-ma-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <mimma-> refuse, reject -- rejected # The reflexive particle changes the meaning of the verb from "refuse" to "reject."

GU₄-ma AMAR-ŠU mi-im-ma-as
  • GU₄-ma -- noun; Sumerogram <GU₄> cow + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- and the cow
  • AMAR-ŠU -- noun; Sumerogram <AMAR> young animal, calf + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-ŠU> his, her -- her calf # The Hittite reading for AMAR is unknown.
  • mi-im-ma-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <mimma-> refuse, reject -- rejected # The reflexive particle changes the meaning of the verb from "refuse" to "reject."

DTe-le-pe-nu-sa ar-ha i-ya-an-ni-is
  • DTe-le-pe-nu-sa -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Telepenu-> Telepenus + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- but Telepenus
  • ar-ha -- preverb; <arha> away -- away
  • i-ya-an-ni-is -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <iyanniya-> march -- (had) stomped

hal-ki-in DIm-mar-ni-in sa-al-hi-an-ti-en ma-an-ni-it-ti-en is-pi-ya-tar-ra pe-e-da-as
  • hal-ki-in -- noun; accusative singular animate of <halki-> grain, barley -- barley
  • DIm-mar-ni-in -- noun; accusative singular, animate of <immarni-> fertility? -- fertility? # The meaning of the word is unclear, but given the sterility that results from Telepenus' disappearance something like "fertility" is not implausible. Hoffner translates it as "animal fecundity." Common nouns may sometimes be preceded by the Sumerian determinative D, indicating that they might be regarded in cultic worship as deified. For example halkis grain is sometimes found in ritual texts as Dhalkis, meaning something like "deified grain."
  • sa-al-hi-an-ti-en -- noun; accusative singular animate of <salhianti-> growth -- growth
  • ma-an-ni-it-ti-en -- noun; accusative singular animate of <manitti-> luxuriance? -- luxuriance? # The exact meaning of the word is unclear.
  • is-pi-ya-tar-ra -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <ispiyātar> satiation, abundance + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> and -- and abundance # The enclitic conjunction -a- 'and' causes doubling of a preceding consonant, unlike the conjunction -a- 'but'.
  • pe-e-da-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pēda-> bring, take -- he took away

gi-im-ri ú-e-el-lu-i mar-mar-as an-da-an DTe-le-pe-nu-sa pa-it
  • gi-im-ri -- noun; dative singular of <gimmara-> steppe -- the steppe
  • ú-e-el-lu-i -- noun; dative singular of <wēllu-> meadow -- the meadow
  • mar-mar-as -- noun; dative plural of <marmarra-> marshy terrain, swamp? -- the swamps # The meaning of marmarra- is not entirely clear, but it seems to refer to some sort of soggy terrain.
  • an-da-an -- postposition; <andan> in, to -- to
  • DTe-le-pe-nu-sa -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Telepenu-> Telepenus + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- but Telepenus
  • pa-it -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <pāi-> go -- went

mar-mar-ri an-da-an ú-li-is-ta
  • mar-mar-ri -- noun; dative singular of <marmarra-> marshy terrain, swamp? -- swamp
  • an-da-an -- postposition; <andan> in, to -- in
  • ú-li-is-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <ule-> hide, conceal -- he hid himself

se-e-ra-as-se-is-sa-an ha-le-en-zu hu-wa-i-is
  • se-e-ra-as-se-is-sa-an -- preverb; <sēr> over, above + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-sse> he + locatival particle; <-ssan> on, over -- but over him
  • ha-le-en-zu -- noun; nominative singular of <halenzu-> a kind of plant -- the halenzu-plant # It has been suggested that halenzu means something like "duckweed."
  • hu-wa-i-is -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <huwāi-> run -- grew

nu nam-ma hal-ki-is ZÍZ-tar Ú-UL ma-a-i
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- therefore
  • hal-ki-is -- noun; accusative singular animate of <halki-> grain, barley -- barley
  • ZÍZ-tar -- noun; Sumerogram <ZÍZ> wheat + Hittite phonetic complement; <-tar> (functioning here as accusative singular neuter) -- and wheat
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- not # The Hittite reading is natta.
  • ma-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <māi-> grow, prosper, ripen -- ripen # The present tenses here and in the lines that follow can be understood either as historical presents or, since the myth explains a cause of drought, timeless presents that indicate an eternal truth.

nu-za nam-ma GU₄HI.A UDUHI.A DUMU.LÚ.U₁₉.LUMEŠ Ú-UL ar-ma-ah-ha-an-zi ar-ma-u-wa-an-te-sa ku-i-es nu-za a-pi-ya Ú-UL ha-as-sa-an-zi
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and
  • nam-ma -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • GU₄HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram <GU₄> cow + Sumerian plural marker; <-HI.A> ... -- the cows
  • UDUHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram <UDU> sheep + Sumerian plural marker; <-HI.A> ... -- the sheep # In Hittite texts, the word for "sheep" is always written in Sumerian. There were at least two Hittite words for sheep, iyant- and *pekku-. The word used in this text is probably *pekku- to judge from the phonetic complement -us in nominative singular animate UDU-us = *pekkus below. The Hittite reading of the nominative plural of *pekku- is probably *pekkuēs.
  • DUMU.LÚ.U₁₉.LUMEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU.LÚ.U₁₉.LU> human being + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- and humans # The Hittite reading is probably antuwahhes.
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- not # The Hittite reading is natta.
  • ar-ma-ah-ha-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <armahh-> become pregnant -- get pregnant
  • ar-ma-u-wa-an-te-sa -- adjective; nominative plural animate of <armauwant-> pregnant + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- but those pregnant
  • ku-i-es -- relative pronoun; nominative plural animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- that
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- ...
  • a-pi-ya -- adverb; <apiya> then, there -- then
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- not # The Hittite reading is natta.
  • ha-as-sa-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <hās-, hass-> give birth, beget -- give birth # The reflexive particle -za- is frequently used with hās-.

HUR.SAGDIDLI.HI.A ha-a-te-er
  • HUR.SAGDIDLI.HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram <HUR.SAG> mountain + Sumerian marker; <DIDLI.HI.A> (indicating nominative plural) -- the mountains # The Hittite word for mountain is unknown.
  • ha-a-te-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <hād-> dry, dry up -- dried up

GIŠHI.A-ru ha-a-az-ta
  • GIŠHI.A-ru -- noun; Sumerogram <GIŠ> wood, tree + Sumerian plural marker; <-HI.A> ... + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ru> (functioning here as collective) -- the forest # The Hittite reading is probably dārū.
  • ha-a-az-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <hād-> dry, dry up -- dried up

na-as-ta par-as-du-us Ú-UL ú-e-ez-zi
  • na-as-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle; <-asta> (indicating continuing action) -- and
  • par-as-du-us -- noun; nominative singular animate of <parsdu-> leaf, foliage -- the foliage
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- does not
  • ú-e-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- come out

ú-e-sa-es ha-a-te-er
  • ú-e-sa-es -- noun; nominative plural animate of <wēsi-> meadow -- the meadows
  • ha-a-te-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <hād-> dry, dry up -- dried up

TÚLHI.A ha-a-az-ta
  • TÚLHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram <TÚL> spring + Sumerian plural marker; <-HI.A> ... -- the springs # The Hittite reading of Sumerian TÚL is probably wattaru.
  • ha-a-az-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <hād-> dry, dry up -- dried up

nu KUR-ya an-da-an ka-a-as-za ki-i-sa-ti
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • KUR-ya -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as locative plural <KUR> land, territory + Hittite enclitic conjunction; <-ya> and -- and in the land # The Hittite reading is udniyass-. The enclitic conjunction meaning "and" is written as -ya- after Sumerograms, Akkadograms, and words spelled out in Hittite that end with vowels.
  • an-da-an -- postposition; <andan> in, to -- in
  • ka-a-as-za -- noun; nominative singular animate of <kāst-> hunger, famine -- famine
  • ki-i-sa-ti -- verb; 3rd person singular middle preterite of <kīs-> become, happen -- came to pass

DUMU.LÚ.U₁₉.LUMEŠ DINGIRMEŠ-sa ki-is-ta-an-ti-it har-ki-ya-an-zi
  • DUMU.LÚ.U₁₉.LUMEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU.LÚ.U₁₉.LU> human being + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- humans
  • DINGIRMEŠ-sa -- noun; Sumerogram <DINGIR> god + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Hittite phonetic complement; <-sa> (functioning here as nominative plural animate) + Hittite enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- and the gods, moreover # The Hittite reading is probably siwannes-a.
  • ki-is-ta-an-ti-it -- noun instrumental singular of; <kistant-> hunger, famine -- from hunger
  • har-ki-ya-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <hark-, harkiya-> disappear, abscond, perish -- are perishing

GAL-is-za DUTU-us EZEN₄-an i-e-et
  • GAL-is-za -- adjective; Sumerogram <GAL> chief, great + Hittite phonetic complement; <-is> (functioning here as nominative singular animate) + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- the great # The Hittite reading of GAL-is is sallis.
  • DUTU-us -- noun; Sumerogram <UTU> Sungod + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- Sungod # The Hittites worshipped solar deities under a variety of names and in a variety of incarnations. Since this myth is of Hattic origin, and the phonetic complement indicates that the underlying Hittite noun is a u-stem, the reading in Hittite is probably Istānus, from the name of the Hattic Sungod Estan.
  • EZEN₄-an -- noun; Sumerogram <EZEN₄> festival, feast + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- feast
  • i-e-et -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- prepared

nu-za 1 LI-IM DINGIRMEŠ-sa hal-za-i-is
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- the # The Hittite reading is unknown.
  • LI-IM -- numeral; Akkadogram <LIM> thousand -- thousand
  • DINGIRMEŠ-sa -- noun; Sumerogram <DINGIR> god + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Hittite phonetic complement; <-sa> (functioning here as nominative plural animate) -- gods
  • hal-za-i-is -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <halzāi-, haliya-> call out, recite, invite -- invited

e-te-er ne Ú-UL is-pi-i-e-er
  • e-te-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <ēd-> eat -- ate
  • ne -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural nominative animate <-e-> they -- they # The final vowel of nu is lost before the vowel of the enclitic pronoun.
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- but... not
  • is-pi-i-e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <ispāi-> be satiated -- were... satiated

e-ku-i-e-er-ma ne-za Ú-UL ha-as-si-ik-ke-er
  • e-ku-i-e-er-ma -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <ēgw-> drink -- drank
  • ne-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural nominative animate <-e-> they + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and they
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- did not
  • ha-as-si-ik-ke-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <hassik-> quench one's thirst -- quench their thirst

Lesson Text

GIŠlu-ut-ta-a-us kam-ma-ra-a-as IṢ-BAT
É-er tuh-hu-is IṢ-BAT
I-NA GUNNI-ma kal-mi-i-sa-ni-is ú-i-su-u-ri-ya-an-ta-ti
is-ta-na-na-as an-da DINGIRMEŠ ú-i-su-u-ri-ya-an-ta-ti
I-NA TÙR an-da UDUHI.A KI.MIN
I-NA É.GU₄ an-da-an GU₄HI.A ú-i-su-u-ri-ya-an-ta-ti
UDU-us-za SILA₄-ZU mi-im-ma-as
GU₄-ma AMAR-ŠU mi-im-ma-as
DTe-le-pe-nu-sa ar-ha i-ya-an-ni-is
hal-ki-in DIm-mar-ni-in sa-al-hi-an-ti-en ma-an-ni-it-ti-en is-pi-ya-tar-ra pe-e-da-as
gi-im-ri ú-e-el-lu-i mar-mar-as an-da-an DTe-le-pe-nu-sa pa-it
mar-mar-ri an-da-an ú-li-is-ta
se-e-ra-as-se-is-sa-an ha-le-en-zu hu-wa-i-is
nu nam-ma hal-ki-is ZÍZ-tar Ú-UL ma-a-i
nu-za nam-ma GU₄HI.A UDUHI.A DUMU.LÚ.U₁₉.LUMEŠ Ú-UL ar-ma-ah-ha-an-zi ar-ma-u-wa-an-te-sa ku-i-es nu-za a-pi-ya Ú-UL ha-as-sa-an-zi
HUR.SAGDIDLI.HI.A ha-a-te-er
GIŠHI.A-ru ha-a-az-ta
na-as-ta par-as-du-us Ú-UL ú-e-ez-zi
ú-e-sa-es ha-a-te-er
TÚLHI.A ha-a-az-ta
nu KUR-ya an-da-an ka-a-as-za ki-i-sa-ti
DUMU.LÚ.U₁₉.LUMEŠ DINGIRMEŠ-sa ki-is-ta-an-ti-it har-ki-ya-an-zi
GAL-is-za DUTU-us EZEN₄-an i-e-et
nu-za 1 LI-IM DINGIRMEŠ-sa hal-za-i-is
e-te-er ne Ú-UL is-pi-i-e-er
e-ku-i-e-er-ma ne-za Ú-UL ha-as-si-ik-ke-er

Translation

Mist seized the windows. Smoke seized the house. In the hearth the logs were stifled. At the altars the gods were stifled. In the sheepfold the sheep were stifled. In the cow barn the cows were stifled. The ewe rejected her lamb. The cow rejected her calf. But Telepenus had stomped away. He took away barley, fertility(?), growth, luxuriance(?), and abundance. To the steppe, to the meadow, to the swamps he went. Telepenus went to the swamp and hid himself in the swamp. Over him the halenzu-plant grew. Therefore barley and wheat do not ripen. Cows, sheep, and humans do not get pregnant. And those who are already pregnant cannot give birth. The mountains and the trees dried up; and the foliage does not come out. The meadows and springs dried up; and, in the land, famine came to pass. Humans and gods are perishing from hunger. The Great Sun God prepared a feast and invited the Thousand Gods. They ate but were not satiated; they drank but did not quench their thirst.

Grammar

6 Basic Word Order

Hittite sentences are normally verb-final, for example:

    DTelepenus-a   arha   iyannis
    but-Telepenus   away   stomped
    "But Telepenus stomped away."
             
    SA   DIŠTAR   parā   handandatar   memahhi
    of   Ishtar's   divine   glory   I will tell
    "I will tell of Ishtar's divine glory."
6.1 Form of the Subject

Since person is marked by the verb endings, explicit pronominal subjects are not obligatory except with certain intransitive verbs (see below). Explicit tonic, or stressed, pronominal subjects may be used for emphasis or to clarify pronominal reference, as in:

  • A.ZU-ya kussanapās-pat pāi
  • "The physician's fee he-himself provides."

In this sentence the subject, someone who has injured another person, appears as the stressed pronoun apās and it is strengthened with the emphasizing particle -pat.

Sometimes the subject's proper name is used for emphasis:

  • nuMTelepenus URUHattusi tuliyan halzihhun
  • "I,Telepenus, called the council in Hattusas."

Some intransitive verbs normally occur with enclitic subject pronouns if the sentence has no explicit subject. These include verbs of motion and certain verbs that indicate a change in the subject's state. The following are a few examples:

    n-as   mahhan   wappui   ari
    and-she   when   at the riverbank   arrives
    "And when she arrives at the river bank..."
                 
    n-at-mu   GÌRMEŠ-as   kattan   hāliyēr
    they-to-me   the feet   down   bowed
    "They prostrated themselves at my feet."
                 
    mān-as   lazziyatta-ma
    when-he   recovers-but
    "But when he recovers..."
6.2 Order of Elements

An explicit subject, whether it is a noun, a stressed pronoun, or an enclitic pronoun, normally heads the sentence, and direct and indirect objects that are not enclitic pronouns normally occur after it, as in the following:

    GU4-ma   AMAR-ŠU   mimmas
    the cow-but (subject)   calf-her (direct object)   rejected
    "The cow rejected her calf."
             
    SAGI-as   1   NINDA   GUR4-RA   GAL   LUGAL-i   pāi
    the cupbearer (subject)   one   large   thick   bread (direct object)   to the king (indirect object)   gives.
    "The cupbearer gives one large thick bread to the king."

For emphasis, other constituents, such as indirect objects, adverbial phrases, and direct objects may be moved to the front of the sentence:

    ANA   MUhha-LÚ-ma   TE4   MU   uwiyanun
    to   Uhhaziti-moreover (indirect object)   a messenger (direct object)   I   sent
    "Moreover, to Uhhaziti, I sent a messenger."
                     
    ANA   É.GAL   3   GÍN   KÙBABBAR   daskēr
    for   the palace (indirect object)   three   shekels   of silver (direct object)   they used to take
    "They used to take three shekels of silver for the palace."
                         
    takku   pahhurANAA.SÀ-ŠU   kuiski   pēdai
    if   fire (direct object)   into his barn (adverbial)   someone (subject) brings
    "If someone brings fire into his barn..."
                 
    1   NINDA   SIG   wappuwas   DMAH   parsiya
    one   thin   loaf (direct object)   of the river bank   for the Mother Goddess (indirect object)   I crumble
    "I crumble one thin loaf for the Mother Goddess of the river bank."
7 Use of the Nominative, Accusative, and Ergative

As in other IE languages, the nominative is the case in which the subject of a sentence appears, while the accusative is the case regularly used to indicate the direct objects of most verbs. Both the nominative and accusative, however, also have a few other functions in Hittite. For the use of the nominative as vocative, the case of direct address, see section 8.

7.1 The Nominative

In animate nouns, the singular subject is normally marked by the ending -s, which is spelled with the sign ZA (= [ts]) after stems ending in dental stops. The regular ending of the animate plural is -ēs, although archaic texts attest a few animate nominative plurals in -as from Indo-European *-ōs. Neuter nominatives and accusatives have the same form in both singular and plural. The animate nominative may be the subject of both intransitive and transitive verbs:

    kītas   halzāi
    reciter (nominative)   calls out
    "The reciter calls out..."
         
    GIŠluttaus   kammaras   IŠ-BAT
    the windows   mist (nominative)   seized
    "Mist seized the windows."
             
    nu-za   LUGAL   MUNUS.LUGAL   esanda
    and-themselves   king (nominative)   queen (nominative)   sit
    "The king and queen seat themselves."

Predicate nominatives appear in the nominative case:

    LUGAL-us-san   hantezziyas-pat   DUMU.LUGAL   DUMURU   kikkistaru
    king (predicate nominative)   of-the-first-rank-only   a prince   a son   let become
    "Let only a son, a prince of the first rank, become king."

The nominative is also the case form of the grammatical subject of passive sentences:

    INA   GUNNI-ma   kalmisanis   wisuriyantati
    in   the hearth   logs (nominative)   were stifled
    "In the hearth, the logs were stifled."

Verbs indicating sickness may be used intransitively with a nominative subject (cf. English She sickened or He took sick).

    nu MUhha-LÚ-is   kuit   GIG-at
    Uhhaziti (nominative)   because   had sickened
    "Because Uhhaziti had sickened..."
7.2 The Accusative

The accusative is the case in which the direct objects of most verbs appear:

    nu GIŠkalmisanan   siyāit
    a thunderbolt (accusative)   he hurled
    "He hurled a thunderbolt."
         
    nu antuhsan   wiyanun
    man (accusative)   I sent
    "I sent a man."
         
    nu LUGAL-us   GAD-an   arha   pissiazi
    the king   the towel (accusative)   away   throws
    "The king throws the towel away."
                 
    DUTU-us   liliwandan   haranan   piyēt
    Sungod   swift (accusative)   eagle (accusative)   sent
    "The Sungod sent a swift eagle."

Some verbs take two accusatives, a direct object and an objective complement:

    n-us   arunas   erhus   yēt
    and-them (direct object)   of the sea   borders (objective complement)   he made
    "And he made them borders of the sea."

Hittite, like Greek and Latin, occasionally attests figura etymologica, or constructions in which the direct object, in the accusative, is a noun etymologically related to the verb or a noun with close semantic affinity to the verb:

    hullanzan   hullanun
    fight   I fought
    "I fought a fight."
         
    memiyann-a-si     mematti
    word-and-to-him   don't   speak
    "And don't speak a word to him."

With verbs indicating sickness, the word for the illness may occur in the nominative as subject of the sentence, while the noun referring to the person afflicted is the direct object and in the accusative case:

    kappin DUMU-an   HUL-lu   GIG   GIG-at
    little boy (accusative)   evil   sickness   was sick with
    "The little boy experienced an evil sickness."
                 
    tuk-ma   istarkkit
    you (accusative)-but   took sick
    "But you took sick."
7.3 Neo-Hittite Confusion of Animate Nominative and Accusative Endings

In late texts, the endings for the animate nominative and accusative plural are sporadically confused. A noun, personal pronoun, or adjective with nominative plural endings may be found in accusative function. For example, in this phrase from the treaty of Tudhaliya IV with Karunta (section 10), the animate nominative plural ending -is, (for -ēs) marks the direct object ZAG, a Sumerogram meaning "border," The relative pronoun which agrees with it is also nominative plural animate in form:

    ZAGHI.A-is-si   kuyēs   tehhun
    borders-for him   that   I have established
    "The borders that I have established for him..."
7.4 The Ergative

Neuter nouns can be direct objects of transitive verbs:

    takku   pahhur   ANA   A.SÀ-ŠU   kuiski   pēdai
    if   fire (neuter)   into   barn-his   someone   brings
    "If someone brings fire into his barn..."

They can also be subjects of intransitive verbs, as in the following:

    nu   uttar   isduwati
    plot(neuter)   became   known
    "The plot became known."
             
    pahhur   kistari
    fire (neuter)   goes out
    "The fire goes out."

Neuter nouns do not, however, function as subjects of transitive verbs. Instead, when a noun that is neuter is the subject of a transitive verb it takes special endings, called ergative endings, -anza in the singular and -antēs in the plural. The function of these endings is to transfer the original neuter to the animate gender, for example:

    mahhan-ta   kās tuppianza   anda wemiyazzi
    when-you   this tablet (ergative)   finds
    "As soon as this tablet reaches you..."

For the form of the ergative here, compare the neuter nominative-accusative singular tuppi 'tablet'. Note also that the demonstrative pronoun kās is animate nominative singular.

The ergative of pahhur 'fire' is made from the stem pahhuen- as in the genitive singular pahhuenas:

    IGI-zin   pahhuenanza   karapi
    first rank   fire (ergative)   consumes
    "Fire consumes (those of) the first rank."

Compare the ergative plural ishisnantes (from ishessn-, stem of ishessar 'binding, strap') in:

    SAG.DU-ann-a   ishisnantes   appanzi
    head-and   bindings   seize
    "And the bindings clasp the head."
8 U-Stem Adjectives and Nouns

U-stem nouns and adjectives are formed by adding a suffix containing -u-, which becomes [w] before vowels, to noun and adjective endings. The endings -s and -n are affixed to the suffix in the nominative and accusative singular animate. Nominative-accusative singular neuters end in the suffix -u. The nominative-accusative plural neuter may end in -u, which is probably to be read [] with a lengthened vowel, although vowel length was indicated only sporadically. Plurals with a suffix and ending -uw-a are also found. The plural with lengthened stem vowel is an archaism, reflecting Indo-European *-u plus collective ending *-h₂, while the ending -a was adopted from other nouns and adjectives. Both endings occur in early texts, though the ending -a spread at the expense of -u.

8.1 Paradigms of u-stem adjectives

Forms other than the nominative and accusative singular have a suffix -au- (-aw- before vowels), at least in early texts. A prehistoric sound change in which sequences of *wu became mu changed the original animate accusative plural ending *-aw-us to -am-us. (For the vocative, see section 10).

The following paradigms illustrate forms of the u-stem adjectives āssu- 'good', and tēpu 'little'. Reconstructions are made on the basis of forms of similar adjectives that are attested.

    anim       neut
Singular            
nom.   āss-u-s, tēp-u-s       āss-u, tēp-u
acc.   āss-u-n, tēp-u-n       āss-u, tēp-u
gen.       āss-aw-as, tēp-aw-as    
dloc       āss-aw-i, tāss-aw-i    
abl.       āss-aw-az, tēp-aw-az    
inst.       āss-aw-it, tēp-aw-it    
Plural            
nom.   āss-aw-ēs, tēp-aw-ēs       āss-ū
acc.   as:s-am-us        
gen.dat.       āss-aw-as, tēp-aw-as    
abl.inst.       *ass-aw-az    
8.2 Paradigms of u-stem nouns

In many u-stem nouns, the suffix was apparently originally -u- (prevocalic -w-) throughout the paradigm. Before endings beginning with vowels, it is often spelled -uw-. Some u-stem nouns attest both animate and neuter forms. A few u-stem nouns attest the archaic genitive plural in -an from Indo-European *-ōm, for example *hāss-uw-an as shown by the phonetic complement accompanying the the Sumerogram LUGAL-wa-an. This ending, however, was eventually replaced by -as. The following are paradigms for wappu- 'river bank', which is animate, and wēllu- 'meadow', which has animate and neuter forms:

    anim    
Singular        
nom.   wēll-u-s    
acc.   wapp-u-n, wēll-u-n    
gen.       wapp-uw-as, wēll-uw-as
dloc       wapp-u-i, wēll-u-i
abl.       wapp-uw-az, wēll-uw-az
inst.       wēll-u-it
all.       wēll-uw-a
Plural        
nom.   *wapp-uw-ēs    
acc.   wapp-am-us    
gen.dat.       wapp-uw-as, wēllu-uw-as
ab.inst.        

The word for "knee" is especially interesting, since other IE languages preserve a neuter u-stem with an invariant root (in Indo-European terms, *gen-u-). Hittite, however, shows an alternation between a stem gēn-u- and forms with a stem kan-u- or gan-u- (pronounced with initial [g]) that probably reflect an Indo-European version of the root *gn-. The word for "knee" in Hittite also shows some forms with animate inflection, although cognates in the other Indo-European languages are neuter. Because knees come in pairs, and because singular and plural forms appear identical in several case forms, it is often impossible to tell whether one is dealing with a singular or plural form in the absence of other grammatical information (e.g., modifiers that are singular or plural). The word for "knee" also seems to have made an archaic endingless locative.

Paradigm of gēnu- (neut. and anim) 'knee'

    neuter       animate
Singular            
nom.   gēn-u        
acc.   gēn-u       gen-u-un
gen.       gēn-uw-as    
dloc       gēnu?    
abl.       gēnu-uw-az    
inst       gan-u-t, gēnu-t    
all.       gēnu-wa    
Plural            
nom   gēn-ū, gēn-uw-a        
acc.   gēn-ū? gēn-uw-a       gēn-u-us
gen.dat.       kan-uw-as, gēn-uw-an, gēn-u-wa-as    
abl.inst.       gēnu-wa-az, gēnu-wa-za    
8.3 Paradigms of au-stem nouns

A few nouns show a suffix -āu- in the nominative and accusative, and, at least originally, a suffix -u- (-w-) in the other cases. The suffix -āu- (-āw- before vowels), however, tended to spread throughout the paradigm. These nouns, which are the remnants of an archaic inflectional type, may be either animate or neuter. The following is a paradigm of singular forms of harnāu- (animate and neuter) 'birthstool', which, because a number of rituals designed to aid pregnancy and childbirth are preserved, is one of the best attested nouns of this type. Unambiguous forms of the plural do not, apparently, occur.

Paradigm of harnāu- 'birthstool'

Singular   anim       neut
nom.   harn-āu-s       harn-āu
acc.   harn-āu-n       harn-āu
gen.       harn-āw-as    
dlocl       harn-u-i, harn-āw-i    

The paradigms above represent a considerable simplification of the material found in the texts. We know, for example, that both nouns and adjectives were subject to analogical changes, for example the replacement of lengthening of the suffix vowel by the ending -a in the neuter plural, or the generalization of the suffix -āu- throughout the paradigms of nouns like harnāu-. Nominal and adjectival paradigms also influenced each other. In part, this was because some words could originally function either as nouns or adjectives, taking the appropriate inflection. For example, beside the adjective āssu- 'good' there is a corresponding neuter noun meaning "wares" (cf. English goods as a synonym for wares), and beside its antonym idālu- 'evil' there is a corresponding neuter noun idālu 'an evil'. One does find nominal forms in adjectival function and adjectival forms in nominal function; note, for example the accusative plural wapp-am-us 'river banks' with the adjectival suffix -am-.

9 Nominal sentences

Sentences in the present tense with a nominal or adjectival subjective complement may be made without a form of the verb "to be." The subjective complement is in the nominative case. In Hittite grammar, such sentences are traditionally called "nominal sentences," and in English they are translated with the appropriate form of the present of "be":

    Labarnas   LUGAL-us   inarawanza
    Labarna   the king   strong
    "Labarna, the king, is strong."
             
    ūk-wa   atti-mi   natta   āssus
    I-quotative   to father-to my   not   dear
    "I am not dear to my father."
                 
    URUHattusi-ma-at   ŪL   āra
    in Hattusas-but-it   not   right
    "In Hattusas it is taboo."
             
    ŪL   harātar
    no   sin
    "It is no sin."

The verb may not be left out if it is in the past tense or in the imperative. For example, we find a nominal sentence followed by a sentence with the third person singular imperative of the verb ēs- 'be', ēsdu in in the following passage:

    mān-ma-as   ANA   DUTUŠI   kūrur   tugg-as
    if-and-he   to   my majesty   enemy   to you-he
    kūrur   ēsdu            
    enemy   let be            
    "If he is an enemy to my majesty, let him (also) be an enemy to you."
10 Adjectives

Like English, Hittite has both attributive adjectives, adjectives that modify nouns, and predicative adjectives, adjectives in the predicates of sentences with "be" or similar verbs that establish a relationship of equality between the subject and predicate. Compare, for example, the English sentence "A strong king rules wisely," which uses the adjective "strong" as an attributive adjective, with the sentences "Mursilis was strong," and "The king became strong," which use "strong" as a predicative adjective. In Hittite, of course, adjectives are declined for case and number. An attributive adjective agrees in number and case with the noun it modifies. A predicative adjective is, like the subject of the sentence, in the nominative case, and it agrees with the subject in number.

10.1 Attributive adjectives

Attributive adjectives normally precede the nouns they modify.

nominative animate singular:

    sallis   ārrunas
    great   sea
    "the great sea"

accusative animate singular:

    āssun   halukan
    good   message
    "a good message"

nominative-accusative neuter:

    idālu   paprātar
    evil   impurity
    "evil impurity"

dative-locative singular:

    ekuni   IM-anti
    cold   wind
    "in the cold wind"

ablative singular:

    dankuwaz   taknāz
    dark   earth
    "from the dark earth"

nominative plural animate:

    āssawēs   EMEMEŠ
    good   tongues
    "good tongues"

accusative plural animate:

    pargamus   HUR.SAG.MEŠ
    high   mountains
    "the high mountains"

nominative-accusative neuter:

    harga   GIŠhahhal
    bright   greenery
    "bright greenery"

dative-locative plural:

    pargauwas   auriyas
    high   watch towers
    "to the high watch towers"
10.2 Adjectives used as predicate nominatives.

In sentences with adjectives as predicate nominatives, the verb may be a form of "be," or it can be a verb such as kīs 'become' or āss- 'remain'. More commonly, the sentence may be a nominal sentence:

    sumēll-a   ARADMEŠ   DINGIRLIM   meggaēs   eser
    you-and   servants   gods   numerous   were
    "And your servants of the gods were numerous."
                     
    DUTU-us   DIM-as   mān   uktūres    
    the Sungod   The Stormgod   just as   eternal    
    LUGAL-us   MUNUS.LUGAL-ass-a   QĀTAMMA   uktūres   asantu
    king   queen-and   likewise   eternal   let them be
    "Just as the Sungod and the Stormgod are eternal, so likewise let the king and queen be eternal."
                     
    Labarnas   LUGAL-us   inarawanza
    Labarna   king   strong
    "Labarna, the king, is strong."
             
    mān   hargaēs   mān   dankuwaēs
    whether   white   whether   black
    ŪL kuitki   duqqāri        
    no way   is important        
    "Whether (the rams) are white or (whether they are) black it doesn't matter in any way."
                 
    ANA   MHattusili-wa   MU.KAMHI.A   maninkuwantes
    to   Hattusilis-quotative   years   short
    "Hattusilis' years are short."

Hittite Online

Lesson 3

Sara E. Kimball and Jonathan Slocum

The Telepenus of this text was a real Hittite king, unlike the Hattic god of the Telepenus myth from whom the king took his name. King Telepenus ruled toward the end of the Old Kingdom period (1525-1500 B.C.E.) and apparently composed this document as a way of providing a solution to the bloody chaos that prevailed in the royal family around the question of succession to the throne. The Hittite royal family (salli hassātar, literally 'great family') was composed not only of the king and his immediate family but also of numerous relatives who made up the kingdom's nobility. The nobility made up the king's advisory council, or pankus, the body Telepenus enjoins to warn off those who would harm members of the nobility. It would be comforting to think that they always acted nobly, but like modern people they often acted in their own, short-sighted interest, and they were keenly interested in the kingship. The Hittite king might have several wives, a primary wife, wives of the "second rank" (or tān pēdas), and, in addition, a number of recognized mistresses. Such a family structure had the potential to create a volatile situation, since the king's wives and mistresses would inevitably bear him sons who, as they grew to manhood, might harbor royal ambitions, and as the history of the Hittite monarchy attests might act ruthlessly in their pursuit of power.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The text itself, which is preserved in a number of copies in Neo-Hittite writing, including a version in Akkadian, begins with an account of Hittite dynastic history from the reign of the first Hittite king, Labarna I, and covers events through the reign of Telepenus himself. In it, history is used skillfully to support the argument that rules for the succession need to be codified. The text begins by claiming that in the reigns of the earlier kings the royal family, the people, and the army were united, and the Hittite kingdom prospered and was victorious in battle. It then goes on to account various assassinations of Hittite kings and palace intrigues that, according to Telepenus, provoked divine disfavor and left the kingdom weak and vulnerable to its enemies. Telepenus himself was involved in such intrigues. He and his wife, the sister of the Hittite king, Huzziyas, were targets of an assassination plot which Telepenus attributes to his brother-in-law, and later both Telepenus' wife, Isparariyas, the queen, and his son Ammunas were apparently murdered. Interestingly, although Telepenus apparently deposed Huzziyas and exiled his brothers to the country, he describes his own ascension to the throne with the formulaic phrase "when I seated myself on the throne of my father."

The extracts provided below give Telepenus' account of his ascension to the kingship and his codification of the rules of succession. The former gives a flavor of the internal violence of the Old Kingdom, while the latter provides the conclusions Telepenus drew from that bloody history. The institution of the L/Uantiyant- (from anda 'in(to)' plus tiyant-, participle of tiya- 'step', literally 'the man who steps in') involved the adoption of a son-in-law as heir to the family fortune. It is described in the Hittite law code as recourse for common folk who had no sons, and similar institutions are attested in other ancient and modern societies. No doubt Telepenus, an in-law himself, regarded this custom with a certain amount of self interest. It would be reassuring to think that Telepenus' rules for the royal succession were followed by subsequent generations, but later Hittite historical texts suggest that Telepenus' rules were often disregarded.

nu MHu-uz-zi-ya-as LUGAL-u-e-et
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • MHu-uz-zi-ya-as -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Huzziya-> Huzziyas -- Huzziyas
  • LUGAL-u-e-et -- verb; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-u-e-et> become -- became king # third person singular preterit -- the Hittite reading is hassuēt from a verb hassuē- "become king" that is built from the stem hāssus "king."

MTe-le-pe-nu-us-sa-az FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-an ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-an NIN-ZU DAM har-ta
  • MTe-le-pe-nu-us-sa-az -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Telepenu-> Telepenus + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- And Telepenus
  • FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Istapariya-> Istapariyas -- Ispatariyas
  • ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-an -- adjective; accusative singular animate of <hantezziya-> first, oldest -- oldest
  • NIN-ZU -- noun; Sumerogram <NIN> sister + Akkadian enclitic 3rd person singular possessive pronoun; <-ZU> ... -- his sister # The Hittite word for sister was nekas, and presumably the word was pronounced in Hittite when the document was read. The possessive pronoun, however, follows Akkadian spelling conventions for possessive pronouns added to stems ending in dentals, because the Akkadian word for sister was ahātu; the construct state ahāt, the stem to which possessive pronouns were added, plus the possessive pronoun -s^u, is spelled ahāzzu.
  • DAM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DAM> wife, marriage -- as wife
  • har-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <har-, hark-> have, hold -- had as wife

ma-a-nu-us-kan MHu-uz-zi-ya-as ku-en-ta nu ut-tar is-du-wa-a-ti nu-us MTe-le-pe-nu-us ar-ha par-ah-ta
  • ma-a-nu-us-kan -- adverb; modal particle <man> ... + enclitic pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-us> them + locatival particle; <-kan> ... -- them # The modal particle man normally has a short vowel. The vowel may, however, have been lengthened here because, as the first word in its clause, man was accented.
  • MHu-uz-zi-ya-as -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Huzziya-> Huzziyas -- Huzziyas
  • ku-en-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <kuēn-> kill, strike -- would have killed
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- but
  • ut-tar -- noun; nominative singular neuter of <uttar> affair, matter -- the plot
  • is-du-wa-a-ti -- verb; 3rd person singular middle preterite of <isduwa-> be known -- became known
  • nu-us -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-a> he, she, it -- them # Since udnē "country" is neuter singular, the animate plural pronoun and the following adjective should refer to the people of the lands in revolt.
  • MTe-le-pe-nu-us -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Telepenu-> Telepenus -- Telepenus
  • ar-ha -- preverb; <arha> away -- off
  • par-ah-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <parh-> chase, drive -- drove

5 ŠEŠMEŠ-ŠU
  • 5 -- numeral; <5> five -- five # The Hittite reading is unknown.
  • ŠEŠMEŠ-ŠU -- noun; Sumerogram <ŠEŠ> brother + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-ŠU> his, her -- he had... brothers # The Hittite reading is negnes.

nu-us-ma-as ÉNMEŠ tag-ga-as-ta pa-a-n-du-wa-az a-sa-an-du
  • nu-us-ma-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural dative of <sumēs> they -- for them
  • ÉNMEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram <É> house + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- houses
  • tag-ga-as-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <taks-, takkis-> construct, contrive, use -- constructed
  • pa-a-n-du-wa-az -- verb; 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <pāi-> go + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- ... # The quotative particle -wa- is used here to indicate that this is what Telepenus said to Huzziyas's brothers.
  • a-sa-an-du -- verb; 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- ...

nu-wa-za az-zi-ik-kan-du ak-ku-us-kan-du
  • nu-wa-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- ...
  • az-zi-ik-kan-du -- verb; iterative 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <ēd-> eat -- let them eat!
  • ak-ku-us-kan-du -- verb; iterative 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <egw> drink -- let them drink! # The formula "Let (them) eat (and) drink!" meant "Let them remain alive!"

i-da-a-lu-ma-as-ma-as-kan le-e ku-is-ki tag-ga-as-si
  • i-da-a-lu-ma-as-ma-as-kan -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <idālu> evil, harm + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural dative <-smas> they + locatival particle; <-kan> ... -- but evil to them
  • le-e -- negative emphasizing particle; <lē> no, not -- not
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- any
  • tag-ga-as-si -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <taks-, takkis-> construct, contrive, use -- I contrived

nu tar-si-ke-mi a-pe-e-wa-mu i-da-lu i-e-er u-ga-wa-ru-us HUL-lu Ú-UL i-ya-mi
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • tar-si-ke-mi -- verb; 1st person singular present iterative of <tē-, tar-> declare, promise -- I declare # The verb tē-, tar- is suppletive.
  • a-pe-e-wa-mu -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural animate of <apā-> that + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me -- they... me
  • i-da-lu -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <idālu> evil, harm -- harm
  • i-e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- they did
  • u-ga-wa-ru-us -- personal pronoun; 1st person singular nominative <ūk> I + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-us> them -- them
  • HUL-lu -- noun; Sumerogram <HUL> evil, harm + Hittite phonetic complement; <-lu> (functioning here as accusative singular neuter) -- harm
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- not # The Hittite reading is natta.
  • i-ya-mi -- 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation; <iya-> do, make -- I will do

ma-a-an-sa-an MTe-le-pe-nu-us I-NA GIŠGU.ZA A-BI-YA e-es-ha-at nu URUHa-as-su-wa la-ah-ha pa-a-un nu URUHa-as-su-wa-an har-ni-in-ku-un
  • ma-a-an-sa-an -- conjunction; <mān> if, when + locatival particle; <-ssan> on, over -- when
  • MTe-le-pe-nu-us -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Telepenu-> Telepenus -- Telepenus
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- on
  • GIŠGU.ZA -- noun; Sumerogram <GU.ZA> throne -- throne
  • A-BI-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as genitive singular <ABI> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- of my father
  • e-es-ha-at -- verb; 1st person singular middle preterite of <ēs-> sit -- seated myself
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • URUHa-as-su-wa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative <Hassuwa-> Hassuwas -- to the city of Hassuwas
  • la-ah-ha -- noun; allative of <lāhha-> military campaign -- on a campaign
  • pa-a-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <pāi-> go -- I went
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • URUHa-as-su-wa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Hassuwa-> Hassuwas -- the city of Hassuwa
  • har-ni-in-ku-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <harnink-> destroy -- I destroyed

ERINMEŠ-za-mi-is-sa URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi e-es-ta nu URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi hu-ul-la-an-za-is ki-sa-at
  • ERINMEŠ-za-mi-is-sa -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <ERINMEŠ> army, infantry + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... + 1st person singular possessive pronoun nominative singular animate of; <-miss-> my + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> and -- And my army
  • URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi -- proper noun; dative-locative of <Zizzilippi> Zizzilippi -- in Zizzilippi
  • e-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- was
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi -- proper noun; dative-locative of <Zizzilippi> Zizzilippi -- in Zizzilippi
  • hu-ul-la-an-za-is -- noun; nominative singular animate of <hullanza-> battle -- a battle
  • ki-sa-at -- verb; 3rd person singular middle preterite of <kīs-> become, happen -- occurred

nu sal-la-as-pat ha-as-sa-an-na-as e-es-har pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • sal-la-as-pat -- noun; genitive singular of <salli-> big, great + emphasizing particle; <-pat> ... -- even among
  • ha-as-sa-an-na-as -- noun; genitive singular of <hassātar-> family -- family # The Hittite term for the royal family was literally "the great family". It could be abbreviated to simply hassātar 'the family'.
  • e-es-har -- noun; nominative singular neuter <ēshar> blood, bloodshed -- bloodshed
  • pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti -- verb; 3rd person singular middle preterite of <pangariya-> be common -- became common

nu FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-as MUNUS.LUGAL BA-ÚS
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-as -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Istapariya-> Istapariyas -- Istapariyas
  • MUNUS.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -- the queen # The Hittite reading is hassussaras.
  • BA-ÚS -- verb; Sumerogram functioning here as 3rd person singular preterite <BA-ÚS> die -- died

EGIR-pa-ma ú-er MAm-mu-na-as DUMU.LUGAL BA-ÚS
  • EGIR-pa-ma -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> after + Hittite phonetic complement; <-pa> ... + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- and afterwards
  • ú-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- it happened that
  • MAm-mu-na-as -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Ammuna-> Ammuna -- Ammuna
  • DUMU.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU.LUGAL> king's son, prince -- prince
  • BA-ÚS -- verb; Sumerogram functioning here as 3rd person singular preterite <BA-ÚS> die -- died

nu si-ú-na-an an-tu-us-si-is-sa tar-si-ik-kan-zi ka-a-sa-wa URUHa-at-tu-si e-es-har pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • si-ú-na-an -- noun; genitive plural of <sius> god -- of the gods
  • an-tu-us-si-is-sa -- noun; nominative plural animate of <antuwahhas> human being, person + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> and -- the men
  • tar-si-ik-kan-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural iterative of mi-conjugation <tē-, tar-> declare, promise -- are saying # This verb is a historical present.
  • ka-a-sa-wa -- exclamation; <kās> behold, look + quotative particle; <-wa> ... -- look
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative-locative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- in Hattusas
  • e-es-har -- noun; nominative singular neuter <ēshar> blood, bloodshed -- bloodshed
  • pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti -- verb; 3rd person singular middle preterite of <pangariya-> be common -- has become common

nu MTe-le-pe-nu-us URUHa-at-tu-si tu-li-ya-an hal-zi-ih-hu-un
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • MTe-le-pe-nu-us -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Telepenu-> Telepenus -- Telepenus
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative-locative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- in Hattusas
  • tu-li-ya-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <tuliya-> council -- the council
  • hal-zi-ih-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <halzāi-, haliya-> call out, recite, invite -- I summoned

ki-it pa-an-da-la-az URUHa-at-tu-si ha-as-sa-an-na-as DUMU-an i-da-lu le-e ku-is-ki i-ya-zi nu-us-si-sa-an GÍR-an tak-ke-es-zi
  • ki-it pa-an-da-la-az -- adverb; <ki-it pa-an-da-la-az> from now on -- from now on
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative-locative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- in Hattusas
  • ha-as-sa-an-na-as -- noun; genitive singular of <hassātar-> family -- of the royal family
  • DUMU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU> son, child + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a son
  • i-da-lu -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <idālu> evil, harm -- harm
  • le-e -- negative emphasizing particle; <lē> no, not -- no
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- one
  • i-ya-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- do
  • nu-us-si-sa-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it + locatival particle; <-san> over -- against him
  • GÍR-an -- noun; Sumerogram <GÍR> knife, dagger + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a dagger
  • tak-ke-es-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <taks-, takkis-> construct, contrive, use -- use

LUGAL-us-sa-an ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as-pat DUMU.LUGAL DUMURU ki-ik-ki-is-ta-ru
  • LUGAL-us-sa-an -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) + locative participle; <-ssan> on, over -- king
  • ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as-pat -- adjective; genitive singular of <hantezziya-> first, oldest + emphasizing particle; <-pat> ... -- of the first rank only
  • DUMU.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU.LUGAL> king's son, prince -- a prince
  • DUMURU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU> son, child + Akkadian phonetic complement; <-RU> ... -- a son
  • ki-ik-ki-is-ta-ru -- verb; 3rd person singular middle imperative of <kikkis-> become -- let become

tak-ku DUMU.LUGAL ha-an-te-ez-zi-is NU.GÁL nu ku-is ta-a-an pe-e-da-as DUMURU nu LUGAL-us a-pa-a-as ki-sa-ru
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • DUMU.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU.LUGAL> king's son, prince -- prince
  • ha-an-te-ez-zi-is -- adjective; nominative singular animate of <hantezziya-> first, oldest -- a first-ranked
  • NU.GÁL -- verb; Sumerogram <NU.GÁL> there is not -- there is no
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- then
  • ku-is -- relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- who is
  • ta-a-an pe-e-da-as -- noun; genitive singular of <tān pēda-> second rank -- of the second rank
  • DUMURU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU> son, child + Akkadian phonetic complement; <-RU> ... -- a son
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- king
  • a-pa-a-as -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <apā-> that -- one
  • ki-sa-ru -- verb; 3rd person singular middle imperative of <kīs-> become, happen -- let become

ma-a-an DUMU.LUGAL-ma IBILA NU.GÁL nu ku-is DUMU.MUNUS ha-an-te-ez-zi-is nu-us-si-is-sa-an an-ti-ya-an-ta-an ap-pa-an-du nu LUGAL-us a-pa-a-as ki-sa-ru
  • ma-a-an -- conjunction; <mān> if, when -- but if
  • DUMU.LUGAL-ma -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU.LUGAL> king's son, prince + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- prince
  • IBILA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <IBILA> male heir -- male heir
  • NU.GÁL -- verb; Sumerogram <NU.GÁL> there is not -- there is no
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- then
  • ku-is -- relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- who is
  • DUMU.MUNUS -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU.MUNUS> girl, daughter -- a daughter
  • ha-an-te-ez-zi-is -- adjective; nominative singular animate of <hantezziya-> first, oldest -- first-ranked
  • nu-us-si-is-sa-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi-> he, she, it + locatival particle; <-ssan> on, over -- for her
  • an-ti-ya-an-ta-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <antiyant-> adopted son and son-in-law -- antiyant-man # When there was no son in a family it was a custom, not only in the royal family but also among commoners, to adopt a young man and marry him to a daughter in order to carry on the family line.
  • ap-pa-an-du -- verb; 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <ēpp-> take, seize -- let them take
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- king
  • a-pa-a-as -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <apā-> that -- him
  • ki-sa-ru -- verb; 3rd person singular middle imperative of <kīs-> become, happen -- let... become

UR-RA-AM SE-RA-AM ku-is am-mu-uk EGIR-an-da LUGAL-us ki-sa-ri na-pa ŠEŠMEŠ-ŠU DUMUMEŠ-ŠU LÚ.MEŠga-e-na-as-si-is ha-as-sa-an-na-as-sa-as Ù ERINMEŠ-ŠU ta-ru-up-pa-an-te-es a-sa-an-du
  • UR-RA-AM SE-RA-AM -- adverb; Akkadian <URRAM SERAM> in the future -- In the future
  • ku-is -- relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- whoever
  • am-mu-uk -- tonic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <ammuk> me -- me # The use of the dative here may be a mistake. One of the duplicates, which preserves this section of the text, has the genitive ammel.
  • EGIR-an-da -- postposition; Sumerogram <EGIR> after + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an-da> ... -- after # (The reading a-ap-pa-an-da is indicated.)
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- king
  • ki-sa-ri -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <kīs-> become, happen -- becomes
  • na-pa -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle; <-apa> (indicating completed action) -- and
  • ŠEŠMEŠ-ŠU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <ŠEŠ> brother + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SU> his -- his brothers
  • DUMUMEŠ-ŠU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU> son, child + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SU> his -- his sons
  • LÚ.MEŠga-e-na-as-si-is -- noun; nominative plural animate of <gaena-> male relative by marriage, in-law + enclitic possessive pronoun 3rd person singular nominative plural animate of; <-sis> his, her, its -- his in-laws # The noun gaenas has the archaic nominative plural ending -as from Indo-European *-ōs.
  • ha-as-sa-an-na-as-sa-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <hassānna-> family + enclitic possessive pronoun 3rd person singular nominative singular animate of; <-sas> ... -- his family # The stem hassānna- has been made from the stem of the genitive of hassātar 'family', hassānnas
  • Ù -- conjunction; Akkadogram <Ù> and -- and
  • ERINMEŠ-ŠU -- noun; Sumerogram <ERINMEŠ> army, infantry + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-ŠU> his, her -- his army
  • ta-ru-up-pa-an-te-es -- participle nominative plural animate of; <tarupp-> be assembled, be united -- united
  • a-sa-an-du -- verb; 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- let be

nu-za ú-wa-si KÚR-an ut-ne-e ku-ut-ta-ni-it tar-ah-ha-an har-si
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- then
  • ú-wa-si -- verb; 2nd person singular present of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- you (shall) come
  • KÚR-an -- noun; Sumerogram <KÚR> enemy + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- the enemy
  • ut-ne-e -- noun; accusative plural neuter of <utnē-> land, country -- (his) lands
  • ku-ut-ta-ni-it -- noun; instrumental singular of <kuttar> upper arm, shoulder -- with (your) strong arm
  • tar-ah-ha-an har-si -- verb; 2nd person singular of hark-perfect <tarhhant- har-, hark-> overcome, conquer -- you (shall) conquer

ki-is-sa-an-na le-e te-e-si ar-ha-wa par-ku-nu-um-mi par-ku-nu-si-ma-za Ú-UL ku-it-ki
  • ki-is-sa-an-na -- adverb; <kissan> thus, as follows + enclitic conjunction; <-a> and -- and the following
  • le-e -- negative emphasizing particle; <lē> no, not -- not
  • te-e-si -- verb; 2nd person singular present of mi-conjugation <tē-, tar-> declare, promise -- say
  • ar-ha-wa -- adverb; <arha> away + quotative particle; <-wa> ... -- thoroughly
  • par-ku-nu-um-mi -- verb; 1st person singular present of <parkunu-> clean, purify -- I will issue pardons? # The verb parkunu- literally means "make clean," but it can mean "pardon" (i.e. "cleanse of the stigma of wrong-doing"). It is unclear whether this passage refers to reforming the behavior of the Hittite ruling class, in which case the meaning "clean up, reform" would be more apt, or whether it refers to treating wrong-doers with leniency, an approach Telepenus takes elsewhere in the text. In the latter case, the translation "pardon" would be more appropriate.
  • par-ku-nu-si-ma-za -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <parkunu-> clean, purify + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- while you, yourself, pardon?
  • Ú-UL ku-it-ki -- adjective; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not + indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- nothing

nu-za an-da im-ma ha-at-ki-is-nu-si ha-as-sa-an-na-sa-an-za-kan le-e ku-in-ki ku-en-ti Ú-UL SIG₅-in
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- ...
  • an-da im-ma -- adverb; <anda imma> indeed -- even
  • ha-at-ki-is-nu-si -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <hatkesnu-> oppress, constrict, arrest -- order arrests
  • ha-as-sa-an-na-sa-an-za-kan -- noun; genitive singular of <hassānna-> family + phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... + locatival particle; <-kan> ... -- member of the royal family
  • le-e -- negative emphasizing particle; <lē> no, not -- not
  • ku-in-ki -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- anyone
  • ku-en-ti -- verb; 2nd person singular present of mi-conjugation <kuēn-> kill, strike -- kill # Although a mi-conjugation verb, the verb kuen- often takes the hi-conjugation second person singular ending, because the regular kuēn-si would become kuesi with loss of the stem-final -n.
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- not # The Hittite reading is natta.
  • SIG₅-in -- adjective; Sumerogram <SIG₅> good, well + Hittite phonetic complement; <-in> ... -- good # The Hittite reading of SIG5-in is unknown.

nam-ma ku-i-sa LUGAL-us ki-sa-ri nu ŠEŠ-as NIN-as i-da-lu sa-an-ah-zi su-me-es-sa pa-an-ku-us-si-is
  • nam-ma -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • ku-i-sa -- indefinite relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisa> whoever -- whoever
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- king
  • ki-sa-ri -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <kīs-> become, happen -- becomes
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • ŠEŠ-as -- noun; Sumerogram <SEŠ> brother + Hittite phonetic complement; <-as> (functioning here as genitive singular) -- a brother
  • NIN-as -- noun; Sumerogram <NIN> sister + Hittite phonetic complement; <-as> (functioning here asgenitive singular) -- or a sister
  • i-da-lu -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <idālu> evil, harm -- harm
  • sa-an-ah-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <sanh-> seek, attempt -- attempts
  • su-me-es-sa -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person plural nominative <sumēs> you + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> and -- and you are
  • pa-an-ku-us-si-is -- noun; nominative singular animate of <pankus> advisory council + enclitic possessive pronoun 3rd person singular nominative animate of; <-sis> his, her, its -- his council

nu-us-si kar-si te-et-te-en ki-i-wa e-es-na-as ut-tar tup-pi-az a-u
  • nu-us-si -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- him
  • kar-si -- adverb; <karsi> frankly -- frankly
  • te-et-te-en -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <tē-, tar-> declare, promise -- say
  • ki-i-wa -- pronoun; demonstrative pronoun nominative singular neuter of <kā-, kī-> this + quotative particle; <-wa> ... -- this
  • e-es-na-as -- noun; genitive singular of <ēshar> blood, bloodshed -- of bloodshed # The loss of h in the genitive is archaic.
  • ut-tar -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <uttar> affair, matter -- story
  • tup-pi-az -- noun; ablative singular of <tuppi-> tablet -- from the tablet
  • a-u -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of hi-conjugation <au-, u-> look, see -- look # The expression tuppiaz au, literally "look with the tablet," seems to mean "read" or "study."

ka-ru-ú-wa e-es-har URUHa-at-tu-si ma-ak-ke-es-ta nu-wa-ra-ta-pa DINGIRMEŠ-is sal-la-i ha-as-sa-an-na-i da-a-er
  • ka-ru-ú-wa -- adverb; <karū> before, previously + quotative particle; <-wa> ... -- previously
  • e-es-har -- noun; nominative singular neuter <ēshar> blood, bloodshed -- bloodshed
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative-locative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- in Hattusas
  • ma-ak-ke-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <makkēss> become numerous -- have become numerous
  • nu-wa-ra-ta-pa -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic pronoun 2nd person singular dative; <-ta> you + locatival particle; <-apa> (indicating completed action) -- and for you
  • DINGIRMEŠ-is -- noun; Sumerogram <DINGIR> god + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Hittite phonetic complement; <-is> (functioning here as nominative plural animate) -- the gods
  • sal-la-i -- adjective dative-locative singular of; <salli-> big, great -- on the royal
  • ha-as-sa-an-na-i -- noun; dative-locative singular of <hassannā-> family -- family # Salli- and hassannā- take an irregular form of the dative-locative with the ending -ai here.
  • da-a-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <dāi-, tiya-> place, put -- have placed

Lesson Text

nu MHu-uz-zi-ya-as LUGAL-u-e-et
MTe-le-pe-nu-us-sa-az FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-an ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-an NIN-ZU DAM har-ta
ma-a-nu-us-kan MHu-uz-zi-ya-as ku-en-ta nu ut-tar is-du-wa-a-ti nu-us MTe-le-pe-nu-us ar-ha par-ah-ta
5 ŠEŠMEŠ-ŠU
nu-us-ma-as ÉNMEŠ tag-ga-as-ta pa-a-n-du-wa-az a-sa-an-du
nu-wa-za az-zi-ik-kan-du ak-ku-us-kan-du
i-da-a-lu-ma-as-ma-as-kan le-e ku-is-ki tag-ga-as-si
nu tar-si-ke-mi a-pe-e-wa-mu i-da-lu i-e-er u-ga-wa-ru-us HUL-lu Ú-UL i-ya-mi
ma-a-an-sa-an MTe-le-pe-nu-us I-NA GIŠGU.ZA A-BI-YA e-es-ha-at nu URUHa-as-su-wa la-ah-ha pa-a-un nu URUHa-as-su-wa-an har-ni-in-ku-un
ERINMEŠ-za-mi-is-sa URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi e-es-ta nu URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi hu-ul-la-an-za-is ki-sa-at
nu sal-la-as-pat ha-as-sa-an-na-as e-es-har pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti
nu FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-as MUNUS.LUGAL BA-ÚS
EGIR-pa-ma ú-er MAm-mu-na-as DUMU.LUGAL BA-ÚS
nu si-ú-na-an an-tu-us-si-is-sa tar-si-ik-kan-zi ka-a-sa-wa URUHa-at-tu-si e-es-har pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti
nu MTe-le-pe-nu-us URUHa-at-tu-si tu-li-ya-an hal-zi-ih-hu-un
ki-it pa-an-da-la-az URUHa-at-tu-si ha-as-sa-an-na-as DUMU-an i-da-lu le-e ku-is-ki i-ya-zi nu-us-si-sa-an GÍR-an tak-ke-es-zi
LUGAL-us-sa-an ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as-pat DUMU.LUGAL DUMURU ki-ik-ki-is-ta-ru
tak-ku DUMU.LUGAL ha-an-te-ez-zi-is NU.GÁL nu ku-is ta-a-an pe-e-da-as DUMURU nu LUGAL-us a-pa-a-as ki-sa-ru
ma-a-an DUMU.LUGAL-ma IBILA NU.GÁL nu ku-is DUMU.MUNUS ha-an-te-ez-zi-is nu-us-si-is-sa-an an-ti-ya-an-ta-an ap-pa-an-du nu LUGAL-us a-pa-a-as ki-sa-ru
UR-RA-AM SE-RA-AM ku-is am-mu-uk EGIR-an-da LUGAL-us ki-sa-ri na-pa ŠEŠMEŠ-ŠU DUMUMEŠ-ŠU LÚ.MEŠga-e-na-as-si-is ha-as-sa-an-na-as-sa-as Ù ERINMEŠ-ŠU ta-ru-up-pa-an-te-es a-sa-an-du
nu-za ú-wa-si KÚR-an ut-ne-e ku-ut-ta-ni-it tar-ah-ha-an har-si
ki-is-sa-an-na le-e te-e-si ar-ha-wa par-ku-nu-um-mi par-ku-nu-si-ma-za Ú-UL ku-it-ki
nu-za an-da im-ma ha-at-ki-is-nu-si ha-as-sa-an-na-sa-an-za-kan le-e ku-in-ki ku-en-ti Ú-UL SIG₅-in
nam-ma ku-i-sa LUGAL-us ki-sa-ri nu ŠEŠ-as NIN-as i-da-lu sa-an-ah-zi su-me-es-sa pa-an-ku-us-si-is
nu-us-si kar-si te-et-te-en ki-i-wa e-es-na-as ut-tar tup-pi-az a-u
ka-ru-ú-wa e-es-har URUHa-at-tu-si ma-ak-ke-es-ta nu-wa-ra-ta-pa DINGIRMEŠ-is sal-la-i ha-as-sa-an-na-i da-a-er

Translation

And Huzziyas became king. And Telepenus had Istapariyas, his eldest sister, as wife. Huzziyas would have killed them, but the plan became known, and Telepenus drove them (the assassins) off. He (Huzziyas) had five brothers. (Telepenus) constructed houses for them, (saying) "Let them go and remain (there); let them eat and drink, and do no harm to them." And I (Telepenus) say: "They harmed me, but I will not harm them." When I, Telepenus, seated myself upon the throne of my father, I went on a military campaign to Hassuwas and destroyed the city of Hassuwas. My army was also in Zizzilippas, and in Zizzilippas a battle occurred.
And now bloodshed became common even among the royal family itself. Istapariya, the queen, died. And afterwards it happened that Ammunas, the prince, died. And the 'men of the god' are saying: "Look, in Hattusas, bloodshed has become common." Then I, Telepenus, summoned the council in Hattusas, (saying): "From now on, in Hattusas, let no one do evil to a son of the royal family (or) use a dagger against him. A son of the first rank, a prince, only should become king. If there is no first-ranked prince, (then) let one who is of the second rank become king. If there is no royal male heir, let them take an antiyant-man for a first-ranked daughter, and let him become king. In the future, whoever becomes king after me, let his brothers, his sons, his relatives by marriage, the men of his family, and his army be united. Then you shall come with your strong arm and conquer the enemy's lands. And don't say the following: 'I will issue pardons.' You pardon nothing; you even order arrests! Do not kill anyone among the (royal) family. That is not good. Moreover, he who becomes king and seeks evil against brother (or) sister-you, are his advisory council. Tell him frankly: 'Study this story of bloodshed from the tablet. Previously bloodshed became common in Hattusas and the gods have placed it for you on the royal family.'"

Grammar

11 Enclitics

In Hittite a number of forms corresponding to grammatical function words appear as enclitics. An enclitic is a word with no independent stress of its own that is attached to a preceding word with which it forms a single accentual unit. A comparable example from English would be the reduced form of "not," "n't," used in negative contractions (e.g., "didn't" or "shouldn't"). We will look at specific uses of enclitics in more detail in later sections; these are a few basics.

Special forms of the personal and possessive pronouns and certain conjunctions are enclitic. The particle -wa- (-war- before vowels), which signals that a sentence is quoted speech, the particle -za- (called a reflexive particle, which modifies both nouns and verbs), the so-called locational particles (-kkan, -ssan, -asta, and -apa, which also affect the meanings of verbs) and the so- called emphasizing particle -pat are also enclitics.

The enclitics (except for the emphasizing particle -pat, which modifies individual words), and the conjunctions when they connect elements within the sentence, are attached to the first fully stressed word of a sentence or clause; for example:

    DTelepenus-a   arha   iyannis
    Telepenus-but   away   stomped
    "But Telepenus stomped away."
             
    pēdi-iss-ma   LÚ.U19.LU-an   pāi
    In-place-his-but   a person   he gives
    "But in his place, he gives a man."
             
    ug-a-war-us   HUL   ŪL   iyami
    I-but-quotative particle-them   harm   not   will do
    "But I will not do them harm."

The Akkadian prepositions ANA 'on', INA 'in', 'into', and ŠA 'of', since they were merely markers of grammatical relations and not parts of the Hittite sentence, do not count as the sentence's first word:

    INA   GUNNI-ma   kalmīsanis   wisūriyantati
    In   the hearth-and   the logs   were stifled
    "And in the hearth, the logs were stifled."

When a Sumerogram or Akkadogram stands for a Hittite word, however, the Hittite word is part of the sentence, and enclitics may be attached to it:

    UDU-us-za   SILA4-ZU   mimmas
    The ewe-reflexive particle   her lamb   rejected
    "The ewe rejected her lamb."
11.1 Sentence particles and enclitics

Often, the enclitics are attached to a sentence particle. This may be nu, which is found in texts from all periods, or su or ta, which only occur in early texts and copies of early texts. The sentence particles may themselves indicate relationships between clauses, and are sometimes to be translated as "and," "but," or "then," although nu in particular sometimes functions as a semantically empty word that serves as a prop for enclitics.

    nu-wa-za   azzikkandu
    nu-quotative particle-reflexive particle   let (them) eat
    "Let them eat (for themselves)."
         
    nu-ssi   hatrānuun
    nu-to him   I wrote
    "I wrote to him."
         
    nu-wa-mu-za   tepnusket
    nu-quotative particle-me-reflexive particle   he has belittled
    "He has belittled me."

When the enclitic begins in a vowel, the sentence particle loses its final vowel:

    n-at   DUMU   NAM.LÚ.U19.LU-as istmasdu
    nu-it   mankind   let them hear
    "And let mankind hear it."
             
    n-at-san   wappui   dāi
    nu-it-locatival particle "over"   on the river bank   she places
    "And she places it on the river bank."
             
    s-an   dālahhun
    su-it   I abandoned
    I abandoned it (the city).    
         
    t-an   istarnikzi
    ta-him   makes sick
    "...makes him sick."
12 Personal Pronouns

Hittite has two types of personal pronoun. One is a series of pronouns that function as independent words with their own accents (tonic pronouns), while the other series consists of pronouns that have no independent accent of their own but are instead, enclitic. The pronouns of the first and second persons are descended from Indo-European pronominal precursors, but in the third person the demonstrative pronoun apā-, "that (one)" generally serves also as a personal pronoun. A few forms from a stem siyē-, which is probably to be derived from a demonstrative stem, are also found in pronominal function in early texts. The following is a paradigm of the earliest forms of the first and second person tonic pronouns:

Tonic pronouns, first and second persons

    1 sg.   1 pl.   2 sg.   2 pl.
    "I, me"   "we, us"   "you"   "you"
nom.   u:k   we:s   zik   sume:s
acc.   ammuk   anza:s   tuk   suma:s
gen.   amme:l   anze:l   tue:l   sume:l
dloc   ammuk   anza:s   tuk   sume:s
abl   amme:daz   anze:daz   tue:daz   sume:daz

This system shows a number of analogical changes over the five hundred years during which the Hittite texts were attested. The original first person singular nominative ūk was eventually replaced by ammuk, the original accusative and dative-locative. The first person plural nominative wēs is archaic and was replaced by anzās, the original accusative. The original second person plural nominative sumēs was partially replaced by sumās from the accusative and dative-locative. In Neo-Hittite texts, the opposite development, replacement of the original accusative sumās by the nominative sumēs, is also sporadically attested. For the second person plural genitive, an archaic form, sumenzan, is found in early texts. Its replacement, sumēl, was modeled after the genitive in -:el of other personal and demonstrative pronouns.

The following forms from the stem siye- are found. Although the complete paradigm is not attested, forms that occur include an endingless locative distinct from the dative-locative.

Forms of third person siyē-

gen.   siy:el
dloc.   syēdani
loc   syēt
abl   siyēz

The tonic pronouns and apā- are occasionally strenghened with the suffix -ila or -il, giving them a meaning something like that of the emphatic use of English reflexive pronouns in sentences like She, herself, doesn't agree; for example:

    nasma-at   zik-ma   zikila   istamasti
    Moreover-it   you-but   you, yourself   hear
    "Moreover, if you--you yourself--hear it (something against the Hittite king)..."

Although the tonic pronouns are used for emphasis, for clarification of pronominal reference, and the second person is used for direct address, enclitic pronouns are more frequent, and two enclitic pronouns may occur within a single sentence. There are two sets of enclitic pronouns. One set functions as datives or accusatives in the first and second persons and as datives only in the third person. This set is clearly related to the corresponding tonic pronouns:

Dative and accusative pronouns

    Singular   Plural
1.   -mu   -nnas
2.   -tta, -ttu   -smas
3.   -ssi   -smas

Consonants are only be doubled after vowels in the cuneiform syllabary. Further, because of the limitations of the cuneiform syllabary, second and third person pronouns have to be spelled with a "dead" vowel, normally as -su-ma-as The second person singular pronoun shows up as -ttu (-ddu) before the reflexive particle -za and as -tta, -dda in other environments.

The second set of pronouns is third person only. These pronouns, which have an alternating stem in early texts, function as nominatives and accusatives and are marked for gender:

Third person pronouns

    Singular   Plural
Nominative Animate   -as   -at
Accusative Animate   -an   -us
Nominative-Accusative Plural   -at   -e

The plural forms of this set of pronouns underwent analogical change. After the earliest period, the third person plural nominative animate -e and nominative- accusative neuter were replaced by -at, the original form of the nominative- accusative neuter singular and the accusative animate plural was sporadically replaced by -as.

13 The Middle Voice

Verbs taking middle inflection may be stative, passive, medio-passive, or transitive. For more on the use of the middle see Grammar Point 11. The middle shows two sets of synchronically unrelated endings in the third person singular present and imperative, and attested paradigms may represent a blend of conjugations that were originally distinct in Indo-European, though a number of Hittite verbs may take both sets of endings. Traditionally, the third person singular present endings -a and -ari and the third person singular imperative ending -aru, have been termed "hi-conjugation," while the fuller set has been termed "mi-conjugation." There is, however, no hard and fast correlation between these endings and active mi- and hi-conjugation forms. One view regards the "hi-conjugation" endings (called here "middle two") as reflecting an Indo-European stative conjugation; that is a special set of endings for verbs that express states of affairs.

In Hittite, however, these endings occur with verbs that are not stative as well as with statives. By contrast, the "mi-conjugation" middle (or middle one), is characterized by variation in the form of the endings. The r-less endings of the present singular resemble the endings of the hi-conjugation, prompting some scholars to argue for various theories connecting the two in early Indo-European. The endings with -r- of the middle present have parallels in Italic, Celtic, and Tocharian. The middle preterit is characterized by endings with a dental stop, which was apparently voiced, since it was written as a single stop between vowels (e.g., first person singular preterit -VH-HA-TI = [-hhadi]). In the third person of the preterit, the final -i is original. It spread, however, to the first and second persons, while new third person singular and plural forms lacking the -i were, conversely, created on the model of the earlier first and second person endings. The reduplicated first person singular endings, present -hhahari, preterit -hhahhati, and imperative -hhaharu are found in Neo-Hittite texts.

13.1 Middle Endings
Present   Middle 1       Middle 2
1 sg.   -hha, -hhari, -hhahari        
2 sg.   -tta, -ttati        
3 sg.   -ttati, -tta       -a, -ari
1 pl.   -wasta, -wastari        
2 pl.   -ttuma, -ttumari        
3 pl.   -anta, -antari        
Preterit            
1 sg.   -hhat, -hhati, -hhahhati        
2 sg.   -tta, -ttati        
3 sg.   -tta, -ttati        
1 pl.   -wastat        
2 pl.   -ttumat, -ttumadi        
3 pl.   -antati, -antat        
Imperative            
1 sg.   -hharu, -hhaharu        
2 sg.   -hhut, -hhuti        
3 sg.   -ttaru       -aru
2 pl.   -ttumat, -ttumati        
3 pl.   -antaru        
13.2 Middle Paradigms

The following are paradigms of several verbs that are well attested in the middle. The verbs kīs- 'become', and ar- 'stay', take only middle endings. Kīs- and ar- take the middle two endings -a, -ari and -aru, as well as the middle one endings.

Present        
1 sg.   kīs-ha, kīs-hahri   ar-hari, ar-hahari
2 sg.   kīs-ta, kīs-tati   ar-tati, ar-tari
3 sg.   kīs-a, kīs-ari   art-a, ar-tari
1 pl.       ar-wasta
2 pl.        
3 pl.   kīs-anta, kīs-antari   ar-anta, ar-andari
Preterit        
1 sg.   kīs-hati, kīs-hat, kīs-hahari   ar-hati, ar-hahat
2 sg.   kīs-at, kīs-tat   ar-tat
3 sg.   kīs-ati, kīs-at   ar-tat
1 pl.       ar-wastat
2 pl.   kīs-dumat   ar-dumat
3 pl.   kīs-antati, kīs-antat   ar-antat, ar-andari
Imperative        
2 sg.   kīs-hut   ar-hut
3 sg.   kīs-aru   ar-taru
2 pl.   kīs-dumat   ar-dumat
3 pl.   kīs-andaru   aran-taru

Iya- also takes only middle endings and does not take the stative endings, while pahhs-, which also forms an active, takes both stative endings and regular endings. It also may be used transitively in the middle.

Present        
1 sg.   pahhas-ha   iya-hhari
2 sg.   pahs-a, pahhas-ta   iya-ttati
3 sg.   pahs-ari   iya-tta, iya-ttari
1 pl.   pahs-uwasta    
2 pl.   pahhas-duma   iya-dduma
3 pl.   pahs-anta, pahhs-antari   iya-nta, iya-ntari
Preterit        
1 sg.   pahhas-hat, pahhas-hahat   iya-hhat
2 sg.       iya-tti
3 sg.   pahhas-tat   iya-tat
1 pl.        
2 pl.        
3 pl.       iya-antat
Imperative        
2 sg.       iya-hhut
3 sg.   pahs-aru   iya-ttaru
2 pl.   pahhas-dumat   iya-ddumat
3 pl.   pahhas-andaru   iya-ndaru
14 Uses of the Middle

Some verbs, deponents, are inflected only in the middle. Deponents are normally intransitive, (e.g., ki- 'lie', kīs- 'become, happen, turn out', iya- 'go', ēs- 'sit', or ar- 'stay'). Some deponents may act as suppletive medio-passive correspondents of normally active verbs (e.g., ki- 'lie' beside dāi- 'put, place'; kuēn- 'kill' beside akk- 'die'; or kīs- 'become, turn out, happen' beside the active mi-verb iya- 'do, make'); for example:

    ANA   TUPPI RIKALTI   ŠA ABI-YA-kan   kuyēs   URUDIDLI.HI.A   ŪL   kiyantari
    On   treaty tablet-his   of-my-father   that   cities   not   set down
    "The cities that are not set down on my father's treaty tablet..."

Compare the active dāi- 'put', meaning "set down" or "establish" (on a treaty tablet):

    ZAGMEŠ-is-si   mahhan   dais
    Boarders-for-him   how   he set down

The Hittite middle may be stative, for example:

    n-as   arha   kitta
    And-it   apart   lies
    "It lies apart."
             
    MU   2.KAM   hameshanza   SIG5-atta
    (For)   two years   spring   is good
    "For two years, the spring will be good."

The middle may have a sense akin to that of the Greek middle, indicating that the action in some way affects the subject: for example:

    DUTU-as   karpiyatta
    Sungod   is angry
    "The Sungod is angry."

The middle may also indicate that the subject undergoes a change of state; for example:

    LÚ-as   witti   meyanni   armiyatta   n-as   SIG5-atta
    The man   every   year   will become sick   and-he   will recover
    "The man will become sick every year and will recover."
                         
    nu   DUMU   miyari
    And   a son   is born
    "And a son is born."
             
    mahahan-ma-za   ABU-YA   kuwa-pi   DINGIRLIM   kisat
    "But when my father became a god (i.e. 'died and was deified')..."
    nu   uttar   isduwāti
    and   plot   became known
    "The plot became known."
             
    nu   sallas-pat   hassanas   ēshar   pangariyattati
    But   among great-even   family   bloodshed   has become common
    "But now, bloodshed has become common even among the royal family."
                     
    kuita   imma   mieshati
    Even   when   I grew up
    "Even when I grew up..."

The middle is also used to make sentences akin to the English passive in which the patient (the noun that would be the direct object of a corresponding active sentence) appears in the nominative, for example:

    INA   GUNNI-ma   kalmīsanis   wisūriyantati
    In   the-hearth-but   logs   were stifled
    "In the hearth, the logs were stifled."
                 
    nu   EZEN4   DSIN   EZEN4   tēthuwas-a
    And   the festival   of the moon   (and) the festival   of thunder
    anda imiyattati   n-at   taksan   kisantari    
    are mingled   and-they   together   take place    
    "The festival of the moon and the festival of thunder are mingled, and they take place jointly."

Compare with the active:

    nu     hūman   ANA   ZÍD.DA ŠE   isni   menahhanda   immiyami
    and   this   all   with   barley meal   into dough   against   I mix
    "All this I mix with barley meal into dough."

When the passive has an agent (the noun that would be the subject in a corresponding active sentence), the agent takes the dative case:

    DUTU-i-kan   kuis   āssiyattari
    By-the-Sungod   who   is loved
    "...who is loved by the Sungod."

The middles of some verbs may be transitive, for example:

    nu-mu   pahhasta
    And-me   he protected
    "He protected me."
         
    1   NINDA   SIG   wappuwaas   DMAH   parsiya
    One   thin-bread   of the river bank   for the goddess   I crumble    
    "She crumbles one thin loaf for the mother-goddess of the river bank."
15 The Genitive

The genitive is the case of possession. Nouns in the genitive normally occur before the heads of the noun phrases they modify, but they may occur after the head, especially if the head is a Sumerogram or Akkaodogram:

    namma   wappuwas   IM-an   dāi
    moreover   of the river bank (gen.)   clay   she takes
    "Moreover, she takes clay of the riverbank."
                 
    n-at   sakuniyas   purut   dāi
    And-it   of-the-spring (gen.)   mud   she takes
    "She takes it, the mud of the spring..."
                 
    dankuwayas-at   taknas   KASKAL-an   paiddu
    dark (gen.)-it   of earth (gen.)   the road   let travel
    "Let it travel the road of the dark earth."
                 
    n-us   arunas   erhus   yēt
    And-them   of-the-sea (gen.)   borders   he made
    "And he made them borders of the sea."

Genitives are especially apt to occur after the head of the noun phrase when the head is written ideographically, but this placement is not obligatory:

    takku   ANŠE.KU.RA   tūriyauwas   ...   hālias   harapta
    if   donkey   of harnessing (gen.)   ...   to folds   strays
    "If a donkey of harnassing (i.e. 'a trained donkey') ... strays to the folds..."
                         
    EZEN   hameshandas-ma   ŪL   DÙ-anza
    festival   of spring (gen.)-but   not   (was) celebrated
    "But the festival of spring had not been celebrated."
                 
    takkuw-as   attas-sas-a   É-ri   aki
    If-she   her-father's (gen.)-but   in house   dies
    "But if she dies in her father's house..."
                 
    takku   EL-LAM   MUŠ-an   kuenzi   tamell-a   ŠUM-an   tezzi
    if   free man   snake   kills   and-another's (gen.)   name   says
    "If a free man kills a snake and pronounces another's name..."

In archaic texts, an enclitic possessive pronoun may redundantly accompany a noun or pronoun in the genitive:

    attas-ttas-wa   SAG.DU-set   waggariya
    father's (gen.)-of your (gen.)-quotative   head-his   revolt
    "Revolt against your father, his head! (i.e. Revolt against your father's person!)"
15.1 Use of Akkadian to indicate possession

The Akkadian preposition ŠA is often used to indicate that a following noun is the genitive, especially with Sumerograms or Akkadograms. Proper names and place names in Hittite are normally uninflected following ŠA. Presumably the Hittite words that the Sumerograms and Akkadograms stood for were inflected as genitives when pronounced.

    ŠA   MUuhha-LÚ-ya   URUApāsan   URU-an   GUL-ahta
    of   Uhhaziti-and   Apasa   city   it struck
    And it struck Uhhaziti's city, Apasa."                
                     
    ŠA   DIŠTAR   parā handandatar   memahhi
    of   Ishtar   divine power   I will tell
    "I will tell of Ishtar's divine power."

Akkadian enclitic possessive pronouns are often attached to Sumerograms or Akkadograms to indicate possessiion. In the sentence below, the Akkadian first person enclitic possessive -YA is attached to the Akkadogram meaning "father."

    À.BU-YA-nnas-za   MMursiliis   4   DUMUMEŠ   ...   hasta
    father-my-us-reflexive   Mursilis   four   children   ...   fathered
    "My father, Mursilis, fathered us four children..."

The Akkadian possessive pronoun may be used redundantly alongside a noun in the genitive or a tonic (accented) personal pronoun in the genitive:

    nu   GIŠkalmisanan   ammel   KARAŠHI.A-YA   usket
    and   thunderbolt   my (gen.)   army-my   saw
    "And my army saw the thunderbolt."
                     
    nu   LUGAL-was   ŠUM-ŠU   āssu   memisketten
    and   king's (gen.)   name-his   well   speak
    "And speak well of the king's name!"
15.2 Partitive apposition

Possession may also be indicated by so-called partitive apposition. In such constructions, composed of two nouns in the same case, the first noun is the equivalent in meaning to a genitive. For example, this phrase from the Law Code has two nouns in the accusative, A.ŠÀ-an 'field' and ZAG-an 'boundary', which are literally to be translated as "a field (its) boundary." A later copy of the Law Code replaces the first accusative by the genitive A.ŠÀ-as:

    takku   A.ŠÀ-an   ZAG-an   kuiski   parsiya
    if   field   border   someone   breaks
    "If someone breaks the border of a field..."

In the following sentence the two nouns in partitive apposition, aruni 'sea' and ZAG-si 'shore', are in the dative-locative:

    URULulluwayas-san   KUR-e   aruni   ZAG-si   ēszi
    Lulluwayas-locatival   country   at the sea   at its shore   is
    "The country Luluwaya is at the shore of the sea."
15.3 Predicative genitives

The genitives of the stressed personal pronouns are used as predicates to express possession. They may be used with forms of the verb "to be" or in nominal sentences:

    nu-war-at   ammel   asanzi
    and-quotative-they   of me   are
    "They are mine."
             
    KÚR   URUAlasiya-wa   ammel
    land   Alasiya-quotative   of me
    "The land of Alasiya is mine!"
             
    asi-man-wa   URU-as   ammel   kisari
    that-irrealis-quotative   city   mine   becomes
    "I wish that city were mine."

Genitives can also be used as quasi-adjectives in the predicates of sentences; for example, huiswannas, genitive of the verbal abstract huiswātar 'life' (spelled with the Sumerogram TI) is used in the following from the Apology of Hattusilis III:

    ŪL-war-as   TI-annas
    neg.-quotative-he   of life
    "He is not of life (i.e. He will not live)."
15.4 Genitive of material

The genitive may be used to indicate the material out of which something is made or composed:

    nu   isnas   pūrpuran   iyanzi
    and   of dough (gen.)   a lump   they make
    "They make a lump of dough."
                 
    nu   UR.TUR.RA   appuzziyas   ienzi
    and   dog-small   of tallow (gen.)   they make
    "They make a small dog of tallow."
15.5 Partitive genitive

Like Greek and Latin, Hittite has a partitive genitive. That is, the genitive expresses the idea that something is a part of a larger whole:

    humandas-pat   EGIR-izzis   DUMU-as   esun
    of all-very   last   of the children   I was
    "I was the very last (i.e. the youngest) of all the children."
                 
    NIM.LÀL   teriyas   UD-as   miuwas   UD-as
    bees   of three (gen.)   of days (gen.)   of four (gen.)   of days (gen.)
    KASKAL-an   pāndu            
    journey   let them go            
    "Let the bees go on a journey of three days, of four days!"
15.6 Nominal genitives

Genitive forms may be used nominally. For example, the genitive of tayazzil 'theft', tayazzilas, can be used in the sense "person of theft" (tayazzilas), in other words, "thief." Such nouns formed from genitives may come to be fully inflected. We find, for example, kurura- 'enemy' from kururas 'man of war', genitive of kūur 'war', taksula- 'friend, ally' from taksulas, genitive of taksul 'alliance, peace', and wastula- 'sinner' from wastulas genitive of wastul 'sin, fault'.

Hittite Online

Lesson 4

Sara E. Kimball, Winfred P. Lehmann, and Jonathan Slocum

The collection of Hittite legal texts is generally referred to as The Laws, suggesting that it does not make up a document produced by a central authority but rather it is a compilation of civil and criminal law traditionally observed by society, as illustrated by the excerpts given here from among somewhat over two hundred clauses. The earliest record of it dates to the Old Kingdom, about 1650 B.C., but that refers to still earlier versions. Many copies have survived, four from the Old Kingdom alone; these maintain the collection with little or no change. As a general characteristic, the provisions require cooperation rather than vengeance or imprisonment for offenses. Like the initial clauses given here, some deal with criminal offenses such as abduction, theft, homicide and so on. Others deal with civil offenses related to marriage, management of livestock, and various services. Further knowledge of the practice of law in Hittite society is provided by texts on court proceedings and statements by the king or other administrators, but the basic information on legal practice of the Hittites is given in The Laws.

Reading and Textual Analysis

All 10 clauses given here are included in the collection catalogued as "KBo VI," mostly KBo VI 3. The first three clauses (1, 2, 5) deal with criminal offenses; they illustrate nicely the identification of specific offenses and the resultant punishment. The third is especially notable in specifying different punishments according to the type and place of offense. In all three, the sentence translated "he shall look to his house for it" has been the subject of great attention and a variety of interpretations. By what is probably the best interpretation, it indicates that the estate of the person performing a criminal action will be involved in any penalty.

The fourth and fifth clauses (9, 10) deal with less serious offenses; among other things, they illustrate that legal practice has undergone change from former times.

The sixth and seventh clauses (28, 37) deal with civil offenses and are self-explanatory. But if, as in the seventh (37, from KBo VI 2 with a near-duplicate in KBo VI 3), a criminal offense occurs in the attempt at solution, the perpetrator is outlawed as a wolf and subject to the usual punishments for such a criminal offense.

The last three clauses (66, 86, 55) also deal with civil offenses, and illustrate the extent to which the laws deal with minor infractions. Yet the last, 55 (from KBo VI 13 and 26), seems to lead to a remarkably serious punishment. It is explained in accordance with a widespread belief associating a snake with a specific person, and making it clear when killing the snake that a similar action is to strike its surrogate.

1 - tak-ku LÚ-an na-as-ma MUNUS-an su-ul-la-an-na-az ku-is-ki ku-en-zi a-pu-u-un ar-nu-zi Ù 4 SAG.DU pa-a-i LÚ-na-ku MUNUS-na-ku par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • LÚ-an -- noun; Sumerogram <LÚ> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a man # The Hittite reading is probably pisnan from pisena- "male human being" as opposed to antuwahhas- "person, human being."
  • na-as-ma -- conjunction; <nasma> or -- or
  • MUNUS-an -- noun; Sumerogram <MUNUS> woman + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a woman # The Hittite reading of Sumerian MUNUS is disputed.
  • su-ul-la-an-na-az -- noun; ablative singular of <sullātar-> quarrel -- in a quarrel
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • ku-en-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <kuēn-> kill, strike -- kills
  • a-pu-u-un -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <apā-> that -- that one
  • ar-nu-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <arnu-> bring -- produces # In other words, the killer produces the corpse.
  • Ù -- conjunction; Akkadogram <Ù> and -- and
  • 4 -- numeral; <4> four -- four # The Hittite reading is mēu-.
  • SAG.DU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate of <SAG.DU> head, human being, worker -- workers # Sumerian SÀG.DU probably lacks plural marking because the preceding numeral indicates plurality.
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- provides
  • LÚ-na-ku -- noun; Sumerogram <LÚ> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement; <-na-> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction; <-ku> whether, or -- whether a man
  • MUNUS-na-ku -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <MUNUS> woman + Hittite phonetic complement; <-na-> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction; <-ku> whether, or -- or a woman # The enclitic conjunction sequence -kku ... -kku is archaic and marks a disjunction. For the type, cf. e.g., English 'whether ... or not'.
  • par-na-as-se-e-a -- noun; allative of <pēr, parn-> house + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-sse> his + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- but to his house
  • su-wa-a-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <suwāye-> look -- he looks # The expression parnassea suāizzi means that responsibility devolves upon the house and estate of the culprit.

2 - tak-ku ARAD-an na-as-ma GEME-an su-ul-la-an-na-az ku-is-ki ku-en-zi a-pu-u-un ar-nu-zi Ù 2 SAG.DU pa-a-i LÚ-na-ku MUNUS-na-ku par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • ARAD-an -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a male slave # The Hittite reading is hurtalan.
  • na-as-ma -- conjunction; <nasma> or -- or
  • GEME-an -- noun; Sumerogram <GEME> female slave + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a female slave
  • su-ul-la-an-na-az -- noun; ablative singular of <sullātar-> quarrel -- in a quarrel
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • ku-en-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <kuēn-> kill, strike -- kills
  • a-pu-u-un -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <apā-> that -- that one
  • ar-nu-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <arnu-> bring -- produces # In other words, the killer produces the corpse.
  • Ù -- conjunction; Akkadogram <Ù> and -- and
  • 2 -- numeral; <2> two -- two # The Hittite reading is unclear.
  • SAG.DU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate of <SAG.DU> head, human being, worker -- workers # Sumerian SÀG.DU probably lacks plural marking because the preceding numeral indicates plurality.
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- provides
  • LÚ-na-ku -- noun; Sumerogram <LÚ> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement; <-na-> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction; <-ku> whether, or -- whether a man
  • MUNUS-na-ku -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <MUNUS> woman + Hittite phonetic complement; <-na-> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction; <-ku> whether, or -- or a woman # The enclitic conjunction sequence -kku ... -kku is archaic and marks a disjunction. For the type, cf. e.g., English 'whether ... or not'.
  • par-na-as-se-e-a -- noun; allative of <pēr, parn-> house + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-sse> his + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- but to his house
  • su-wa-a-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <suwāye-> look -- he looks # The expression parnassea suāizzi means that responsibility devolves upon the house and estate of the culprit.

5 - tak-ku DAM.GÀR URUHa-at-ti ku-is-ki ku-en-zi 1 ME MA.NA KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi tak-ku I-NA KUR URULu-ú-i-ya na-as-ma I-NA KUR URUPa-la-a 1 ME MA.NA KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i a-as-su-se-et-ta sar-ni-ik-zi ma-a-an I-NA KUR URUHa-at-ti nu-za ú-na-at-tal-la-an-pat ar-nu-uz-zi

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • DAM.GÀR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <DAM.GÁR> merchant -- a merchant # The Hittite reading is unattallan as in the final line of the passage.
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of the land of Hatti
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • ku-en-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <kuēn-> kill, strike -- kills
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- one
  • ME -- numeral; Akkadian <> one hundred -- hundred
  • MA.NA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <MANA> mina -- mina # The Sumerian mina was a unit of measure for precious metals. Coins had not yet been invented.
  • KÙ.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <KÙ.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- provides
  • par-na-as-se-e-a -- noun; allative of <pēr, parn-> house + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-sse> his + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- but to his house
  • su-wa-a-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <suwāye-> look -- he looks # The expression parnassea suāizzi means that responsibility devolves upon the house and estate of the culprit.
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the territory # The Hittite reading is udnī.
  • URULu-ú-i-ya -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Lūiya-> Luvian territory -- Luwiya # The phrase KUR URUCity-Name is the regular expression for the territory including and controlled by the designated city-state.
  • na-as-ma -- conjunction; <nasma> or -- or
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the territory # The Hittite reading is udnī.
  • URUPa-la-a -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Palā-> Palaic territory -- Pala
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- one
  • ME -- numeral; Akkadian <> one hundred -- hundred
  • MA.NA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <MANA> mina -- mina # The Sumerian mina was a unit of measure for precious metals. Coins had not yet been invented.
  • KÙ.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <KÙ.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- provides
  • a-as-su-se-et-ta -- noun; accusative plural neuter of <āssu-> goods, possessions + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular neuter <-ssett> his + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> and -- and his wares
  • sar-ni-ik-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <sarnink-> make restitution -- he shall replace
  • ma-a-an -- conjunction; <mān> if, when -- if
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the territory # The Hittite reading is udnī.
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and
  • ú-na-at-tal-la-an-pat -- noun; accusative singular animate of <unatalla-> merchant + emphasizing particle; <-pat> ... -- the merchant himself # Presuably if the homicide occurred within Hittite home territory it was reasonable to expect the killer to produce the body of the merchant for burial.
  • ar-nu-uz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <arnu-> bring -- produces

9 - tak-ku LÚ.U₁₉.LU SAG.DU-ZU ku-is-ki hu-u-ni-ik-zi ka-ru-ú 6 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR pi-is-ke-er nu hu-u-ni-in-kan-za 3 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR da-a-i A-NA É.GAL 3 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR da-as-ke-er ki-nu-na LUGAL-us ŠA É.GAL pe-es-si-et nu-za hu-u-ni-in-kan-za-pat 3 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR da-a-i

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • LÚ.U₁₉.LU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <LÚ.U₁₉.LU> person -- a person's
  • SAG.DU-ZU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <SAG> head + Akkadian enclitic 3rd person singular possessive pronoun; <-ZU> ... -- head # Although the Hittite word underlying the Sumerogram is harsar 'head', the corresponding word in Akkadian, qaqqu, has a stem ending in a dental, and the spelling of the possessive pronoun follows Akkadian spelling conventions, i.e qaz-zu.
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • hu-u-ni-ik-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <hūnink-> harm, injure -- injures
  • ka-ru-ú -- adverb; <karū> before, previously -- previously
  • 6 -- numeral; <6> six -- six # The Hittite reading is unknown.
  • GÍN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <GÍN> shekel -- shekels
  • KÙ.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <KÙ.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • pi-is-ke-er -- verb; iterative 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- they used to give
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • hu-u-ni-in-kan-za -- verb; nominative singular animate of participle <hūninkant-> injured -- the injured person
  • 3 -- numeral; <3> three -- three # Related forms in tri- and teri- occur, and it seems likely that the numeral was inherited from Indo-European, but its exact reading is unknown.
  • GÍN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <GÍN> shekel -- shekels
  • KÙ.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <KÙ.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- he takes
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- for
  • É.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular of <É.GAL> palace -- the palace
  • 3 -- numeral; <3> three -- three # Related forms in tri- and teri- occur, and it seems likely that the numeral was inherited from Indo-European, but its exact reading is unknown.
  • GÍN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <GÍN> shekel -- shekels
  • KÙ.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <KÙ.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • da-as-ke-er -- verb; iterative 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- they used to take
  • ki-nu-na -- adverb; <kinun> now + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> but -- but now
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king # The Hittite reading is hāssus.
  • ŠA -- preposition Akkadogram; <ŠA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • É.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <É.GAL> palace -- the palace
  • pe-es-si-et -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <pēssiya-> throw -- has waived
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and
  • hu-u-ni-in-kan-za-pat -- verb participle; nominative singular animate of <hūnink-> harm, injure + emphasizing particle; <-pat> ... -- the injured party alone
  • 3 -- numeral; <3> three -- three # Related forms in tri- and teri- occur, and it seems likely that the numeral was inherited from Indo-European, but its exact reading is unknown.
  • GÍN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <GÍN> shekel -- shekels
  • KÙ.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <KÙ.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- takes

10 - tak-ku LÚ.U₁₉.LU-an ku-is-ki hu-ú-ni-ik-zi ta-an is-tar-ni-ik-zi nu a-pu-u-un sa-a-ak-ta-a-iz-zi pe-e-di-is-si-ma LÚ.U₁₉.LU-an pa-a-i nu É-ri-is-si an-ni-es-ke-ez-zi ku-it-ma-a-na-as la-a-az-zi-at-ta ma-a-na-as la-az-zi-at-ta-ma nu-us-se 6 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i A.ZU-ya ku-us-sa-an a-pa-a-as-pat pa-a-i

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • LÚ.U₁₉.LU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <LÚ.U₁₉.LU> person + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a person # The Hittite reading is antuhsan.
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • hu-ú-ni-ik-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <hūnink-> harm, injure -- injures
  • ta-an -- sentence particle; <ta> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- him
  • is-tar-ni-ik-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <istarnink-> take sick, sicken -- makes... ill
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • a-pu-u-un -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <apā-> that -- for him
  • sa-a-ak-ta-a-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <saktāi-> perform sick maintenance -- he performs sick maintenance
  • pe-e-di-is-si-ma -- noun; dative singular of <pēda> place + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular dative of <-sis> his, her, its + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- in his place
  • LÚ.U₁₉.LU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <LÚ.U₁₉.LU> person + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a person # The Hittite reading is antuhsan.
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- he provides
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • É-ri-is-si -- noun; Sumerogram <É> house + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ri-> (indicating dative-locative singular) + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-ssi> his, her, its -- his estate # The Hittite reading is pēri-ssi.
  • an-ni-es-ke-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present iterative of <anniya-> do, work -- to work
  • ku-it-ma-a-na-as -- conjunction; <kuitmān> until, while + enclitic personal pronoun; nominative singular animate of <-as> he, she, it -- while he
  • la-a-az-zi-at-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <lazziya-> get better -- recovers
  • ma-a-na-as -- adverb; <mān> if, when + enclitic personal pronoun; nominative singular animate of <-as> he, she, it -- when he
  • la-az-zi-at-ta-ma -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <lazziya-> get better + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- recovers
  • nu-us-se -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative of <-ssi> he, she, it -- him
  • 6 -- numeral; <6> six -- six # The Hittite reading is unknown.
  • GÍN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <GÍN> shekel -- shekels
  • KÙ.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <KÙ.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- will give
  • A.ZU-ya -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <A.ZU> doctor + enclitic conjunction; <-ya> and -- and the doctor's # The enclitic conjunction -a- is normally written -ya- after Sumerograms.
  • ku-us-sa-an -- noun; accusative singular of <kussan> fee, price -- fee
  • a-pa-a-as-pat -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <apā-> that + emphasizing particle; <pat> himself -- he... himself
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- will also pay

28 - tak-ku DUMU.MUNUS LÚ-ni ta-ra-an-za ta-ma-i-sa-an pit-te-nu-uz-zi ku-us-sa-an pit-te-nu-uz-zi-ma nu ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as LÚ-as ku-it ku-it pe-es-ta ta-as-se sar-ni-ik-zi at-ta-as-sa an-na-as Ú-UL sar-ni-in-kan-zi
tak-ku-wa-an at-ta-as an-na-as-sa ta-me-e-da-ni LÚ-ni pi-an-zi nu at-ta-as an-na-as-sa sar-ni-in-kan-zi
tak-ku at-ta-as-sa an-na-as mi-im-ma-i na-an-si-kan tuh-sa-an-ta

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • DUMU.MUNUS -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <DUMU.MUNUS> girl, daughter -- girl
  • LÚ-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <LÚ> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ni> (indicating dative singular) -- to a man # The Hittite reading is pisni or piseni.
  • ta-ra-an-za -- verb participle; nominative singular animate of <tē-, tar-> declare, promise -- is promised
  • ta-ma-i-sa-an -- pronoun; nominative singular animate of <taimāi-> other + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- another
  • pit-te-nu-uz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pittenu-> take away -- abducts her
  • ku-us-sa-an -- noun; accusative singular of <kussan> fee, price -- brideprice
  • pit-te-nu-uz-zi-ma -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pittenu-> take away + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- and steals
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as -- adjective; nominative singular animate of <hantezziya-> first, oldest -- the first
  • LÚ-as -- noun; Sumerogram <LÚ> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement; <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- man
  • ku-it ku-it -- indefinite relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <kui kui> whatever -- whatever
  • pe-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- he paid
  • ta-as-se -- sentence particle; <ta> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-sse> he -- to him
  • sar-ni-ik-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <sarnink-> make restitution -- makes restitution
  • at-ta-as-sa -- noun; nominative singular animate of <atta-> father + enclitic conjunction; <-a> and -- the father
  • an-na-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <anna-> mother -- and mother
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- do not
  • sar-ni-in-kan-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <sarnink-> make restitution -- make restitution
  • tak-ku-wa-an -- conjunction; <takku> if + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- if her # This is an unusual spelling of takku 'if' plus -an with a hiatus-filling glide, perhaps indicating a pronunciation [takuw-an].
  • at-ta-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <atta-> father -- the father
  • an-na-as-sa -- noun; nominative singular animate of <anna-> mother + enclitic conjunction; <-a> and -- and mother
  • ta-me-e-da-ni -- pronoun; dative singular of <tamāi-> other -- to another
  • LÚ-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <LÚ> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ni> (indicating dative singular) -- man
  • pi-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- give
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- then
  • at-ta-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <atta-> father -- the father
  • an-na-as-sa -- noun; nominative singular animate of <anna-> mother + enclitic conjunction; <-a> and -- and mother
  • sar-ni-in-kan-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <sarnink-> make restitution -- do make restitution
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • at-ta-as-sa -- noun; nominative singular animate of <atta-> father + enclitic conjunction; <-a> and -- the father
  • an-na-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <anna-> mother -- and mother
  • mi-im-ma-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <mimma-> refuse, reject -- refuse # The compound subject attass-a annas "father-and mother" is viewed as a single unit and takes singular verb agreement.
  • na-an-si-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it + enclitic personal pronoun 3rd person singular dative of; <-si-> him, her it + locatival particle; <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- her from him
  • tuh-sa-an-ta -- verb; 3rd person plural middle present of <tuhhus-> cut off, separate -- they shall separate

37 - tak-ku MUNUS-an ku-is-ki pit-te-nu-uz-zi EGIR-an-da-ma-as-ma-as sar-di-ya-as pa-iz-zi tak-ku 2 LÚMEŠ na-as-ma 3 LÚMEŠ ak-kan-zi sar-ni-ik-zi-il NU.GÁL zi-ik-wa UR.BARRA ki-sa-at

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • MUNUS-an -- noun; Sumerogram <MUNUS> woman + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a woman # The Hittite reading of Sumerian MUNUS is disputed.
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • pit-te-nu-uz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pittenu-> take away -- abducts
  • EGIR-an-da-ma-as-ma-as -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> after + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an-da> ... + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural dative <-smas> they -- but after them # The phonetic complement in EGIR-an-da indicates a Hittite reading āppanda.
  • sar-di-ya-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <sardiya-> helper -- a helper # The duplicate KBo VI 3 has the nominative plural in -ēs as well as the third person plural of pāi-, pānzi, which would make more sense, since the law concerns the killing of two or more of a group of men who go after the abductor to rescue the girl.
  • pa-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pāi-> go -- goes after
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • 2 -- numeral; <2> two -- two # The Hittite reading is unclear.
  • MEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <LÚ> man, person + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- men
  • na-as-ma -- conjunction; <nasma> or -- or
  • 3 -- numeral; <3> three -- three # Related forms in tri- and teri- occur, and it seems likely that the numeral was inherited from Indo-European, but its exact reading is unknown.
  • MEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <LÚ> man, person + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- men
  • ak-kan-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <āk-, akk-> die -- die
  • sar-ni-ik-zi-il -- noun; nominative singular of <sarnikzil> restitution -- restitution
  • NU.GÁL -- verb; Sumerogram <NU.GÁL> there is not -- there is no
  • zi-ik-wa -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular nominative <zik> you + quotative particle; <-wa> ... -- you
  • UR.BARRA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <UR.BARRA> wolf -- a wolf
  • ki-sa-at -- verb; 2nd person singular middle preterite of <kīs-> become, happen -- have become # Apparently this is a quotation of a formula declaring the abductor to be an outlaw.

66 - tak-ku GU₄.APIN.LÀL tak-ku ANŠE.KU.RA tu-u-ri-ya-u-wa-as tak-ku GU₄ÁB tak-ku ANŠE.MUNUS.AL.LAL ha-a-li-as har-ap-ta tak-ku MÁŠ.GAL e-na-an-za tak-ku UDU.SÍG.MUNUS tak-ku UDU.NITÁ a-sa-u-ni har-ap-ta is-ha-as-si-sa-an ú-e-mi-ya-az-zi na-an-za sa-ku-wa-as-sa-ra-an-pat da-a-i NÍ-ZU-an Ú-UL e-ep-zi

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • GU₄.APIN.LÀL -- noun; Sumerogram nominative singular of <GU₄.APIN.LÀL> plow ox -- a plow ox
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • ANŠE.KU.RA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ANŠE.KU.RA> horse -- a horse
  • tu-u-ri-ya-u-wa-as -- adjective; genitive singular of <tūriyawar> harness -- draft
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • GU₄ÁB -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <GU₄ÁB> heifer -- a heifer
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • ANŠE.MUNUS.AL.LAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ANŠE.MUNUS.AL.LAL> mare -- a mare
  • ha-a-li-as -- noun; dative-locative plural of <hāli-> corral -- corral
  • har-ap-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <harp-> separate -- wanders to
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • MÁŠ.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <MÁŠ.GAL> he-goat -- a he-goat
  • e-na-an-za -- adjective; nominative singular of <enant-> tame? -- tame?
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • UDU.SÍG.MUNUS -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <UDU.SÍG.MUNUS> ewe -- a ewe
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • UDU.NITÁ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <UDU.NITÁ> ram -- a ram
  • a-sa-u-ni -- noun; dative singular of <asāwar> fold -- to a fold
  • har-ap-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <harp-> separate -- wanders
  • is-ha-as-si-sa-an -- noun; nominative singular of <ishā-> master + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative <-sis> his, her, its + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- and its master
  • ú-e-mi-ya-az-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <wemiya-> find -- finds
  • na-an-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- it
  • sa-ku-wa-as-sa-ra-an-pat -- adverb; <sakuwasaran> right + emphasizing particle; <-pat> ... -- by right
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- takes
  • NÍ-ZU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <NÍ-ZU> thief + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- as a thief
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- not # The Hittite reading is natta.
  • e-ep-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <ēpp-> take, seize -- shall... seize

86 - tak-ku ŠAH se-e-li-ya na-as-ma A.ŠÀ-ni GIŠKIRI₆-ni pa-iz-zi ta se-e-li-ya-as is-ha-a-as A.ŠÀ-na-as GIŠKIRI₆-as wa-al-ah-zi na-as a-ki na-an is-hi-is-si EGIR-pa pa-a-i tak-ku-an Ú-UL-ma pa-a-i na-as NÍ-ZU-as ki-i-sa

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • ŠAH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ŠAH> pig -- a pig
  • se-e-li-ya -- noun; allative of <sēli-> grain pile -- into a grain pile
  • na-as-ma -- conjunction; <nasma> or -- or
  • A.ŠÀ-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <A.ŠÀ> field + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ni> (indicating dative singular) -- into a field
  • GIŠKIRI₆-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <GIŠKIRI₆> orchard + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ni> (indicating dative singular) -- into an orchard
  • pa-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pāi-> go -- goes
  • ta -- sentence particle; <ta> and -- and
  • se-e-li-ya-as -- noun; genitive singular of <sēli-> grain pile -- of the grain pile
  • is-ha-a-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <ishā-> master -- the owner
  • A.ŠÀ-na-as -- noun; Sumerogram <A.ŠÀ> field + Hittite phonetic complement; <-na-as> (indicating genitive singular) -- of the field
  • GIŠKIRI₆-as -- noun; Sumerogram <GIŠKIRI₆> orchard + Hittite phonetic complement; <-na-as> (indicating genitive singular) -- or of the orchard
  • wa-al-ah-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <walh-> attack, strike -- strikes
  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- and it
  • a-ki -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <āk-, akk-> die -- dies
  • na-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- it
  • is-hi-is-si -- noun; dative singular of <ishā-> master + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular of <-ssi> his, her, its -- to its master
  • EGIR-pa -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement; <-pa> ... -- back
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- gives
  • tak-ku-an -- conjunction; <takku> if + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- it
  • Ú-UL-ma -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> no, not + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- but not
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- gives
  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- he
  • NÍ-ZU-as -- noun; Sumerogram <NÍ-ZU> thief + Hittite phonetic complement; <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- a thief
  • ki-i-sa -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <kīs-> become, happen -- becomes

55 - tak-ku LÚ EL-LAM MUŠ-an ku-en-zi ta-me-el-la ŠUM-an te-ez-zi 1 MA.NA KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i tak-ku ARAD-ma a-pa-a-as-pat a-ki
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <LÚ> man, person -- a man
  • EL-LAM -- adjective; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <EL-LAM> free -- free
  • MUŠ-an -- noun; Sumerogram <MUŠ> snake + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a snake
  • ku-en-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <kuēn-> kill, strike -- kills
  • ta-me-el-la -- pronoun; genitive singular of <damāi-> other, another + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> and -- and another's
  • ŠUM-an -- noun; Sumerogram <ŠUM> name + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (functioning here as accusative singular neuter) -- name # The Hittite reading is lāman.
  • te-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <tē-, tar-> declare, promise -- says
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- one
  • MA.NA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <MANA> mina -- mina # The Sumerian mina was a unit of measure for precious metals. Coins had not yet been invented.
  • KÙ.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <KÙ.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- he gives
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • ARAD-ma -- noun; Sumerogram nominative singular animate of <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- he is a slave, however
  • a-pa-a-as-pat -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <apā-> that + emphasizing particle; <-pat> ... -- he himself
  • a-ki -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <āk-, akk-> die -- dies

Lesson Text

1 - tak-ku LÚ-an na-as-ma MUNUS-an su-ul-la-an-na-az ku-is-ki ku-en-zi a-pu-u-un ar-nu-zi Ù 4 SAG.DU pa-a-i LÚ-na-ku MUNUS-na-ku par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi

2 - tak-ku ARAD-an na-as-ma GEME-an su-ul-la-an-na-az ku-is-ki ku-en-zi a-pu-u-un ar-nu-zi Ù 2 SAG.DU pa-a-i LÚ-na-ku MUNUS-na-ku par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi

5 - tak-ku DAM.GÀR URUHa-at-ti ku-is-ki ku-en-zi 1 ME MA.NA KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi tak-ku I-NA KUR URULu-ú-i-ya na-as-ma I-NA KUR URUPa-la-a 1 ME MA.NA KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i a-as-su-se-et-ta sar-ni-ik-zi ma-a-an I-NA KUR URUHa-at-ti nu-za ú-na-at-tal-la-an-pat ar-nu-uz-zi

9 - tak-ku LÚ.U₁₉.LU SAG.DU-ZU ku-is-ki hu-u-ni-ik-zi ka-ru-ú 6 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR pi-is-ke-er nu hu-u-ni-in-kan-za 3 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR da-a-i A-NA É.GAL 3 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR da-as-ke-er ki-nu-na LUGAL-us ŠA É.GAL pe-es-si-et nu-za hu-u-ni-in-kan-za-pat 3 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR da-a-i

10 - tak-ku LÚ.U₁₉.LU-an ku-is-ki hu-ú-ni-ik-zi ta-an is-tar-ni-ik-zi nu a-pu-u-un sa-a-ak-ta-a-iz-zi pe-e-di-is-si-ma LÚ.U₁₉.LU-an pa-a-i nu É-ri-is-si an-ni-es-ke-ez-zi ku-it-ma-a-na-as la-a-az-zi-at-ta ma-a-na-as la-az-zi-at-ta-ma nu-us-se 6 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i A.ZU-ya ku-us-sa-an a-pa-a-as-pat pa-a-i

28 - tak-ku DUMU.MUNUS LÚ-ni ta-ra-an-za ta-ma-i-sa-an pit-te-nu-uz-zi ku-us-sa-an pit-te-nu-uz-zi-ma nu ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as LÚ-as ku-it ku-it pe-es-ta ta-as-se sar-ni-ik-zi at-ta-as-sa an-na-as Ú-UL sar-ni-in-kan-zi
tak-ku-wa-an at-ta-as an-na-as-sa ta-me-e-da-ni LÚ-ni pi-an-zi nu at-ta-as an-na-as-sa sar-ni-in-kan-zi
tak-ku at-ta-as-sa an-na-as mi-im-ma-i na-an-si-kan tuh-sa-an-ta

37 - tak-ku MUNUS-an ku-is-ki pit-te-nu-uz-zi EGIR-an-da-ma-as-ma-as sar-di-ya-as pa-iz-zi tak-ku 2 LÚMEŠ na-as-ma 3 LÚMEŠ ak-kan-zi sar-ni-ik-zi-il NU.GÁL zi-ik-wa UR.BARRA ki-sa-at

66 - tak-ku GU₄.APIN.LÀL tak-ku ANŠE.KU.RA tu-u-ri-ya-u-wa-as tak-ku GU₄ÁB tak-ku ANŠE.MUNUS.AL.LAL ha-a-li-as har-ap-ta tak-ku MÁŠ.GAL e-na-an-za tak-ku UDU.SÍG.MUNUS tak-ku UDU.NITÁ a-sa-u-ni har-ap-ta is-ha-as-si-sa-an ú-e-mi-ya-az-zi na-an-za sa-ku-wa-as-sa-ra-an-pat da-a-i NÍ-ZU-an Ú-UL e-ep-zi

86 - tak-ku ŠAH se-e-li-ya na-as-ma A.ŠÀ-ni GIŠKIRI₆-ni pa-iz-zi ta se-e-li-ya-as is-ha-a-as A.ŠÀ-na-as GIŠKIRI₆-as wa-al-ah-zi na-as a-ki na-an is-hi-is-si EGIR-pa pa-a-i tak-ku-an Ú-UL-ma pa-a-i na-as NÍ-ZU-as ki-i-sa

55 - tak-ku LÚ EL-LAM MUŠ-an ku-en-zi ta-me-el-la ŠUM-an te-ez-zi 1 MA.NA KÙ.BABBAR pa-a-i tak-ku ARAD-ma a-pa-a-as-pat a-ki

Translation

1 If someone kills a man or a woman in a quarrel, he (the killer) produces the body (lit. 'that one') and gives (in recompense) four people (lit. 'heads') -- whether (he kills) a man or a woman -- he shall look to his house for it.
2 If someone kills a male slave or a female slave in a quarrel, he (the killer) produces the body (lit. 'that one') and gives (in recompense) four people (lit. 'heads') -- whether (he kills) a man or a woman -- he shall look to his house for it.
5 If someone kills a Hittite merchant, he shall give one hundred mina of silver. He shall look to his house for it. If (the killing occurs) in the land of Luwiya or in the land of Pala, the shall pay one hundred mina of silver and restore his goods. If (the killing occurs) in the land of Hatti, he shall also produce the merchant himself (for burial).
9 If someone injures a person's head, they used to give 6 shekels of silver: the injured person took three shekels of silver, and they used to take three shekels of silver for the palace. But now, the king has waived the palace share, so that the injured person alone takes three shekels of silver.
10 If someone injures a person and makes him ill, he performs sick maintenance for him. In his place, he provides a person to work his estate while he recovers. When he recovers, (the assailant) will give him six shekels of silver, and he will also pay the doctor's fee himself.
28 If a daughter (is) promised to a man, and another (man) abducts her and steals the bride price, the one who abducts her, gives the first man whatever he paid (as bride-price) and he makes restitution to him. The (woman's) father and mother do not make restitution (to the original prospective son-in-law). If the father and mother give her to another man, then the father and mother do make restitution (to the original prospective son-in-law). If the mother and father refuse (to make restitution), they shall separate her from him (the second man).
37 If someone abducts a woman and a (group of) helper(s) goes after them, if two or three men are killed, there is no restitution: 'You (sg.) have become a wolf.'
66 If a plow ox, a draft horse, if a heifer, (or) a mare wanders into (another owner's) corral; if a tame? he-goat, if a ewe, if a ram strays into (another owner's) fold, and its owner finds it, he shall take it back by right. He (the animal's owner) shall not seize him (the corral or fold's owner) (as) a thief.
86 If a pig goes into a grain-heap, a field, (or) a garden, and the owner of the grain-heap, field, (or) garden strikes it and it dies, he shall give it back to its owner. But if he does not give it (back), he shall become a thief.
55 If a free man kills a snake and speaks another's name (while killing it), he shall pay forty shekels of silver. If he (the offender) is a slave, however, he himself shall die (i.e. 'be executed').

Grammar

16 Demonstrative Pronouns

Hittite has two widely attested demonstrative pronouns: one that indicates that what it refers to is nearby, corresponding to English "this," and another that indicates that the referent is more distant, corresponding to English "that." As with the tonic personal pronouns, and the relative and interrogative pronouns, the demonstratives have a set of pronominal endings distinct from nominal endings.

The demonstrative kā- 'this (one)' has a stem that alternates between kā-, k-, kī- and kē-. In early texts, the the nominative-accusative neuter singular kī- is kept distinct from the nominative-accusative neuter plural and nominative plural animate . In later texts, however, one finds functioning as a nominative-accusative singular neuter and functioning as a nominative plural animate and nominative-accusative plural neuter. The instrumental occurs in three forms, one with the pronominal ending -anda, one with the ending -t that occurs with both nouns and pronouns, and another with the ending -anna. In the genitive plural, the original ending -enzan was eventually replaced by the -l of the singular.

    anim.       neut.
Singular            
nom.   kās       ,
acc.   kūn       ,
gen.       kēl    
dat/loc.       kēdani    
abl.       kēz    
inst.       kēdanta, kēdanna, kēt, kīt    
             
Plural            
nom.   ,       ,
acc.   kūs       ,
gen.       kēnzan, kēl    
dat/loc.   kītas, kēdas        

The demonstrative apā- 'that (one)' is also used as a third person pronoun. Its archaic genitive plural apēnzan was replaced by apēdas with the nominal genitive plural ending.

    anim.       neut.
Singular            
nom.   apās       apē
acc.   apūs       apē
gen.       apēl    
dat/loc.       apēdani    
abl.       apēz    
inst.       apēt    
Plural            
nom.            
acc.            
gen.       apēnzan, apēdas    
dat/loc.       apēdas    
abl.       apēdaz    

As noted above, kā- is used to refer to people or objects considered relatively near, while apā- refers to people or objects considered relatively distant. When used as a third person pronoun, apā- literally means 'that one'.

    nu-mu     IGI-zi   LÚ-natar-mit
    and-to-me   this   first   manly deed-my
    "This was my first manly deed."
                 
    nu   kāsa   kedani   uddanī   LIM   DINGIRLIM   tuliya   halziuen
    and   look   for this   for matter   1000   gods   to the assembly   we called
    "Look, for this matter, we have called the thousand gods to the assembly!"
                                 
    takku   LÚ-an   nasma   MUNUS-an   sullannaz   kuiski   kuenzi
    if   man   or   woman   from a quarrel   someone   kills
    apūn   arnuzi                    
    that one   he brings back                    
    "If someone kills a man or a woman as the result of a quarrel, (the murderer) brings (back) that one (the body)."
                             
    takku   LÚ.U19.LU-an   kuiski   húnikzi    
    if   person   someone   injures    
    t-an   istarnikzi   nu   apūn   sāktāizzi
    and-him   makes sick   and   that one   he takes care of
    "If someone injures a person and makes him sick, (the offender) takes care of that one (the injured party)."

Adverbs, many of which describe spatial or temporal relations are formed from the case forms or stems of both demonstratives. For example: kāni 'here', kēt 'on this side', kitpandalaz 'from now on', or kisssan 'in this way, thus' are from kā-, while, for example, apēda 'there', apiya 'there, then', apiyakku 'even there', and apēnissan 'thus' are from apā-, apē-. Since apā- may be used as a third person pronoun, it can take the reflexive suffix -ila, making the reflexive pronoun apāsila 'himself, herself, itself'.

The word kāsa, which is used to begin sentences, is conventially translated "look!, lo!" or "behold," and is found beside a kāsma of similar function is also from the stem of kā-. Its force was perhaps originally to draw the listner's attention to an utterance, and it is perhaps more literally translatable as "here, then!":

Beside the demonstratives kā- and apā- Hittite has a third set of pronouns from a stem tamai-, tama-, tame- 'other, another'. The animate accusative plural is found only in the Empire period, a time during which the original accusative plural animate ending -us could be used for the nominative plural in pronouns and nouns.

    anim.       neut.
Singular            
nom.   tamāis       tamai
acc.   tamāin        
gen.       tamēl, tame:das    
dat/loc.       tammatta, damēdani    
abl.       tamēdaz    
inst.            
all.            
Plural            
nom.   damaus       tamāi
acc.   damaus       tamāi
dat/loc.   tamēdas        

The following sentence from the "Law Code" provides an example of tamāi- in the genitive:

    takku   EL-LAM   MUŠ-an   kuenzi   tamell-a   ŠUM-an   tezzi
    if   free man   snake   kills   and-another's (gen.)   name   says
    "If a free man kills a snake and pronounces another's name..."
17 The Enclitic String

Sentences with more than one enclitic are quite common, and the enclitic function words in such sentences appear in a rigid order after the word or sentence connective to which they are attached.

Such combinations of enclitics can be though of as strings composed of locations, or "slots" that can be occupied by specific enclitic particles. The full enclitic string has five slots and can be represented as follows:

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
    conjunctions   quotative   personal pronouns   reflexive   locational
    -a 'but', -ma   -war-, -wa-       -za-   -kkan, -ssan
    -a, -ya 'and'               -asta, -apa

Enclitic strings with each slot filled are rare, but strings with three enclitics are not uncommon and strings with four enclitics are not unknown. When the second-person singular dative-accusative pronoun -tta, the third person singular dative -ssi, and the first person plural dative-accusative -nnas- precede enclitics beginning with vowels, their initial consonants are often doubled. Similarly, when the locatival particles -ssan and -kkan, which always end the enclitic string, are preceded by enclitics ending in vowels, their initial consonants are often doubled.

17.1 Enclitic combinations

The following examples illustrate some of the possible combinations of enclitics:

ug-a-war-us

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
    -a 'but'   -war-   -us       -kan

GUD-ya-wa-mu

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
    -ya 'and, but'   -wa-   -mu       -kan

zik-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
                    -kan

mahhan-ma-za-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
    -ma-           -za-   -kan

nu-wa-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4
        -wa-           -kan

nu-tta-kkan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            -tta-       -kkan

nu-za-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
                -za-   -kan

nu-mu-za

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            -mu   -za    

nu-wa-mu-za

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
        -wa-   -mu-   -za-    

nu-war-at-san

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
        -war-   -at-       -san

n-an-za-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            -an-   -za-   -kan
17.2 Before -za

When the second person singular dative-accusative pronoun -tta- precedes the reflexive particle -za, it shows up as -tu-, -ddu-. For example:

nu-wa-du-za

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
        -wa-   -du-   -za-    
17.3 Pronoun slot

More than one enclitic pronoun may occur in slot three, the pronoun slot, for example:

n-an-si-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            -an- 2 sg. acc.anim.        
            -si- 3 sg. dat.       -kan

nu-war-an-mu

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            -an- 2 sg. acc.anim.        
        -war-   -mu- 1 sg. dat.        

n-as-mu-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            3 sg. nom.anim.        
            -mu- 1 sg. acc.       -kan

n-at-mu

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 4
            3 sg. acc.anim.        
            -mu- 1 sg. dat.        

There are, however, restrictions on the case forms that may occur together in the pronoun slot. In a string with two personal pronouns, a third person pronoun generally precedes other pronouns, for example, nu-war-an-mu and n-at-mu with third person singular animate -an- and third person singular -at followed by first person singular -mu in dative function are possible, but strings such as *nu-mu-an and *nu-mu-at with the third person pronouns -an- and third person singular -at coming after the dative -mu- would not be expected.

Two dative pronouns may not co-occur. Therefore, if two pronouns with dative-accusative function do occur in an enclitic string, the first is to be interpreted as an accusative and the second as a dative, e.g. nu-tta-mu with dative-accusative -tta- and -mu- should be understood as 'and you to me'; nu-smas-mu with dative-accusative -smas- and dative-accusative -mu- is understood as 'and them to me'; and nu-mu-smas with dative-accusative -mu- and dative-accusative -smas- is understood as 'and me to them'. A string *nu-ssi-mu with -mu in dative function is not possible. Two accusative pronouns may also not cooccur. Therefore, a string like *n-an-us with the third person singular animate accusative pronoun -an- and the animate accusative plural pronoun is not a possible string.

A string with an accusative pronoun in direct object function will not have an enclitic pronoun in nominative function. Therefore, strings such as *nu-as-an with nominative singular animate -as- and accusative singular animate -an, and *n-e-an with nominative plural animate -e- and accusative singular animate -an, are not possible. This is because the enclitic nominative pronoun is used only with certain intransitive verbs.

18 Enclitic possessive pronouns

In addition to the tonic and enclitic personal pronouns, there was also a series of enclitic possessive pronouns in the archaic language. The pronouns are attached to the nouns they modify, and they agree in case and number with the nouns, for example: genitive attas-mas 'of my father' or dative-locative kissari-ti 'in your hand'. There are, however, no distinct forms for the ablative; where an ablative is required, the forms of the instrumental are used. These pronouns are found in early texts, in later copies of earlier texts, and in texts from the Empire period in which the content is traditional, such as myths, prayers, rituals, and festivals. Although the enclitic possessives seem robust in the oldest texts, the evidence suggests that they had dropped out of use in the living language by the Empire period, having been replaced by genitive forms of the tonic pronouns. Although Akkadian enclitic possessive pronouns are found in texts from all periods, it seems likely that by the Empire period, they were read with the genitives of the tonic pronouns rather than with Hittite enclitic pronouns. The enclitic possessive pronouns are clearly related to the enclitic and tonic personal pronouns, though the third person possessive pronoun resembles the defective third person pronouns -sye- and enclitic dative -ssi rather than a-. In the first, second, and third person possessive pronouns, stems with the vowel a alternate with stems with the vowels e and i. The second and third person enclitic possessives, which also have alternating stems, appear to be shortened forms of the tonic pronouns to judge from variant forms like the third person plural nominative-accusative neuter singular -summit and the dative-locative singular -summi.

There are enclitic possessive pronouns for the first, second, and third persons singular:

    1st person   2nd person   3rd person
Singular            
nom.   -mis, -mas   -tis   -sis, -sas
acc.   -man, -min   -tin   -san, -sin
nom/acc. neut.   -met, -mit   -tit   -sit, -set
gen.   -mas   -tas   -sas
dat/loc.   -mi   -ti   -si
inst.   -mit   -tit   -set, -sit
all.   -ma   -ta   -sa
voc.   -mi        
Plural            
nom.   -mis   -tis   -ses, -sis
acc.   -mus   -tus   -sus
nom/acc. neut.   -mit, -met       -set
gen.   -man        
dat/loc.       -tas    

There are also pronouns for the second and third person plural. A first person plural enclitic possessive does not seem to occur.

    2nd person   3rd person
Singular        
nom.   -smis   -smes
acc.       -sman
nom/acc. neut.   -smet   -summit, -smet
gen.        
dat/loc.   -smi   -summi, -smi
inst.       smit
all.       -sma
Plural        
nom.   -smes    
acc.       -smus
nom/acc. neut.        
dat/loc.       -smas

The following are some examples:

    kisras-ma-ssi   galulupēs-ses   talugaēs
    of hand-but-her   fingers   long
    n-at-kan   miyawēs-pat   galulupēs
    and-they-locatival   soft-indeed   fingers
    "The fingers of her hand are long and they are indeed soft fingers."
             
    HUR.SAGTudhaliyas   pēdi-ti   ēs
    Mt. Tudhaliyas   place-in-your   be
    "Mt. Tudhaliyas, remain in your place!"
             
    GIŠTUKULHI.A-us-sus-sta   ZAG.LU.ZA   dāhhun    
    weapons-their-locatival   shoulder   from   I took
    "I took their weapons from their shoulder(s)."
                 
    nu-mu   wasdul-mit   teddu
    and-to me   sin-my   let him tell
    "Let him tell me my sin."
             
    kardi-smi-ya-at-kan   dāhhun
    heart-and-your (pl.)-it-locatival   I took
    "And from your heart I have taken it (illness)."

The enclitic possessives are used in archaic texts after spatial adverbs, for example: se-e-er-sa-me-et (for sēr-smet 'above them'), or peran-tit 'before you'.

18.1 Sound Changes Accompanying Enclitic Possessives

The final -s of a noun is lost before a pronoun beginning with s, for example, *arēs-smes 'your companions' becomes arēs-mes.

In some texts, the final n of an accusative singular is subject to changes before the initial consonant of an enclitic possessive. The final n of the animate accusative singular may be lost before a pronoun beginning with s, for example, *arhan-ssan 'its border' shows up as arha-ssan.

The final n of the accusative may be lost or it may become m before the initial m of the first person singular pronoun. In the following sentence sahhan-met 'my feudal duty' shows up as sahha-met with the final n of sahhan 'feudal duty' lost before the m of the first person pronoun:

      GIŠTUKUL-li-met   kī-ma   sahha-met
    this   craft-my   this-but   feudal duty-my
    "This is my craft, but this is my feudal duty"

In this sentence, from an archaic prayer, the final n of the accusative becomes m:

    nu-za   tuekkam-mam   natta   paprahhun
    and-reflexive   body-my   not   defiled
    "I have not defiled my body."
19 The Dative-Locative

The Hittite dative-locative combines the forms and functions of two Indo-European case forms. The dative, the case used to signal a recipient, beneficiary, or goal of motion, and the locative, the case used to indicate where action was located. The ending -i, which is most common, is either from the Indo-European dative ending *-ei or from the Indo-European locative ending *-i. A few archaic locatives, so-called endingless locatives, are made with the bare stem (e.g., tagān 'on earth'), but the ending -i tended to spread at the expense of the endingless locative in most paradigms.

19.1 Indirect Objects

The dative is the case of the indirect object, recipient, or beneficiary:

    nu-war-an   ammuk   parā pāi
    and-quotative-him   to me (dat)   give over
    "Give him over to me."
             
    nu-ssi   hatrānun
    and-to-him (dat.)   I wrote
    "And I wrote to him."
         
    nu-ssi   ABU-YA   TUPPAHI.A   RIKILTI   iyat
    and-for him (dat.)   father-my   tablets   treaty   made
    "My father made treaty tablets for him."

Nouns in the dative, whether inflected or not, may be accompanied by the Akkadian preposition ANA 'to'. When ANA precedes a Sumerogram or Akkadogram without a phonetic complement, or when it precedes a personal or place name in the stem form, it is a graphic indicator that the word that follows is a dative. The Akkadian preposition may, however, be used redundantly before Hittite nouns in the dative or before Sumerograms or Akkadograms with phonetic complements that indicate that they are datives:

    A-NA   MUhha-LÚ-ma   TE4MU   wiyanun
    to   to Uhhazitti-moreover (dat.)   a messenger   I sent
    "Moreover, to Uhhaziti I sent a messenger."
                 
    nu-mu   A-NA   DINGIRLIM   ARAD-anni   pesta
    and-me   to   of the deity   the service (dat.)   he gave
    "He gave me to the service of the deity."
                     
    nu-wa   memiyan   ANA   DUTUŠI   hatrāi
    and-quotative   word   to   to my majesty (dat.)   write
    "Send word to my majesty (by letter)."
                     
    INA   KUR   URULawzantiya   ANA   DINGIRLIM   BAL-uwanzi
    to   country   Lawanzantiyas   to   the deity (dat.)   to sacrifice
    iyahhahat                    
    I went                    
    "I went to the country of Lawanzantiyas to sacrifice to the deity."
19.2 Dative of Goal

With verbs of motion, the dative-locative may indicate a goal:

    n-as   mahhan   wappui   ari
    and-she   when   at the riverbank (dat.)   arrives
    "And when she arrives at the river bank..."
19.3 Possessive Dative

A dative in sentences with forms of the verb "to be" has a possessive sense. Such sentences can often be translated by English sentences with "to have":

    nu-mu   É-er   kuit   ēsta
    and-to me (dat.)   house   what   was
    "What house I had (lit. 'What house was to me')..."
                 
    kanissūwar-wa-mu   ŠA   DIŠTAR-pat   GAŠAN-YA   ēsta
    favor-quotative-to me (dat.)   of   Ishtar-herself   Lady-my   was
    "I had the favor or my lady Ishtar herself (lit. 'To me was the favor of my lady Ishtar herself')."

The possessive dative is also found in so-called nominal sentences in which a present form of "be" has been elided:

    ANA   MHattusili-wa   MU.KAMHI.A   maninkuwantes
    to   Hattusilis (dat.)-quotative   years   short
    "Hattusilis' years are short."
19.4 The Dative with Adjectives

The dative is used with adjectives indicating feelings, such as assu- 'dear' and nahhant- 'careful, respectful, fearful', to indicate the object of the emotion:

    n-asta   DIŠKUR-unni-ma   mān   āssus   ēsta
    and-locatival   to the Stormgod (dat.)   when   dear   he was
    "And when he was dear to the Stormgod..."
                     
    nu   wēs   DINGIRMEŠ-as   kuit   nahhantes
    and   we   to the gods (dat.)   because   respectful
    "Because we are respectful to the gods..."
                     
    nu   mān   ANA   SAL.LUGAL   āssu
    and   if   to   to the queen (dat.)   agreeable
    "If it is agreeable to the queen..."
19.5 The Ethical Dative

Hittite has a construction like the "ethical dative" of many of the other Indo-European languages. In such constructions, a pronoun in the dative indicates that the subject of the sentence is the beneficiary of some action. The pronoun may often be translated with an English reflexive pronoun.

    lē-ta   nāhi
    negative-yourself (dat.)   fear
    "Don't fear for yourself."
         
    nu-nnas   DUMU.NITAMEŠ   DUMU.MUNUSMEŠ   iyawen
    and-for ourselves (dat.)   sons   (and) daughters   we made
    "And we had sons and daughters for ourselves."
                 
    LU-as-wa-mu-kan   BA.UŠ
    man-quotative-me (dat)-locatival   died
    "My husband died on me."
19.6 Dative with Comparatives

Comparative consructions are relatively rare in Hittite, but the dative is the case used for the standard against which something is compared:

    nu-wa-kan   ANA   ERÍNMEŠ-KA   ERÍNMEŠ-YA   mekki
    and-quotative-locatival   to   army-my (dat.)   army-your   numerous
    "My army is more numerous than your army."
20 I-Stem Adjectives and Nouns

Hittite had a number of i-stem adjectives and nouns formed with suffixes containing a suffix -i-, which become -y- before vowels. This suffix was often spelled iy before a, and was normally spelled -i- before e. To this suffix, nominal and adjectival endings were added. As with the u-stems, nouns and adjectives were affected by various analogical changes. For example, adjectives sometimes took nominal inflection and vice versa. Originally, however, the adjectives had a suffix of the shape -i- in the nominative and accusative singular animate, in the neuter singular, and in the neuter nominative accusative plural. This suffix alternated with a suffix beginning with a in the rest of the paradigm. The paradigm was, however, affected by a sound change in which y was lost between vowels fairly early, and i-stems sometimes have case forms in -a- plus ending; in other words, individual forms of i-stem adjectives can look like a-stems. The y, however, tended to be analogically restored, and case forms with a suffix -ay- before vowels are also found. The original form of the neuter nominative-accusative plural ended in the suffix -i, likely with regular lengthening of the suffix vowel, but this was eventually replaced by a form -iy-a with the neuter nominative-accusative ending -a of other nouns and adjectives. The paradigm of the adjective salli- 'big, great' is representative:

    animate       neuter
Singular            
nom.   sall-i-s       sall-i
acc.   sall-i-n       sall-i
gen.       sal-as, sall-ay-as    
dat/loc.       sall-ai    
abl.       sall-az, sall-ay-az    
Plural            
nom.   sall-a-es, sall-ay-es       sall-ī, sall-iy-a
acc.   sall-ay-us, sall-i-us       sall-ī, sall-iy-a

In addition to the i-stem adjectives, there are also a handful of adjectives in which a suffix -i-, -y- is added to a stem in final -u, which is often spelled uw before vowels. As with other i-stem adjectives, forms in which the y of the suffix has been lost between vowels are found beside forms in which y has been restored analogically. The nominative-accusative neuter also originally ended in -i, but the regular nominative-accusative plural ending -a was eventually extended to these forms. Occasionally, forms that follow the declension of i-stem nouns occur, for example, nominative plural animate parku-y-ēs for parkuw-ay-ēs 'pure'. The paradigm of parkui- 'pure' is representative:

    animate       neuter
Singular           parku-i
nom.   parku-i-s       parku-i
acc.   parku-i-n        
gen.       par-kuw-as, parkuw-ay-as    
loc.       par-kuw-i    
abl.       parkuw-ay-az    
inst.       parkuw-āi-t    
Plural            
nom.   parkuw-āes       parku-i, parkuw-ay-a
acc.           parku-i, parkuw-ay-a
loc.       parkuw-ay-as    

The declension of the i-stem nouns parallels that of u-stem nouns. The suffix has the shape -i- or -y- before vowels throughout the paradigm. The words halki- 'grain' and pūri- 'lip, rim, edge' provide representative examples of animate i-stem nouns. Halki- is used as a collective in the plural, and a collective form with the neuter plural ending halki is found. Halki- is also often attested as DHalki- 'deified grain'. Pūri- is well attested in the plural as an animate noun.

Singular        
nom.   halk-i-s   pūr-i-s
acc.   halk-i-n   pūr-i-n
gen.   halk-iy-as   *pūr-iy-as
dat/loc.   halk-i   pūr-i
abl.   halk-iy-aza   *pūr-iy-az
inst.   halk-i-t   *pūr-i-t
all.   halk-iy-a    
Plural        
nom.   halk-i-ēs   pūr-y-ēs
acc.   halk-i-us   pūr-i-us
gen.       *pūr-iy-as
dat/loc.       pūr-iy-as
abl.       pūr-iy-az
inst.       pūr-i-t

Beside the nouns with a suffix -i-, -iy- throughout their paradigms, there are also a handful of nouns in which a suffix -i-, -iy- alternates with a suffix -āi-, -āy-. Although the inflection of nouns of this type may in some cases have been influenced by the inflection of the nouns with -i-, -iy-, the declension of these nouns was originally parallel to that of the nouns in -āu-, -āw-. The noun lingāi- 'oath', which is very common, is mostly animate, although a few neuter forms, are found, while hastāi- 'bone' is neuter. The agreement of adjectives and nouns suggests that at least some ostensibly singular forms of the latter are best taken as collectives meaning "bones." Loss of y between vowels is found in forms like animate accusative ling-a-us for *ling-ay-us. The dative-locatives lingāi and hastāi have a suffix and ending that is presumably from *ay:-i or *-ay:-ei with contraction of the suffix and ending.

Singular        
nom.   ling-ai-s   hast-āi
acc.   ling-ai-n   hast-āi
gen.   link-iy-as   hast-iy-as
dat/loc.   ling-a-i   hastā-i
abl.   link-iy-az   *hast-iy-az
inst.       hast-i-t
all.   link-iy-a    
Plural        
nom.   ling-a-us    

The neuter noun kēr, kard-, kardi- 'heart' is anomalous in having three stems. One stem, kēr, normally written as the Akkadogram ŠÀ with phonetic complement (i.e. ŠÀ-er) is found in the nominative-accusative singular and plural and with the dative-locative ending -i. The stem kard- is found in the ablative and allative, while the i-stem kard-i-, kard-iya- occurs in the genitive and in the instrumental. The dative-locative kard-i is presumably also an i-stem form.

Singular    
nom/acc.   ker, kert-i
gen.   kart-iy-as
dat/loc.   gerd-i, kard-i
abl.   kart-az
inst.   kardi-t
all.   kart-a
Plural    
nom/acc.   ker

Hittite Online

Lesson 5

Sara E. Kimball, Winfred P. Lehmann, and Jonathan Slocum

Muršiliš II (roughly 1321-1295 B.C.) took over the Hittite kingdom at its height after a brief reign by his brother Arnuwandaš II (roughly 1322-1321). His father, Šuppiluliumaš (roughly 1344-1322) had rebuilt the capital, Hattusa, known today as Boğazköy, and reorganized local government, establishing the so-called New Kingdom which was maintained from the time of his accession to approximately 1200 B.C. He conducted a successful campaign against Arzawa in southwestern Anatolia while maintaining conflicts with the kingdom of Mitanni in the southeast and establishing a firm foothold in Syria. Muršiliš continued the warfare, as indicated by the first selection from his Annals given here regarding Arzawa.

The second selection illustrates how he solidified his control, first to the land of the Seha river to the east and then to the country of Mira to the southeast. In the third selection we are informed that he did not take over the mountainous land of Azzi to the far east of Anatolia, but was content to control the citizens as vassals. While we have no knowledge of the activities of the sixth year Festival, his attendance at it signifies that under his control the Hittite kingdom enjoyed peace while also being at its highest level.

Reading and Textual Analysis

One of the remarkable features of Muršiliš's rule was the production of annals. Among these is a set concerning the military deeds of his father, but that has been poorly maintained. On his own career he compiled two, one a lengthy account covering his entire career, and the other exerpted here covering the first ten years of his reign. Besides informing us of his military activities it illustrates his social and religious activities.

The second excerpt illustrates how he solidified his control over areas that he and his father had conquered, establishing social ties as well as military assistance. By different procedures indicated in the third selection he protects the country of Azzi without taking over its governance. His success in general, as in Arzawa he credits to the Stormgod, here labeled Mighty, and also to another deity not included in these excerpts, the Sungodess of Arinna, who was the highest female Divine among the earlier Hattic peoples and then maintained as special protector of the Hittite kings. His annals may have been prompted by accounts kept by the Bablyonian rulers and are the fullest of any of the Hittite rulers.

  • Lines 9b-19 are taken from Year 3 of the Annals: KBo III 4 = 2 BoTU 48.
  • Lines 33-45 are taken from Year 4 of the Annals: KUB XIV 15 = 2 BoTU 51 B(B).
  • Lines 28-41 are taken from Year 10 of the Annals: KBo IV 4 = 2 BoTU 58 B.
9b - A-NA MU-uh-ha-LÚ-ma TE₄-MU u-i-ya-nu-un
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • MU-uh-ha-LÚ-ma -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative singular of <Uhhaziti> Uhhaziti -- Uhhaziti # The name is written as a semi-rebus combination of the Hittite syllables uh-ha plus the Sumerogram "man", which is read in Luvian as ziti.
  • TE₄-MU -- noun; functioning here as accusative singular of <TE₄-MU> messenger -- a messenger
  • u-i-ya-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wiya-> send -- I sent

10-12a - nu-us-si ha-at-ra-a-nu-un ARADMEŠ-YA-wa-at-tak-kan ku-i-e-es an-da ú-e-er nu-wa-ra-as-ta EGIR-pa ku-it ú-e-wa-ak-ke-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as-mu EGIR-pa Ú-UL pa-is-ta
  • nu-us-si -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- and to him
  • ha-at-ra-a-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <hatrāi-> write -- I wrote
  • ARADMEŠ-YA-wa-at-tak-kan -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular <-tta> you + locatival particle; <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- my servants... to you
  • ku-i-e-es -- relative pronoun; nominative plural animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- who
  • an-da ú-e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <anda uwa-> come to -- came
  • nu-wa-ra-as-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-war> (indicating continuing action) + locatival particle; <-asta> (indicating continuing action) -- and now
  • EGIR-pa -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement; <-pa> ... -- back
  • ku-it -- conjunction; <kuit> because, since -- because
  • ú-e-wa-ak-ke-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wewakk-> demand -- I demand

12b - nu-wa-ra-as-mu EGIR-pa Ú-UL pa-is-ta nu-wa-mu-za DUMU-la-an hal-zi-es-se-es-ta
  • nu-wa-ra-as-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle locatival particle; <-war> (indicating continuing action) + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- them to me
  • EGIR-pa -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement; <-pa> ... -- back
  • Ú-UL -- adverb Akkadian negative; <ŪL> no, not -- not
  • pa-is-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- gave
  • nu-wa-mu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- me
  • DUMU-la-an -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU> son, child + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a child
  • hal-zi-es-se-es-ta -- verb; iterative 2nd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <halzāi-, haliya-> call out, recite, invite -- you have kept on calling

13-14 - nu-wa-mu-za te-ep-nu-us-ke-et ki-nu-na-wa e-hu nu-wa za-ah-hi-ya-u-wa-as-ta-ti nu-wa-an-na-as DU BE-LÍ-YA DI-NAM ha-an-na-a-ú
  • nu-wa-mu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- me
  • te-ep-nu-us-ke-et -- verb; iterative 2nd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <tepnusk-> diminish, belittle -- have been belittling
  • ki-nu-na-wa -- adverb; <kinuna> now + quotative particle; <-war> ... -- but now
  • e-hu -- exclamation; <ehu> come on -- come on
  • nu-wa -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... -- ...
  • za-ah-hi-ya-u-wa-as-ta-ti -- verb; 1st person plural present middle of mi-conjugation <zahhiya-> fight -- we will fight
  • nu-wa-an-na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural accusative <-nnas> us -- us
  • DU -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <DU> Stormgod -- the Stormgod
  • BE-LÍ-YA -- noun; Akkadogram <BĒLU> lord, master + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my Lord
  • DI-NAM -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as accusative singular of <DI-NAM> case -- the case
  • ha-an-na-a-ú -- verb; 3rd person singular imperative of hi-conjugation <hanna-> decide judicially -- let decide

15-17a - ma-ah-ha-an-ma i-ya-ah-ha-at nu GIM-an I-NA HUR.SAGLa-wa-sa a-ar-hu-un nu-za DU NIR.GÁL EN-YA pa-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-a-tar te-ek-ku-us-sa-nu-ut nu GIŠkal-mi-sa-na-an si-ya-a-it
  • ma-ah-ha-an-ma -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- but when
  • i-ya-ah-ha-at -- verb; 1st person singular preterite middle of <iya-> go, march -- I marched
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • GIM-an -- conjunction Sumerogram; <GIM> when + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> ... -- when
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- at
  • HUR.SAGLa-wa-sa -- noun; Sumerogram <HUR.SAG> mountain + proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative singular of <Lawasa> Lawasa -- Mt. Lawasa
  • a-ar-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <ār-> arrive, reach -- I arrived
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and
  • DU -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <DU> Stormgod -- Stormgod
  • NIR.GÁL -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <NIR.GÁL> strength -- the mighty
  • EN-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <EN> lord + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my Lord
  • pa-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-a-tar -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <parā handandātar> divine might, power -- divine might
  • te-ek-ku-us-sa-nu-ut -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <tekkunuss-> show, display -- displayed
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • GIŠkal-mi-sa-na-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <GIŠkamisanā-> log, thunderbolt -- a lightning bolt
  • si-ya-a-it -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of <siya-> shoot, hurl -- hurled

17b-18a - nu GIŠkal-mi-sa-na-an am-me-el KARAŠHI.A-YA us-ke-et
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • GIŠkal-mi-sa-na-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <GIŠkamisanā-> log, thunderbolt -- the thunderbolt
  • am-me-el -- tonic personal pronoun; 1st person singular genitive of <ūk> I -- my
  • KARAŠHI.A-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <KARAŠ> troops, army + Sumerian plural marker; <-HI.A> ... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- army
  • us-ke-et -- verb; iterative 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <au-, u-> look, see -- saw

18b - KUR URUAr-za-u-wa-ya-an us-ke-et
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUAr-za-u-wa-ya-an -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as nominative singular animate of <Arzawa> Arzawa + enclitic conjunction; <-ya> and + enclitic pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- it
  • us-ke-et -- verb; iterative 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <au-, u-> look, see -- saw

18c-19 - nu GIŠkal-mi-sa-na-as pa-it nu KUR URUAr-za-u-wa GUL-ah-ta ŠA MUuhha-LÚ-ya URUA-pa-a-sa-an URU-an GUL-ah-ta
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • GIŠkal-mi-sa-na-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <GIŠkamisanā-> log, thunderbolt -- the thunderbolt
  • pa-it -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <pāi-> go -- went
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUAr-za-u-wa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Arzawa> Arzawa -- of Arzawa
  • GUL-ah-ta -- verb; Sumerogram <GUL> strike + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ahta> (indicating 3rd person singular preterite indicative) -- struck # The Hittite reading is walhta.
  • ŠA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ŠA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • MUuhha-LÚ-ya -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <MUuhha-LÚ> Uhhaziti + enclitic conjunction; <-ya> and -- and Uhhaziti's
  • URUA-pa-a-sa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular of <URUApāsa-> Apasa -- Apasa
  • URU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- city # The Hittite reading is happeriyan.
  • GUL-ah-ta -- verb; Sumerogram <GUL> strike + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ahta> (indicating 3rd person singular preterite indicative) -- struck # The Hittite reading is walhta.

33 - nu-za MMa-na-pa-DU-an KUR ÍDSe-e-ha-ya ARAD-an-ni da-ah-hu-un
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and
  • MMa-na-pa-DU-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <ManapaDU> Manapa-Datta -- Manapa-Datta
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <KUR> land, territory -- of the... land # The Hittite reading is udniyas.
  • ÍDSe-e-ha-ya -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <ÍDSēha-> ... + enclitic conjunction; <-ya> and -- Seha river
  • ARAD-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ānni> (indicating dative singular) -- in vassalship
  • da-ah-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- I took

34 - nam-ma I-NA KUR URUMi-ra-a EGIR-pa ú-wa-nu-un nu KUR URUMi-ra-a ta-ni-nu-nu-un
  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUMi-ra-a -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Mirā-> Mira -- of Mira
  • EGIR-pa ú-wa-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of <āppa uwa-> come back -- returned
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUMi-ra-a -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Mirā-> Mira -- of Mira
  • ta-ni-nu-nu-un -- 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation; <taninu-> set in order, fortify -- I fortified

35 - nam-ma URUAr-sa-ni-in URUSa-a-ra-u-wa-an URUIm-pa-an-na ú-e-te-nu-un na-as BÀD-es-na-nu-un
  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • URUAr-sa-ni-in -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Arsani-> Arsani -- the city of Arsani
  • URUSa-a-ra-u-wa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Sārawa-> Sarawa -- the city of Sarawa
  • URUIm-pa-an-na -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Impana-> Impa + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> and -- and the city of Impa
  • ú-e-te-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wete-> build -- I built # In other words, Mursilis fortified these cities.
  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- them
  • BÀD-es-na-nu-un -- verb; Sumerogram <BÀD> fortify + Hittite phonetic complement; <-esnanun> (indicating 1st person singular preterite) -- I fortified

36-37a - na-as ERINMEŠ a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un URUHa-a-pa-nu-wa-an-na ERINMEŠ a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un
  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- them
  • ERINMEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive animate <ERINMEŠ> army, infantry -- of troops
  • a-sa-an-du-la-az -- noun; ablative singular of <asandula-> garrison -- with a garrison
  • e-ep-pu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēpp-> take, seize -- I garrisoned
  • URUHa-a-pa-nu-wa-an-na -- proper noun; accusative singular of <Hāpanuwa> Hapanuwa + enclitic conjunction; <-a-> and -- and the city of Hapanuwa
  • ERINMEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive animate <ERINMEŠ> army, infantry -- of troops
  • a-sa-an-du-la-az -- noun; ablative singular of <asandula-> garrison -- with a garrison
  • e-ep-pu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēpp-> take, seize -- I garrisoned

37b - nam-ma I-NA URUMi-ra-a MMas-hu-i-lu-wa-an EN-iz-na-an-ni ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un
  • nam-ma -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • URUMi-ra-a -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative-locative singular <Mirā> city of Mira -- the city of Mira
  • MMas-hu-i-lu-wa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Mashuiluwa-> Mashuwiluwas -- Mashuwiluwas
  • EN-iz-na-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <EN> lord + Hittite phonetic complement; <-iznānni> (indicating dative-locative singular) -- in lordship
  • ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <tittiya-> establish, settle -- I established

38a - nu A-NA MMas-as-hu-i-lu-wa kis-sa-an me-ma-ah-hu-un
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • MMas-as-hu-i-lu-wa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative singular animate of <Mashuiluwa-> ... + quotative particle; <-wa> ... -- Mashuwiluwas
  • kis-sa-an -- adverb; <kissan> thus, as follows -- the following
  • me-ma-ah-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <mēma-, mēmiya-> say, speak -- I said

38b-39 - zi-ik-wa-kan MPÍŠ.TUR-as PA-NI A-BI-YA pit-ti-ya-an-ti-li an-da ú-et nu-wa-at-ta A-BU-YA sa-ra-a da-a-as
  • zi-ik-wa-kan -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular nominative <zik> you + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + locatival particle; <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- you
  • MPÍŠ.TUR-as -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as vocative <PÍS.TUR> Mashuiliuwa -- Mashuiliuwa
  • PA-NI -- preposition; Akkadogram <PANI> before, under -- before
  • A-BI-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as dative singular <ABI> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • pit-ti-ya-an-ti-li -- adverb; <pittiyantili> as a fugitive -- as a fugitive
  • an-da ú-et -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <anda uwa-> come to -- came
  • nu-wa-at-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-tta> you -- you
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • sa-ra-a da-a-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <sarā dā-> offer, take -- took... in

40-41a - nu-wa-du-za HA-TÁ-NU i-ya-at nu-wa-at-ta MUNUSMu-u-wa-at-tin a-pe-el DUMU.MUNUS-ZU MUNUS KU-YA A-NA DAMUT-TU-ŠU pe-es-ta
  • nu-wa-du-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-du-> you + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- you
  • HA-TÁ-NU -- noun; Akkadogram <HATANU> son-in-law -- son-in-law
  • i-ya-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- made
  • nu-wa-at-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular dative <-tta> you -- to you
  • MUNUSMu-u-wa-at-tin -- proper noun; accusative singular of <Muwatti-> Muwattis -- Muwattis
  • a-pe-el -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular of <apā-> that -- his
  • DUMU.MUNUS-ZU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <DUMU.MUNUS> girl, daughter + Akkadian 3rd person singular enclitic possessive pronoun; <-ZU> his -- daughter
  • MUNUS KU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <MUNUS KU> sister + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my sister
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- in
  • DAMUT-TU-ŠU -- noun; Sumerogram <DAM> wife, marriage + Akkadian phonetic complement; <-UTTU> (abstract suffix) + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-ŠU> his, her -- in marriage
  • pe-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- gave

41b-42a - EGIR-an-ma-wa-ar-as-ta Ú-UL ti-i-ya-at nu-wa-at-tak-kan LÚMEŠ.KÚR-KA se-er Ú-UL ku-en-ta
  • EGIR-an-ma-wa-ar-as-ta -- adverb; Sumerogram preverb <EGIR> back, again + functioning here as phonetic complement; <-an> ... + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and + quotative particle; <-war> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-as> he, she, it + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-ta> you -- he # The Sumerogram EGIR, read in Hittite as āppan, is a preverb that belongs with the verb tiyat below.
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- not # The Hittite reading is natta.
  • ti-i-ya-at -- 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation; <āppan tiya-> look after -- look after
  • nu-wa-at-tak-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-tta> you + locatival particle; <kan> (indicating downward action) -- you
  • MEŠ.KÚR-KA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <LÚ> man, person + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Sumerogram; <KÚR> enemy + Akkadian 2nd person singular enclitic possessive pronoun; <-KA> your -- your enemies
  • se-er -- preverb; <sēr> over, above -- ... # The preverb belongs with kuenta below.
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- did not
  • ku-en-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <kuēn-> kill, strike -- attack

42b-43a - nu-wa-at-ta am-mu-uk EGIR-an ti-i-ya-nu-un nu-wa-tak-kan LÚMEŠ.KÚR-KA se-er ku-e-nu-un
  • nu-wa-at-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-tta> you -- you
  • am-mu-uk -- tonic personal pronoun; 1st person singular nominative of <ūk> I -- I # This is an example of Neo-Hittite ammuk for Old Hittite ūk.
  • EGIR-an ti-i-ya-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <āppa tiya-> look after -- have looked after
  • nu-wa-tak-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-tta> you -- and... for you
  • MEŠ.KÚR-KA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <LÚ> man, person + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Sumerogram; <KÚR> enemy + Akkadian 2nd person singular enclitic possessive pronoun; <-KA> your -- your enemies
  • se-er ku-e-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <sēr kuēn-> kill, strike -- I have attacked

43b-45a - nam-ma-wa URUDIDLI.HI.A ú-e-te-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as BÀD-es-na-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as ERINMEŠ a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un
  • nam-ma-wa -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover + quotative particle; <-wa> ... -- Moreover
  • URUDIDLI.HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate <URU> city + Sumerian plural marker; <-DIDLI.HI.A> ... -- cities
  • ú-e-te-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wete-> build -- I built # In other words, Mursilis fortified these cities.
  • nu-wa-ra-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-war> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- them
  • BÀD-es-na-nu-un -- verb; Sumerogram <BÀD> fortify + Hittite phonetic complement; <-esnanun> (indicating 1st person singular preterite) -- I fortified
  • nu-wa-ra-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-war> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- them
  • ERINMEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive animate <ERINMEŠ> army, infantry -- of troops
  • a-sa-an-du-la-az -- noun; ablative singular of <asandula-> garrison -- with a garrison
  • e-ep-pu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēpp-> take, seize -- I garrisoned

45b - nu-wa-at-ta I-NA URUMi-ra-a EN-an-ni ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un
  • nu-wa-at-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-tta> you -- you
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • URUMi-ra-a -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative-locative singular <Mirā> city of Mira -- in the city of Mira
  • EN-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <EN> lord + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ānni> (indicating dative-locative singular) -- in lordship
  • ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <tittiya-> establish, settle -- I established

28-32a - ma-ah-ha-an-ma LÚMEŠ URUAz-zi a-ú-er URUDIDLI.HI.A BÀD-kan ku-it za-ah-hi-ya-az kat-ta da-as-ke-u-wa-an te-eh-hu-un nu LÚMEŠ URUAz-zi ku-i-e-es URUDIDLI.HI.A BÀD NÀ₄pe-e-ru-nu-us HUR.SAGMEŠ-us par-ga-u-e-es na-ak-ki-i AŠ-RIHI.A EGIR-pa har-ker na-at na-ah-sa-ri-ya-an-da-ti nu-mu LÚMEŠ ŠU-GI KURTI me-na-ah-ha-an-da ú-e-er
  • ma-ah-ha-an-ma -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when + enclitic conjunction; <-ma> but, and -- but when
  • MEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <LÚ> man, person + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- the people
  • URUAz-zi -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Azzi-> Azzi -- of the city of Azzi
  • a-ú-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <au-, u-> look, see -- saw
  • URUDIDLI.HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate <URU> city + Sumerian plural marker; <-DIDLI.HI.A> ... -- cities
  • BÀD-kan -- adjective; Sumerogram <BÀD> fortify + locatival particle; <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- fortified
  • ku-it -- conjunction; <kuit> because, since -- since
  • za-ah-hi-ya-az -- noun; ablative singular of <zahhiya-> battle -- through battle
  • kat-ta da-as-ke-u-wa-an te-eh-hu-un -- verb; supine of <katta dā-> take, capture + verb; 1st person singular preterite of <dāi-, tiya-> place, put -- I had begun to capture
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • MEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <LÚ> man, person + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- the people
  • URUAz-zi -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Azzi-> Azzi -- of the city of Azzi
  • ku-i-e-es -- relative pronoun; nominative plural animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- who
  • URUDIDLI.HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate <URU> city + Sumerian plural marker; <-DIDLI.HI.A> ... -- cities
  • BÀD -- adjective; Sumerogram <BÀD> fortify -- fortified
  • NÀ₄pe-e-ru-nu-us -- noun; accusative plural animate of <pērunu-> hill fort -- hill forts
  • HUR.SAGMEŠ-us -- noun; Sumerogram <HUR.SAG> mountain + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Hittite phonetic complement; <-us> (indicating accusative plural animate) -- mountains
  • par-ga-u-e-es -- adjective; accusative plural animate of <parku-> high -- high # This is an example of the Neo-Hittite spread of the nominative plural ending -ēs to accusative function.
  • na-ak-ki-i -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <nakki-> heavy, important, steep -- steep
  • AŠ-RIHI.A -- noun; Akkadogram <AŠ-RI> place + Sumerian plural marker; <-HI.A> ... -- places
  • EGIR-pa har-ker -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of <āppa hark> hold out in -- held out in
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural nominative <-at> he, she, it -- they # This is an example of the sporadic Neo-Hittite use of the original nominative-accusative singular of the third person enclitic personal pronoun as an animate nominative plural.
  • na-ah-sa-ri-ya-an-da-ti -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite middle of mi-conjugation <nahsariya-> fear, become afraid -- took fright
  • nu-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- to me
  • LÚMEŠ ŠU-GI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative plural animate of <LÚ> man, person + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Sumerogram; <ŠU-GI> old -- the elders
  • KURTI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <KUR> land, territory + Akkadian; <TI> (abstract suffix) -- of the land
  • me-na-ah-ha-an-da -- adverb; <mēnahhanda> facing, opposite -- before me
  • ú-e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- came

32b - na-at-mu GÌRMEŠ-as kat-ta-an ha-a-li-i-e-er
  • na-at-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural nominative <-at> he, she, it + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- at me
  • GÌRMEŠ-as -- noun; Sumerogram <GÌR> foot + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Hittite phonetic complement; <-as> (indicating dative plural) -- at my feet
  • kat-ta-an ha-a-li-i-e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of <kattan haliya-> bow down, prostrate -- prostrated themselves

33 - nu-mu me-mi-er BE-LI-NI-wa-an-na-as le-e ku-it-ki har-ni-ik-ti
  • nu-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- to me
  • me-mi-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <mēma-, mēmiya-> say, speak -- they said
  • BE-LI-NI-wa-an-na-as -- noun; Akkadogram <BĒLU> lord, master + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person plural <-LI-NI> our + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural accusative <-nnas> us -- Our lord... us
  • le-e -- negative emphasizing particle; <lē> no, not -- do not
  • ku-it-ki -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- anyhow
  • har-ni-ik-ti -- verb; 2nd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <harnink-> destroy -- destroy # The second person singular when used with the emphatic negative had imperative force. Mi-conjugation verbs with stem final velars often take the hi-conjugation ending -ti in the second person singular.

34a - nu-wa-an-na-as-za BE-LI-NI ARAD-an-ni da-a
  • nu-wa-an-na-as-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural accusative <-nnas> us + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- us
  • BE-LI-NI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as vocative singular <BĒLU> lord, master + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person plural <-LI-NI> our -- our lord
  • ARAD-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ānni> (indicating dative singular) -- in vassalship
  • da-a -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- take

34b-35a - nu-wa A-NA BE-LI-NI ERÍNMEŠ ANŠE.KUR.RAHI.A pe-es-ke-u-wa-an ti-i-ya-u-e-ni
  • nu-wa -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... -- and
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • BE-LI-NI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as vocative singular <BĒLU> lord, master + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person plural <-LI-NI> our -- our lord
  • ERÍNMEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural of <ERINMEŠ> army, infantry -- infantry
  • ANŠE.KUR.RAHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural of <ANŠU.KUR.RAHI.A> chariot troops -- (and) chariot fighters
  • pe-es-ke-u-wa-an -- verb; supine of <pāi-, piya-> give + verb; 1st person plural present of <dāi-, tiya-> place, put -- we will begin providing

35b-36a - NAM.RA URUHa-at-ti-ya-wa-an-na-as-kan ku-is an-da nu-wa-ra-an pa-ra-a pi-i-ya-u-e-ni
  • NAM.RA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate of <NAM.RA> captive, colonist -- and the captive
  • URUHa-at-ti-ya-wa-an-na-as-kan -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti + enclitic conjunction; <-ya> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural accusative <-nnas> us + locatival particle; <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- of Hatti
  • ku-is -- relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- who
  • an-da -- postposition; <anda> in, into, at -- into
  • nu-wa-ra-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle; <-wa> ... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular animate accusative <-an> him, her, it -- him
  • pa-ra-a pi-i-ya-u-e-ni -- verb; 1st person plural present of hi-conjugation <parā pai-/piya-> hand over -- we will hand over

36b-37 - na-as nam-ma DUTUŠI Ú-UL har-ni-in-ku-un na-as-za ARAD-an-ni da-ah-hu-un na-as-za ARAD-ah-hu-un
  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular nominative of <-as> I -- I
  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • DUTUŠI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUTUŠI> my majesty -- my majesty # This expression, composed of Sumerian DUTU, the Sumerogram meaning "Sungod" plus an Akkadian phonetic complement ŠI, derived from the Akkadian word for "Sungod", Šams^u, and conventionally translated as "My Sun" or "My Majesty", is the title by which Hittite kings habitually referred to themselves in texts written after the Old Kingdom period.
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- not # The Hittite reading is natta.
  • har-ni-in-ku-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <harnink-> destroy -- I did... destroy
  • na-as-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it + reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- them # This is Neo-Hittite usage for expected -us.
  • ARAD-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ānni> (indicating dative singular) -- in vassalship
  • da-ah-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- I took
  • na-as-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and them
  • ARAD-ah-hu-un -- verb; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ahhun> (indicating 1st person singular preterite) -- I made them vassals

38-39 - nu-mu MU.KAM-za ku-it se-er te-e-pa-u-e-es-sa-an-za e-es-ta nu nam-ma KUR URUAz-zi Ú-UL da-ni-nu-nu-un nu LÚMEŠ URUAz-zi li-in-ga-nu-nu-un
  • nu-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- and for me
  • MU.KAM-za -- noun; Sumerogram <MU> year + Sumerogram; <KAM> a measure of time + Hittite phonetic complement functioning here as ergative singular; <-za> ... -- the year
  • ku-it -- conjunction; <kuit> because, since -- because
  • se-er te-e-pa-u-e-es-sa-an-za -- verb participle; nominative singular animate of <sēr tepauwēss-> become little, become short -- short
  • e-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- had becomme
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • nam-ma -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular neuter <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUAz-zi -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Azzi-> Azzi -- of Azzi
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- I did not
  • da-ni-nu-nu-un -- 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation; <taninu-> set in order, fortify -- fortify
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- instead
  • MEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative animate <LÚ> man, person + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- the men
  • URUAz-zi -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Azzi-> Azzi -- of Azzi
  • li-in-ga-nu-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of <linganu-> place under oath -- I placed under oath

40a - nam-ma URUHa-at-tu-si ú-wa-nu-un
  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- to the city of Hattusas
  • ú-wa-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- I came

40b-41 - nu URUHa-at-tu-si gi-im-ma-an-da-ri-ya-nu-un nu-za EZENHI.A ŠA MU.6.KAM i-ya-nu-un
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative-locative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- in the city of Hattusas
  • gi-im-ma-an-da-ri-ya-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <gimandariya-> spend the winter, overwinter -- I spent the winter
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and
  • EZENHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative <EZEN> festival + Sumerian plural marker; <-HI.A> ... -- the festivals
  • ŠA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ŠA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • MU.6.KAM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <MU> year + numeral; <6> six + Sumerogram; <KAM> a measure of time -- of the sixth year
  • i-ya-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- I celebrated

Lesson Text

9b - A-NA MU-uh-ha-LÚ-ma TE₄-MU u-i-ya-nu-un
10-12a - nu-us-si ha-at-ra-a-nu-un ARADMEŠ-YA-wa-at-tak-kan ku-i-e-es an-da ú-e-er nu-wa-ra-as-ta EGIR-pa ku-it ú-e-wa-ak-ke-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as-mu EGIR-pa Ú-UL pa-is-ta
12b - nu-wa-ra-as-mu EGIR-pa Ú-UL pa-is-ta nu-wa-mu-za DUMU-la-an hal-zi-es-se-es-ta
13-14 - nu-wa-mu-za te-ep-nu-us-ke-et ki-nu-na-wa e-hu nu-wa za-ah-hi-ya-u-wa-as-ta-ti nu-wa-an-na-as DU BE-LÍ-YA DI-NAM ha-an-na-a-ú
15-17a - ma-ah-ha-an-ma i-ya-ah-ha-at nu GIM-an I-NA HUR.SAGLa-wa-sa a-ar-hu-un nu-za DU NIR.GÁL EN-YA pa-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-a-tar te-ek-ku-us-sa-nu-ut nu GIŠkal-mi-sa-na-an si-ya-a-it
17b-18a - nu GIŠkal-mi-sa-na-an am-me-el KARAŠHI.A-YA us-ke-et
18b - KUR URUAr-za-u-wa-ya-an us-ke-et
18c-19 - nu GIŠkal-mi-sa-na-as pa-it nu KUR URUAr-za-u-wa GUL-ah-ta ŠA MUuhha-LÚ-ya URUA-pa-a-sa-an URU-an GUL-ah-ta
33 - nu-za MMa-na-pa-DU-an KUR ÍDSe-e-ha-ya ARAD-an-ni da-ah-hu-un
34 - nam-ma I-NA KUR URUMi-ra-a EGIR-pa ú-wa-nu-un nu KUR URUMi-ra-a ta-ni-nu-nu-un
35 - nam-ma URUAr-sa-ni-in URUSa-a-ra-u-wa-an URUIm-pa-an-na ú-e-te-nu-un na-as BÀD-es-na-nu-un
36-37a - na-as ERINMEŠ a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un URUHa-a-pa-nu-wa-an-na ERINMEŠ a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un
37b - nam-ma I-NA URUMi-ra-a MMas-hu-i-lu-wa-an EN-iz-na-an-ni ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un
38a - nu A-NA MMas-as-hu-i-lu-wa kis-sa-an me-ma-ah-hu-un
38b-39 - zi-ik-wa-kan MPÍŠ.TUR-as PA-NI A-BI-YA pit-ti-ya-an-ti-li an-da ú-et nu-wa-at-ta A-BU-YA sa-ra-a da-a-as
40-41a - nu-wa-du-za HA-TÁ-NU i-ya-at nu-wa-at-ta MUNUSMu-u-wa-at-tin a-pe-el DUMU.MUNUS-ZU MUNUS KU-YA A-NA DAMUT-TU-ŠU pe-es-ta
41b-42a - EGIR-an-ma-wa-ar-as-ta Ú-UL ti-i-ya-at nu-wa-at-tak-kan LÚMEŠ.KÚR-KA se-er Ú-UL ku-en-ta
42b-43a - nu-wa-at-ta am-mu-uk EGIR-an ti-i-ya-nu-un nu-wa-tak-kan LÚMEŠ.KÚR-KA se-er ku-e-nu-un
43b-45a - nam-ma-wa URUDIDLI.HI.A ú-e-te-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as BÀD-es-na-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as ERINMEŠ a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un
45b - nu-wa-at-ta I-NA URUMi-ra-a EN-an-ni ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un
28-32a - ma-ah-ha-an-ma LÚMEŠ URUAz-zi a-ú-er URUDIDLI.HI.A BÀD-kan ku-it za-ah-hi-ya-az kat-ta da-as-ke-u-wa-an te-eh-hu-un nu LÚMEŠ URUAz-zi ku-i-e-es URUDIDLI.HI.A BÀD NÀ₄pe-e-ru-nu-us HUR.SAGMEŠ-us par-ga-u-e-es na-ak-ki-i AŠ-RIHI.A EGIR-pa har-ker na-at na-ah-sa-ri-ya-an-da-ti nu-mu LÚMEŠ ŠU-GI KURTI me-na-ah-ha-an-da ú-e-er
32b - na-at-mu GÌRMEŠ-as kat-ta-an ha-a-li-i-e-er
33 - nu-mu me-mi-er BE-LI-NI-wa-an-na-as le-e ku-it-ki har-ni-ik-ti
34a - nu-wa-an-na-as-za BE-LI-NI ARAD-an-ni da-a
34b-35a - nu-wa A-NA BE-LI-NI ERÍNMEŠ ANŠE.KUR.RAHI.A pe-es-ke-u-wa-an ti-i-ya-u-e-ni
35b-36a - NAM.RA URUHa-at-ti-ya-wa-an-na-as-kan ku-is an-da nu-wa-ra-an pa-ra-a pi-i-ya-u-e-ni
36b-37 - na-as nam-ma DUTUŠI Ú-UL har-ni-in-ku-un na-as-za ARAD-an-ni da-ah-hu-un na-as-za ARAD-ah-hu-un
38-39 - nu-mu MU.KAM-za ku-it se-er te-e-pa-u-e-es-sa-an-za e-es-ta nu nam-ma KUR URUAz-zi Ú-UL da-ni-nu-nu-un nu LÚMEŠ URUAz-zi li-in-ga-nu-nu-un
40a - nam-ma URUHa-at-tu-si ú-wa-nu-un
40b-41 - nu URUHa-at-tu-si gi-im-ma-an-da-ri-ya-nu-un nu-za EZENHI.A ŠA MU.6.KAM i-ya-nu-un

Translation

Year 3; lines 9b-19: But, to Uhhaziti I sent a messenger. I wrote him: "My subjects who came to you, because I now demanded (them) back, you have not given (them) back to me. And you have been calling me a child; and you have been belittling me. Now come on: we will fight one another. And the Stormgod, my lord, decide our case." And as I marched, when I arrived at Mt. Lawasa, then the mighty Stormgod, my lord, displayed (his) divine might. He hurled a thunderbolt. And my troops saw the thunderbolt and the country of Arzawa saw the thunderbolt. The thunderbolt went and struck the country of Arzawa and it struck Apasa, Uhhaziti's city.
Year 4; lines 33-45: I took Manappa-Datta of the Seha river land as vassal. And moreover I went back to the country of Mira and I fortified the country of Mira. Moreover, I built the cities Arsanini, Sarawa, and Impa and fortified them and garrisoned them with troops. And I garrisoned the city of Hapanuwa with troops. Furthermore, In Mira, I set up Mashuiluwas in overlordship. And I said the following to Mashuiluwas: "You, Mashuiluwas, came before my father as a fugitive and my father took you in and made you his son-in-law and gave you Muwattis, his daughter, my sister, in marriage. But he could not be concerned with you and (he could not) attack your enemies for you. But I am concerned with you, and I have attacked your enemies for you. And, moreover, I have built cities and fortified them and garrisoned them with troops. And I have settled you in lordship in Mira."
Year 10; lines 28-41: But when the people of Azzi saw that I had started taking fortified cities in battle, the people of Azzi, who held out in fortified cities, fortified rock forts, high mountains and high places, they became afraid. Then the elders of the county came before me and prostrated themselves at my feet. And they said to me: "Our lord, do not destroy us, Take us, our lord, into vassalship, and we will begin providing to our lord infantry and chariot fighters. And the Hittite captive who is among us, we will hand him over." Moreover, I, my majesty, did not destroy them and I took them in vassalship and I made them vassals. And because the year had become short for me, I did not fortify (Azzi); instead, I put the people of Azzi under oath and then I went to Hattusas and I spent the winter in Hattusas. Festivals of the sixth year (there).

Grammar

21 Iya-stem Adjectives and Nouns

A number of adjectives and a handful of nouns have a suffix -iya-. In some instances, forms with -iya- are found beside i-stem forms. Some of the nouns of this type may be former i-stems that have taken on a-stem inflection. Others, which were originally iya-stems, may either have adopted i-stem inflection by analogy, or they may have undergone a sound change in which the final a of the suffix was dropped. The adjective hantezziya- 'first', which is quite common, and which is sometimes spelled with the Sumerogram IGI plus phonetic complement, provides representative examples.

    animate       neuter
Singular           hantezz-i
nom.   hantezz-iya-s, hantezz-i-s       hantezz-i
acc.   hantezz-iya-n, hantezz-i-n        
gen.       hantezz-iya-s    
dat/loc.            
abl.       hantezz-iy-az    
inst.            
all.       hantezz-iy-a    
Plural            
nom.   hantezz-i-ēs        
acc.   hantess-i-us        
gen.       hantezz-iya-s    
22 r/n-stem nouns

Hittite has a number of neuter nouns in which a stem in -r, normally found in the nominative-accusative singular and plural, and sometimes in the locative singular, alternates with a stem in -n-. In the other Indo-European languages this is an archaic inflection retained only in scattered remnants, but Hittite not only possesses a number of archaic nouns with the original inflection fairly intact, the -r, -n- stem type of inflection is productive in Hittite and is used to form several kinds of verbal nouns.

The most archaic nouns of this type, such as wātar 'water' or ēshar 'blood', show an alternation both in the shapes of their roots and in the shapes of their suffixes according to case. Wātar retains the old collective-plural suffix -ār in its nominative-accusative plural, while the attested forms of ēshar may reflect a mix of inherited singular and plural-collective forms.

Singular        
nom/acc.   wāt-ar   ēsh-ar
gen.   wit-en-as   ēs-n-as, ish-an-as, ēsh-an-as
dat/loc.   wit-en-i   ēs-n-i, ish-an-i
abl.   wit-en-az   ish-an-za
inst.   wid-an-ta   ēsh-an-ta
all.        
Plural        
nom/acc.   wid-ār    

The early instrumental widanta was later replaced by witenit, with a stem witen- based on the stem of the genitive, dative, and ablative. The loss of h between consonants in genitive ēsnas and dative ēsni may have occurred in Indo-European or it may have been an inner Hittite development. Forms such as genitive ishanas were possibly inherited from an Indo-European collective inflection. It seems likely that forms with the stem ēsh-an- have adopted the root of the nominative-accusative.

In pāhhur 'fire' the suffix alternates between -ur in the nominative-accusative singular and -wen- elsewhere in the paradigm, while in mēhur 'time', the suffix of the nominative-accusative is -ur and the suffix of the rest of the paradimg is -un-:

Singular        
nom/acc.   pāhh-ur   mēh-ur
gen.   pāhh-wen-as   mēh-un-as
dat/loc.   pāhh-wen-i   mēh-in-i
abl.   pāhh-wen-az   *mēh-un-az
inst.   pāhh-wen-it    
all.       *mēh-un-a

Two other nouns, uttar 'word, thing, affair' and pattar 'basket, tray', have a suffix -ar that alternates with a suffix -an-. The plural of uttar, uddār also retains the old collective suffix -ār.

Singular        
nom/acc.   utt-ar   patt-ar
gen.   utt-an-as   *patt-an-as
dat/loc.   udd-an-ī   patt-an-ī
abl.   udd-an-az   patt-an-az
inst.   udd-an-ta   patt-an-it
all.        
Plural        
nom/acc.   udd-ār    
dat/loc.   udd-an-as    
22.1 Complex Suffixes

Other neuter nouns of this type have complex suffixes which are the product of adding the suffixes -r and -n- to already existing nominal stems, some of which were themselves formed from verbal stems. Many of these nouns also have close relationships to verbs from which the base nouns were derived. Nouns in -āwar, -āun-, such as asāwar 'sheepfold' and patāwar 'feather' seem originally to have been formed from -stem nouns. The root of asāwar is related to the root as- beside ēs- 'be':

Singular        
nom/acc.   as-āwar   part-āwar
gen.   *as-āun-as   part-āun-as
dat.   as-āun-i   *part-āu-ni
abl.   as-āun-az   part-āun-az
inst.   *as-āun-it   part-āun-it
all.        

The complex suffix -essar, -esn- forms verbal nouns, for example, hannessar, 'law case, judgment' comes from hann- 'litigate, decide a court case'.

Singular    
nom/acc.   hanness-ar
gen.   hannes-n-as
dat.   hannes-n-i
abl.   hanness-n-az
inst.   hannes-n-it
all.    

The suffix -ātar is used to form abstract nouns from verbs. In nouns of this type, the nominative-accusative -ātar alternates with a suffix -ānn- from *-ādn-. A frozen form of the allative -ānna forms one type of infinitive. Paprātar 'impurity', which is well attested, beside the verbs papre- 'be proven guilty' (i.e. 'impure'), papress- 'become impure', and paprahh- 'defile, make impure' is a representative noun of this type:

Singular    
nom/acc.   paprātar
gen.   paprānn-as
dat.   paprānn-i
abl.   paprānn-aza
inst.   *paprānn-it
all.   *paprānn-a

Verbal abstract nouns in -war, have a genitive in -was, from an earlier -wons with a regular sound change of ns to s. The suffix in -n is preserved in the supine in -wan, from an original endingless locative, and in the infinitive in -wanzi from an original dative. Because original sequences of uw became um, verbs with stems in final -u- make verbal nouns in -mar, -mas, supines with the suffix -uman, and infinitives in -umanzi. The verbal nouns are often found in the genitive in expressions like: taknāz dāuwas 'taking from the earth' with dāuwas, genitive of dāwar, the verbal noun of dā- 'take', zahhiyas pēdan 'place of battle, battlefield' with the genitive of zahhiyawar from zahhiya- 'fight'.

22.2 Pēr, parn- 'house'

The noun *pēr 'house' (normally written É-er) has a stem par-n- in forms other than the nominative-accusative singular and plural. In the locative, the forms *pēr without ending and *pēr-i (written É-er and É-ri or É-i) are found beside parn-i:

Singular    
nom/acc.   *pēer, Éer
gen.   par-n-as
dat/loc.   par-n-i, *pēr, *pēr-i
abl.   par-n-az
inst.    
all.   par-n-a
Plural    
nom/acc.   *pēr, É-er
gen.   *par-n-as
dat/loc.   par-n-as
23 The Locative

The locative is the case that indicates the place in which an object or action is located.

    nu   É-ri-ssi   anneskezzi
    and   in house-his (loc.)   he works
    "And he shall work in his house."
             
    pēdi-ssi-ma   ZÀ.HA.LI-an   anenun
    in place (loc.)-its-(loc.)-and   cress   I sowed
    "And on its site I sowed cress."
             
    nu-ssan     hūman   GIpaddanī   katta handaizzi
    and-locatival   this   all   in a basket (loc.)   she arranges
    "And all this she arranges in a basket."
                     
    nu-kan   Éh:li   sāwātar   pariparāi
    and-locatival   in yard (loc.)   the horn   she blows
    "And in the yard she blows the horn."
23.1 Abstract locative

The locative may be abstract in meaning:

    namma   INA   URUMirā   MMashuiluwan   EN-iznanni   tittanunun
    moreover   in   the City of Mira   Mashuiluwa   in lordship (loc.)   I established
    "And I established Mashuilas in lordship in the city of Mira."
23.2 Action in time

The locative is used in adverbial expressions locating action in time, for example:

    GIM-an-ma   hameshi   tethai
    When-but   in spring (loc.)   it thunders
             
    nu   URUNēsan   ispandi   nakkit   dās
    and   Nesa   in the night (loc.)   by force   I took
    "And I took Nesa in the night by force"
                     
    hantezzi-kan   UD-ti   UDUiyantan   inanas   DUTU-i
    in-first (loc)-locatival   in day (loc.)   sheep   of illness   to the Sungod
    sipantahhi                
    I sacrifice                
    "On the first day I offer a sheep to the Sungod of illness."
24 The Imperative

The second person singular and plural of the imperative function as do imperatives in the other Indo-European languages, to indicate commands.

    ammel-kan   assul   PANI   MPulli   halzai
    my-locatival   greetings   before   Pulli   read
    "Read my greetings to Pulli."
                     
    ÚHI.A-uss-a-kan   arha   hūdāk   waras
    grass-and-locatival   down   immediately   cut
    "Cut down the grass immediately."
                 
    n-at-mu   tuppiaz   hatrāi
    and-it-to-me   with a tablet   write
    "Write it to me with a tablet!"
             
    nu   kuedani   DINAM   ēszi   n-at-si   hanni
    and   to whoever   a law case   is   and-it-for him   judge
    n-an-kan   asnut                
    and-him-locatival   set right                
    "Whoever has a law case, judge it for him and set him right."
                         
    nu   tuliyan   halzisten
    and   the assembly   call (pl.)
    "Call the assembly!"
             
    nu-ssan   apiya   iyaddumat
    and-locatival   there   go (pl.)
    "Go there!"
24.1 Third person imperative

The third person imperative has modal-like functions. It can express a wish, or it can express a sense of obligation or of futurity. Often, it can act as an indirect sort of imperative, comparable to constructions in English with "shall," "should," "may," or "must."

    LUGAL-us   MUNUS.LUGAL-ass-a   huiswantes   asandu
    the king   the queen-and   alive   may they be
    "May the king and queen live! (i.e. 'Long live the king and queen!')"
                 
    na-at   DUMU.NAM.LU.U19.LU-as   istamasdu
    and-it   mankind   let them hear
    "And let mankind hear it."
             
    nu-tta   DINGIRMEŠ   assuli   pahsantaru
    and-you   the gods   in benevolence   may they protect
    "May the gods protect you in benevolence."
                 
    nu   auriyas   EN-as   DINAM   SIG5-in   hannau
    and   of watchtower   lord   law case   well   let him judge
    "The border lord should judge the case well (or 'Let the border lord judge the case well')."
24.2 Voluntive

The first person singular imperative, sometimes called a voluntive, expresses a wish, or may have a modal-like sense.

    teshit   uwallu
    with dream   let me see
    "Let me see (it) in (lit 'with') a dream."
         
    nu-mu   apppatar   hatrāttin
    and-to-me   receipt   write
    nu   seggalu    
    and   I may know    
    "Write me a receipt, so that I may know."
             
    zig-a   attas-mis   ēs   ug-a   DUMU-as   ēslit
    but-you   father-my   be   I-but   son   let me be
    "You be my father and let me be (your) son."

Although there is no special form for the first person plural imperative, the first person plural of the indicative can also be used to express a wish:

    kinun-a-wa   ehu   nu-wa   zahhiyawastati    
    now-but-quotative   come on   and-quotative   we fight    
    nu-wa-nnas   DU   BELI-YA   DINAM   hannāu
    and-quotative-for-us   the Stormgod   lord-my   case   let judge
    "Now come, let us fight (or 'we will fight'); let the Stormgod, my lord, judge the case for us."
24.3 Negative adverb

Forms of the second person present and third person present can also have imperative or modal force when used with the negative adverb .

    memiyann-a-ssi     mematti
    word-but-to-her   not   you speak
    "You should not speak a word to her."
             
    nu   sarāzzi   DI-sar     katterahtēni
    and   superior   court case   not   make low
    kattera-ma   hannessar     sarāzziyahteni    
    inferior-but   court case   not   make superior    
    "Do not disparage a superior court case, nor make an inferior case prevail."
                     
    nu-wa   BĒLĪNĪ-NI   INA   URUHayasa     pāisi
    and-quotative   lord-our   against   Hayassa   not   he goes
    "Let our lord not go against Hayasa."
24.4 Archaic forms of "come, go"

Hittite preserves two archaic forms of the imperative of the verb meaning "come, go." One, ehu can be roughly translated as "come" or "come on!"

    kinun-a-wa   ehu   nu-wa   zahhiyawastati
    now-but-quotative   come on   and-quotative   we fight
    "Now come, let us fight!"
                 
    arunaz   ehu
    from the sea   come on
    "From the sea, come!"

The other archaic imperative, ī-, is preserved in the second person singular īt and the second person plural ītten.

    īt-wa   ANA   DIM   URUHatti   BELÍ-YA
    go-quotative   to   Stormgod   of Hatti   lord-my
    "Go to the Stormgod of Hatti, my lord!"
                     
    ītten   azzikatten   akkuskatten
    go   keep eating   keep drinking
    "Go, keep eating (and) drinking (i.e., 'remain alive')!"

The two may be used together:

    ehu   hāras   īt
    come on   eagle   go
    "Come on eagle, go!"
25 The quotative particle

The quotative particle -war- is used to indicate quoted speech. It takes the form -war- when it occurs before enclitics beginning with vowels, and it shows up as -wa- when it occurs before enclitics beginning with consonants. At the end of a phrase, it also shows up as -wa:

  • nu-war-an and-quotative-him
  • nu-war-asta and-quotative-locatival
  • nu-wa-tta and-quotative-you
  • nu-wa-za and-quotative-reflexive
  • nu-wa and-quotative

Normally, -war- is attached to the first word of each clause in a passage of quoted speech, as in the following passage from the Apology of Hattusilis III that quotes what Ishtar said to Hattusilis' father, Mursilis, in a dream. Note that the quotative particle can be rendered in English as "saying":

    nu   DISTAR   GASAN-YA   ANA   MMursli
    and   Ishtar   lady-my   to   Mursilis
    A.BI-YA   Ù-et   MNIR.GÀL-in   ŠEŠ-YA   wiyat
    father-my   with dream   Muwattallis   brother-my   sent
    ANA   MHattusli-wa   MU.KAMHI.A   maninkuwantes    
    for   Hattusilis-quotative   years   short    
    ŪL-war-as   TI-annas   nu-war-an   ammuk    
    not-quotative-he   of life   and-quotative-him   to me    
    parā pāi   nu-war-as-mu   sankunnis   ēsdu    
    hand over   and-quotative-he-to me   priest   let be    
    nu-war-as   TI-anza            
    and-quotative-he   living            
    "Ishtar, My Lady, sent Muwattalis, my brother, to my father, Mursilis by means of a dream, (saying): 'For Hattusilis(-wa), the years are short. He(-war) is not for life. Give him(-war) to me and let him(-war) be my priest. Then he(-war) (will) live.'"

Quoted speech may also be introduced by a verb of speaking or saying:

    nu   siunan   antusiss-a   tarsikkanzi
    and   of gods   men-and   are saying
    kāsa-wa   URUHattusi   ēshar   pangariyattati
    look-quotative   in Hattusas   bloodshed   has become widespread
    "And now the men of the gods are saying: 'Look(-wa) bloodshed has become widespread in Hattusas.'"

Sometimes the adverb kissan "thus" or "the following" is used, with or without a verb of speaking or saying, to introduce quoted speech:

    nu   wet   ABI   DUTUŠI   ANA   MMadduwatta
    and   came   father   of my majesty   to   Madduwattas
    kissan   namma   memista   kāsa-wa-tta        
    thus   moreover   said   look-quotative-to-you        
    KÚR   HUR.SAGZippaslā   ADDIN   nu-wa-za        
    country   Mt. Zippasala   I have given   and-quotative-reflexive        
    apūn-pat   esi                
    that-itself   be                
    "And the father of my majesty came (and), moreover, said the following, to you, Madduwattas, 'Look,(-war) to you I have given the mountain land of Zippasla; so(-wa) occupy it!'"

The verb hatrāi- 'write' is treated as a verb of speaking, and quotations from letters are marked with the quotative particle -war-, -wa-. In the following, the king is quoting a letter that he has received from one provincial official to two other officials to whom he is writing:

    kāsa-mu   MPisenis   URUKasepuraz   hatraīit    
    look-to me   Piseni   from Kasepura   wrote    
    KÚR-wa   pangarit   ispandaz        
    enemy-quotative   in force   by night        
    kuwapi   VI ME   KÚR   kuwapi-ma   IV ME
    in place   600   enemy   in place-but   400
    KÚR   yattaru   nu-wa-kan   halkius   arha waraskezzi
    enemy   is marching   and-quotative   grain   harvests up
    "Look, Piseni wrote me from Kasepura: 'The enemy(-wa) is marching in force by night -- 600 enemy in one place, 400 enemy in another, and he(-wa) is harvesting up the grain.'"

Hittite Online

Lesson 6

Sara E. Kimball and Jonathan Slocum

This document, called by modern scholars the "Apology (apologia) of Hattusilis III" recounts the life and military exploits of one of the most successful Hittite kings. Not only was Hattusilis successful in his military exploits, both before and after his assumption of the kingship, he and his wife, Puduhepa, instituted religious reforms within the Hittite kingdom and engaged in extensive diplomatic relations with other great powers of the time such as Egypt and Assyria. As in other historical texts from the Empire period, the king is shown as the beneficiary of divine aid from a special protector. In this document, the deity who protects Hattusilis from his sickly childhood throughout his reign is the Goddess Ishtar. She not only aids him in battle, but she also guides the major events of his personal life.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Hattusilis, the youngest son of Mursilis, was, by his own account, a frail child. In the first two paragraphs (document sections 2-3), Ishtar, in the guise of Hattusilis's brother Muwattallis, appears to his father in a dream and demands that he hand the child over to serve her as priest. This apparently did have the intended effect of strengthening the child and prolonging his life, since Hattusilis went on to become a successful general, serving under his brother king Muwattallis and reestablishing control over the territory charged to his command.

The 3rd paragraph (from document section 9) concerns another crucial event in Hattusilis's life: his marriage to Puduhepa, daughter of Pentipsarris, a priest in the Kizzuwatnan town of Lawanzantiyas. Queen Puduhepa, who was also a priestess in the service of Ishtar, was a formidable personality in her own right, conducting private diplomatic correspondence with, for example, the Egyptian Pharaoh, fostering the children of nobles, and arranging for diplomatic marriages. Significantly too, Puduhepa seems to have initiated a revival of Kizzuwatnan religious practice in the capital city. We know from other documents that she ordered the chief scribe to have recopied earlier religious rituals, presumably those collected from Kizzuwatnan sources during the Middle Kingdom period. The marriage and start of Hattusilis's family occurred before Hattusilis became king. Instead of inheriting the kingship directly, Hattusilis seized it by force. When Muwattallis, the brother of Hattusilis, died, he apparently left no male heirs of the "first rank" (sons of his primary wife). Following the rules of succession laid down by Telepenus, a son of the "second rank", Urhi-Teshup, who took the throne name Mursilis upon assuming the kingship. Hattusilis remained a powerful figure in the court, however. His success as a military commander and administrator seems to have provoked resentment within court circles, and at one point the "apology" relates how he was falsely accused of malfeasance but, with the divine protection of Ishtar, acquitted. Although he initially supported his nephew the king, he later deposed him, once again claiming the divine guidance and support of Ishtar as his authority.

2 - SA DIŠTAR par-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-tar me-ma-ah-hi
  • SA -- preposition; Akkadian preposition functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive <SA> of -- of
  • DIŠTAR -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive <IŠTAR> Ishtar -- Ishtar
  • par-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-tar -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <parā handandātar> divine might, power -- divine power
  • me-ma-ah-hi -- verb; 1st person singular present of hi-conjugation <mēma-, mēmiya-> say, speak -- I will proclaim

na-at DUMU.NAM.LU.U₁₉.LU-as is-ta-ma-as-du
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it -- it
  • DUMU.NAM.LU.U₁₉.LU-as -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU.NAM.LU.U₁₉.LU> humankind, human beings + Hittite phonetic complement; <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- humankind
  • is-ta-ma-as-du -- verb; 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <istamass-> hear, listen -- hear

nu `zi-la-du-wa SA DUTUŠI DUMU-ŠU DUMU.DUMU-ŠU NUMUN DUTUŠI DINGIRMEŠ-as-kan is-tar-na A-NA DIŠTAR na-ah-ha-a-an e-es-du
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • `zi-la-du-wa -- adverb; <ziladuwa> henceforth, in the future -- from henceforth # The Glossenkeil "`" may indicate that this word was borrowed from Luvian.
  • SA -- preposition; Akkadian preposition functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive <SA> of -- of
  • DUTUŠI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular animate <DUTUŠI> my majesty -- of my majesty
  • DUMU-ŠU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative <DUMU> son, child + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SU> his -- his son
  • DUMU.DUMU-ŠU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative <DUMU.DUMU> grandson + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SU> his -- his grandson
  • NUMUN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <NUMUN> seed, descendant -- and descendants
  • DUTUŠI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <DUTUŠI> my majesty -- of my majesty
  • DINGIRMEŠ-as-kan -- noun; Sumerogram <DINGIR> god + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... + Hittite phonetic complement; <-as> (indicating dative-locative plural) + locative participle; <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- the gods
  • is-tar-na -- postposition; <istarna> among -- among
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • DIŠTAR -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <IŠTAR> Ishtar -- Ishtar
  • na-ah-ha-a-an -- verb participle; accusative singular neuter of hi-conjugation <nahh-> fear, revere -- revered
  • e-es-du -- verb; 3rd person singular imperative of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- be

3 - A.BU-YA-an-na-as-za MMur-si-li-is 4 DUMUMEŠ MHal-pa-su-lu-pi-in MNIR.GÁL-in MHa-at-tu-si-li-in FDINGIRMEŠ.ARAD-in-na DUMU.MUNUS-an ha-as-ta
  • A.BU-YA-an-na-as-za -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my + enclitic personal pronoun; <-annas> (indicating 2nd person plural accusative) + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- my father
  • MMur-si-li-is -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Mursili-> Mursilis -- Mursilis
  • 4 -- numeral; <4> four -- four # The Hittite reading is mēu-.
  • DUMUMEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative animate <DUMU> son, child + Sumerian plural marker; <-MEŠ> ... -- children
  • MHal-pa-su-lu-pi-in -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Halpasulupi-> Halpasulupis -- Halpasulupis
  • MNIR.GÁL-in -- proper noun; Sumerogram <NIR.GÁL> strength + Hittite phonetic complement; <-in> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- Muwattallis # This is a rebus-like spelling for Muwattallis. Sumerian NIR.GA/L is to be read as muwa-, "strength".
  • MHa-at-tu-si-li-in -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Hattusili-> Hattusilis -- Hattusilis
  • FDINGIRMEŠ.ARAD-in-na -- proper noun; Sumerogram <DINGIRMEŠ.ARAD> servant of the god + Hittite phonetic complement; <-inn-> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction; <-a> and -- Massanauzzi # The Sumerogram DINGIRMEŠ is to be read massan- after the Luvian word for "god," massani-.
  • DUMU.MUNUS-an -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU.MUNUS> girl, daughter + Hittite phonetic complement; <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a daughter
  • ha-as-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <hās-, hass-> give birth, beget -- begot

nu-za hu-u-ma-an-da-as-pat EGIR-ez-zi-is DUMU-as e-su-un
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and
  • hu-u-ma-an-da-as-pat -- adjective; genitive plural of <hūmant-> all, each, every + emphasizing particle; <-pat> ... -- of all
  • EGIR-ez-zi-is -- adjective; Sumerogram <EGIR> after + Hittite phonetic complement; <-ezzis> (indicating superlative nominative singular animate) -- the youngest # The Hittite word for "last," or "youngest," was appezziya-. The Sumerogram EGIR is normally read as āppan or āppanda.
  • DUMU-as -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU> son, child + Hittite phonetic complement; <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- child
  • e-su-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- I was

nu-za ku-it-ma-an nu-u-wa DUMU-as e-su-un ŠA KUŠKA.TAB.ANŠE-za e-su-un
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle; <-za> ... -- and
  • ku-it-ma-an -- adverb; <kuitman> when, while -- while
  • nu-u-wa -- adverb; <nūwa> still, yet -- still
  • DUMU-as -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU> son, child + Hittite phonetic complement; <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- a child
  • e-su-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- I was
  • ŠA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ŠA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • KUŠKA.TAB.ANŠE-za -- noun; Sumerogram <KA.TAB.ANŠE> donkey + Hittite phonetic complement; <-za> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- foolish
  • e-su-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- I was

nu DIŠTAR GAŠAN-YA A-NA MMur-si-li A.BI-YA Ù-et MNIR.GÁL-in ŠEŠ-YA u-i-ya-at
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • DIŠTAR -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <IŠTAR> Ishtar -- Ishtar
  • GAŠAN-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <GAŠAN> lady + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my lady
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • MMur-si-li -- proper noun; dative singular of <Mursili-> Mursilis -- Mursilis
  • A.BI-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as dative singular of <ABI> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • Ù-et -- noun; Akkadogram <Ù> dream + Hittite phonetic complement; <-et> (indicating instrumental singular) -- in a dream
  • MNIR.GÁL-in -- proper noun; Sumerogram <NIR.GÁL> strength + Hittite phonetic complement; <-in> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- Muwattallis # This is a rebus-like spelling for Muwattallis. Sumerian NIR.GA/L is to be read as muwa-, "strength".
  • ŠEŠ-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <ŠEŠ> brother + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my brother
  • u-i-ya-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wiya-> send -- sent

A-NA MHa-at-tu-si-li-wa MU.KAMHI.A ma-ni-in-ku-wa-an-te-es
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- for
  • MHa-at-tu-si-li-wa -- proper noun; dative singular of <Hattusili-> Hattusilis + quotative particle; <-wa> ... -- Hattusilis # This is an example of a possessive dative.
  • MU.KAMHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram <MU> year + Sumerogram; <KAM> a measure of time + Sumerian plural marker; <-HI.A> ... -- the years
  • ma-ni-in-ku-wa-an-te-es -- adjective; nominative plural animate of <maninkuwant-> short -- are short