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Latin Online

Series Introduction

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Latin is probably the easiest of the older languages for speakers of English to learn, both because of their earlier relationship and because of the long use of Latin as the language of educational, ecclesiastical, legal and political affairs in western culture. Moreover, we use the Latin alphabet, so that the language is read without difficulty. On the other hand, the sentence structure and number of forms require a great deal of attention, since the words of sentences are placed for their emphasis, rather than in accordance with a pattern like that of the English Subject-Verb-Object sentence. It is essential, then, to learn the basic inflections of nouns and verbs.

1. The Latin alphabet and pronunciation.

The Latin alphabet was taken over from the Greek through Etruscan. The order of the letters is therefore much the same as in Greek, as is also true of most of their pronunciation. The 23-letter alphabet is as follows:

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X Y Z

English has maintained this order with a few modifications. In Latin the letter I was used both for its vocalic value and to represent the sound y as in yet. An elongated form of the letter, J, was later introduced. But this is generally pronounced today as in jam, while the letter Y represents the consonantal value of I. Similarly, the Latin letter V was used to represent both the vocalic value of U as in hue, and the sound w as in wet. A rounded form, U, was introduced to represent the vowel, and a doubled form, W, was introduced to represent the consonantal value. It might also be noted that the third letter of the alphabet was pronounced with its value in cat, rather than with its value in cent or in our pronunciation of Caesar.

The chief difference in pronunciation of these letters has to do with the vowels. The consonants are pronounced like their principal pronunciations in English. Whether long or short, the vowels are pronounced as in the languages of Europe. It might be noted, however, that when Latin was spoken in everyday use, it was pronounced in accordance with the pronunciation of the native language in the country, so that the pronunciation in Italy differed considerably from that in France or Germany, not to speak of England. But today it is pronounced as we assume it was in the Classical period of Latin, that is, at the beginning of our era. Its pronunciation is simple, if one remembers a few key words. Latin i and e are pronounced as in English cliché; Latin a is pronounced as in father; Latin o is pronounced as in so, and u as in sue. When two vowels are found in the same syllable, each has its normal value; the first syllable of Caesar was then pronounced with the a as in father and the e as in cliché, so that it was similar to our pronunciation of the pronoun I.

Unlike English, Latin has few silent letters. A line of verse may then be read with every letter pronounced, such as the first line of Vergil's Aeneid:

Arma virumque canō, Trōiae qui primus ab ōris
'I sing of the arms and the man, who first [came] from the shores of Troy'

Or the first line of Caesar's Gallic Wars:

Gallia est omnis divisa in partēs trēs
'Gaul as a whole is divided into three parts'
2. The vocabulary.

English and Latin belong to the Indo-European language family; their earlier versions separated from each other over three thousand years ago. And until this century, much university instruction was carried on in Latin. Moreover, it was taught to many students from the high school years onward through college. University scholars often spoke to one another in Latin, as do members of the Vatican to this day. As a result, English shares many of the same words, especially in technical fields, although in modified form. Nonetheless it is useful to relate such words to their Latin counterparts.

Some words have undergone little change so that their roots are close to those of their Latin equivalents, if spelled somewhat differently, for example English spew, Latin spuere, English stand, Latin stāre. But most of the common words that the two languages share by inheritance are somewhat concealed, many of them because of a massive change of consonants in Germanic before the modern era. This change was described by the great German scholar Jakob Grimm and is known as Grimm's law, which is listed even in smaller dictionaries of English. At this time, p, t, k were changed to sounds that today are represented by f, th, h. Among examples are Latin pater vs. English father, Latin mater vs. English mother, and Latin cornu vs. English horn. And the sounds represented as bh, dh, gh in Indo-European were changed to the sounds that today are represented by b, d, g. These were also changed in Latin, where bh is represented by f, as in Latin frater vs. English brother; similarly, dh in Latin is also represented by f, as in Latin foris vs. English door; and gh is in Latin represented by h among other developments, as in Latin hanser, later anser vs. English goose. And d, g were changed to t, k (b was rare in Indo-European); compare Latin edere vs. English eat, Latin gelidus vs. English cold.

It is interesting to compare such cognate words, but the changes that both languages have undergone often conceal the relationships, as for the numerals for four and five. Most of the others are transparently related, in spite of the changes: Latin ūnus, one; duo, two; trēs, three; quattuor, four; quinque, five; sex, six; septem, seven; octo, eight; novem, nine; decem, ten. Since dictionaries often provide the Latin cognates of English entries, control over the Latin vocabulary can be gained by noting them.

By far the greatest number of similar words are found in technical language, where English simply took over the Latin terms as industrial, political and technological affairs became more complex, especially in the last several centuries; ecclesiastical terms were taken over as England was christianized. The words were pronounced in accordance with the English spellings, rather than with their pronunciation in Latin. Some examples from these specialties are cited here.

The industrial and technological spheres include such words as arbitrate, agent, auction, calculate, contract, junction, labor, premium, propeller, science, specimen. The political and legal sphere includes such terms as affidavit, alias, alibi, divorce, habeas corpus, injunction, subpoena. The ecclesiastical sphere includes such words as altar, confession, doctrine, infidel, repent, salvation, trinity. And other words belong to our every day vocabulary, such as animal, bonus, inertia, minimum, recipe, stimulus, vacuum. Thanks to the great number of such importations from Latin, it is relatively easy to learn its vocabulary.

3. The sentence structure of Latin.

As is clear from the earlier quotations, the sentence order of Latin may differ considerably from that of English. In an earlier form of Latin, the verb was placed last in the sentence, as in the first clause of the Aeneid. But its position in the first line of Gallic Wars is quite different. The different positions are possible because of Latin inflections. In English we generally have to place together verbal phrases like 'is divided'; we can place some adverbs between them, as in 'is often divided', but we cannot ordinarily put numerals or adjectives after the nouns they modify, as is done in partes tres. English has strict rules of placement; Latin on the other hand can move elements around for stylistic purposes, so that instead of writing omnis Gallia, the order that Caesar used is quite acceptable, as is that of partes tres.

In examining a Latin text, one should first identify the verb, whose forms are identifiable through their inflections. Similarly, the subject, if it is included in addition to the marker in the verb, should be identified. Clearly there is no such subject for canō, so that one translates it with the subject ('I') indicated by its inflection. Verb forms ending in -ō have a first person subject, in contrast with the second person canis 'you sing', canit 'he/she sings'. It is useful, therefore, to memorize the basic inflections of verbs. Similarly, the subject can be identified by its form. Gallia, like many nouns, has feminine gender, and its nominative form ends in -a.

As illustrated by these brief passages, the key to reading Latin is provided by knowledge of its inflections. While these are numerous, memorization of the basic inflections of nouns and verbs is generally adequate.

4. The forms of Latin.
4.1 Nouns, adjectives and pronouns.

These three parts of speech are inflected for five cases, besides a case of address called the vocative. The cases are as follows:

Case forms may also be determined by prepositions.

In English, only the nominative, genitive/possessive and accusative/objective have been maintained, and the last only in pronouns: I is nominative, my is genitive, me is accusative. Nouns simply have a nominative and a possessive, as in dog, dog's. Adjectives are not inflected.

Latin nouns are also inflected based on --

Paradigms are given in the various lessons. For illustration here, forms of nouns are shown in the first declension (most of which are feminine like via 'way'), and in the second declension (many of which are masculine such as numerus 'number'), and also the forms of the pronoun ego 'I':

    Sg.   Pl.   Sg.   Pl.   Sg.   Pl.
Nom.   via   viae   numerus   numerī   ego   nōs
Gen.   viae   viārum   numerī   numerōrum   meī   nostrum
Dat.   viae   viīs   numerō   numerīs   mihi   nōbis
Acc.   viam   viās   numerum   numerōs     nos
Abl.   viā   viīs   numerō   numerīs     nōbis

The vocative in the first declension is the same as the nominative; in the second declension it ends in e, so that a slave, servus, would be called by saying serve.

4.2 Verbs.

Like nouns, verbs have many inflections based on:

The conjugations are given below. Here only a sketch is provided for understanding of the various forms and their relation to one another with first singular examples of the verb laudō 'I praise.'

Active voice   Passive voice
Indicative   Subjunctive   Indicative   Subjunctive
Present
laudō   laudem   laudor   lauder
Imperfect
laudābam   laudārem   laudābar   laudārer
Future
laudābō       laudābor    
Perfect
laudāvī   laudāverim   laudātus sum   laudātus sim
Past Perfect
laudāveram   laudāvissem   laudātus eram   laudātus essem
Future Perfect
laudāvero       laudātus ero    

In addition there are imperative forms, infinitives, participles, a gerund, and a supine. The imperative forms are rare in written texts, and are not illustrated here.

The present infinitive active is laudāre. The present participle active is laudans. The present infinitive passive is laudārī. The perfect participle passive is laudātus.

Because four forms provide sufficient information to produce the others for a verb, dictionaries and grammars list four principal parts. These are: the first person singular present active, e.g. laudō; the first person singular perfect active, e.g. laudāvī; the perfect participle passive, e.g. laudātus; and the present infinitive active, e.g. laudāre. It is especially important to note these for verbs of the third conjugation, because these are often irregular, e.g. edō 'I eat', ēdī, ēsus, edere; faciō 'I do', fēcī, factus, facere; scribō 'I write', scripsī, scriptus, scribere. (Dictionaries and grammars may give the principal parts with the infinitive as second form; they may also give the neuter form of the perfect participle passive, e.g. factum.)

4.3 The other parts of speech.

In addition to these four parts of speech, Latin includes adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, and prepositions. Since their functions are comparable to those of their English counterparts, they will not be discussed here.

5. Examples of texts.

Proverbs or passages from literary figures are often cited, also in English works. A few will be given here to illustrate the use of forms and patterns of syntax.

Caesar: Vēnī, vīdī, vīcī.
'I came, I saw, I conquered.' [three perfect forms]
  Ferē libenter homines id quod volunt credunt.
'Nearly always people believe willingly that which they wish.'
Cicero: Salus populī suprema est lex.
'The welfare of the people is the supreme law.'
  Silent enim legēs inter arma.
'Laws indeed are silent in war.'
Horace: Ira furor brevis est.
'Anger is brief madness.'
  Integer vitae, scelerisque purus.
'Blameless in life, and free of sins.'
  Dulce et decorum est pro patriā morī.
'It is sweet and honorable to die for the fatherland.'
Terence: Homo sum; humanī nil ā mē alienum putō.
'I am a man; I believe that nothing human is foreign to me.'
  Nummumst iam dictum quod non dictum sit prius.
'Nothing has yet been said that has not been said earlier.'
Virgil:           Equō nē credite, Teucrī,
Quidquid id est, timeō Danaōs et dona ferentīs.
          'Do not trust in the horse, Trojans,
Whatever it is, I fear the Greeks also [when they] are bringing gifts.'
  Hōs successus alit; possunt, quia posse videntur.
'Success nourishes them; they can because they think they can.'

Related Language Courses at UT

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Latin Online

Lesson 1

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

This selection is taken from Livy's History of Rome, Book I.1.7-11. It describes the arrival of Aeneas and his troops in Latium after the fall of Troy. The account is mythological, presumably originated to provide the Romans with a pedigree comparable to that of the Greeks. It is given here partly to relate the myth, and partly to provide a narrative account parallel to the opening of Vergil's Aeneid, the text for the tenth unit.

The author, Titus Livius, referred to as Livy (59 B.C. - 17 A.D.), was born in Patavium, modern Padua, to an aristocratic family. He was well educated in Latin and Greek, and also in literature and rhetoric. While details of his life are scanty, it is assumed that he settled in Rome about 17 B.C., when he began his history. He was a friend of Emperor Augustus, and apparently so situated that he was able to devote himself to his great historical work. As may be assumed from this selection, he was primarily concerned with glorifying his country, for which he incorporated myths as well as facts. He was and is greatly admired for his control of the language, which as in this selection often leads to intricate and lengthy sentences.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The selection is the latter part of the account of the landing. Aeneas and his men are reported to have sailed north from Sicily, with nothing in their possession but their ships and weapons. They landed to obtain supplies. The local king, Latinus, set out to drive them off, but as stated here he first arranged a parley with Aeneas.

Cum instructae acies constitissent, priusquam signa canerent, processisse Latinum inter primores ducemque advenarum evocasse ad conloquium.
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • instructae -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <instructus, instructa, instructum> arranged, ready -- ready
  • acies -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <acies, aciei> line of battle -- lines of battle
  • constitissent -- verb; 3rd person plural pluperfect subjunctive of <cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitūtum> decide -- had drawn up
  • priusquam -- adverb; <priusquam> before -- before
  • signa -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <signum, signi> sign -- signals
  • canerent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <canō, canere, cecinī, cantum> sing -- had sounded
  • processisse -- verb; perfect infinitive of <prōcēdō, procedere, processī, processum> advance -- advanced
  • Latinum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Latinus, Latini> Latinus -- Latinus
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- among
  • primores -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <primoris, primoris, primore> chieftain, leader -- his chieftains
  • ducemque -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <dux, ducis> leader + conjunction; <-que> and -- and ... the leader
  • advenarum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <advena, advenae> stranger, foreigner -- of the strangers
  • evocasse -- verb; perfect infinitive of <ēvocō, evocare, evocāvī, evocatum> call forth, summon -- summoned
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • conloquium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <conloquium, conloqui> conference -- a conference

Percunctatum deinde qui mortales essent, unde aut quo casu profecti domo quidve quaerentes in agrum Laurentinum exissent.
  • percunctatum -- deponent verb; 3rd person perfect passive indicative of <percūnctor, percunctārī, percunctātus sum> inquire with est understood -- he inquired
  • deinde -- adverb; <deinde> then -- then
  • qui -- interrogative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <quis, quis, quid> who, what -- what
  • mortales -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <mortalis, mortalis, mortale> mortal -- men
  • essent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- they might be
  • unde -- adverb; <unde> from whence -- from which place
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or at least
  • quo -- adverb; <quo> what -- by which
  • casu -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <casus, casus> fall, misfortune, chance -- chance
  • profecti -- deponent verb; nominative plural masculine of perfect participle passive of <proficīscor, proficiscī, profectus sum> set out -- had set out
  • domo -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <domus, domi> house -- from home
  • quidve -- interrogative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <quis, quis, quid> who, what + conjunction; <-ve> or -- or what
  • quaerentes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītum> look for, search -- seeking
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • agrum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ager, agri> land -- into the lands
  • Laurentinum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <Laurentinus, Laurentina, Laurentinum> Laurentinus -- of Laurentum
  • exissent -- verb; 3rd person plural pluperfect subjunctive of <exeō, exire, exiī, exitum> go out, leave -- they had gone out to

Postquam audierit multitudinem Troianos esse, ducem Aeneam, filium Anchisae et Veneris, cremata patria domo profugos sedem condendaeque urbi locum quaerere.
  • postquam -- conjunction; <postquam> after -- after
  • audierit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect subjunctive of <audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum> hear -- he heard
  • multitudinem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <multitudo, multitudinis> multitude -- people
  • Troianos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <Troianus, Troiana, Troianum> Trojan -- Trojans
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- were
  • ducem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <dux, ducis> leader -- leader
  • Aeneam -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Aeneas, Aeneae> Aeneas -- Aeneas
  • filium -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <filius, filii> son -- son
  • Anchisae -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Anchises, Anchisae> Anchises -- Anchises
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • Veneris -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Venus, Veneris> Venus -- Venus
  • cremata -- verb; ablative singular feminine of perfect passive participle of <cremō, cremāre, cremāvī, cremātum> burn -- having been burnt
  • patria -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <patria, patriae> fatherland -- fatherland
  • domo -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <domus, domi> house -- home
  • profugos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <profugus, profuga, profugum> fugitive -- fugitives
  • sedem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <sedes, sedis> seat, habitation -- dwelling place
  • condendaeque -- verbal adjective; dative singular feminine of <condō, condere, condidī, conditum> found + conjunction; <-que> and -- and for founding
  • urbi -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <urbs, urbis> city -- city
  • locum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <locus, loci> place -- place
  • quaerere -- verb; infinitive of <quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītum> look for, search -- to seek

Et nobilitatem admiratum gentis virique et animum vel bello vel paci paratum, dextra data fidem futurae amicitiae sanxisse.
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • nobilitatem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <nobilitas, nobilitatis> renown -- renown
  • admiratum -- deponent verb; perfect participle passive accusative singular masculine of <admīror, admirārī, admirātus sum> admire -- admiring
  • gentis -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <gens, gentis> race, clan -- of the race
  • virique -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <vir, viri> man + conjunction; <-que> and -- and of the man
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- as well as
  • animum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <animus, animi> soul, mind -- spirit
  • vel -- conjunction; <vel> either - or -- either
  • bello -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <bellum, belli> war -- for war
  • vel -- conjunction; <vel> either - or -- or
  • paci -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <pax, pacis> peace -- for peace
  • paratum -- verb; accusative singular masculine of perfect participle passive of <parō, parāre, parāvī, parātum> prepare, obtain -- prepared
  • dextra -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <dextra, dextrae> right hand -- right hand
  • data -- verb; ablative singular feminine of perfect participle passive of <dō, dare, dedī, dātum> give -- having been given
  • fidem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <fides, fidei> faith, pledge -- pledge
  • futurae -- future participle; genitive singular feminine of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- (of) future
  • amicitiae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <amicitia, amicitiae> friendship -- of friendship
  • sanxisse -- verb; perfect infinitive of <sanciō, sancīre, sānxī, sānctum> enact -- he enacted

Inde foedus ictum inter duces, inter exercitus salutationem factam.
  • inde -- adverb; <inde> from that -- then
  • foedus -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <foedus, foederis> treaty -- a treaty
  • ictum -- defective verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive indicative of <īcere, īcī, ictum> strike with est understood -- was made
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- between
  • duces -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <dux, ducis> leader -- the leaders
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- between
  • exercitus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <exercitus, excercitus> army -- the armies
  • salutationem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <salutatio, salutationis> saluting -- saluting
  • factam -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive indicative of <faciō, facere, fēcī, factum> do, make -- was carried out

Aeneam apud Latinum fuisse in hospitio.
  • Aeneam -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Aeneas, Aeneae> Aeneas -- Aeneas
  • apud -- preposition; <apud> among, with -- at (Latinus') house
  • Latinum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Latinus, Latini> Latinus -- Latinus
  • fuisse -- verb; perfect infinitive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- was
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • hospitio -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <hospitium, hospitii> hospitality -- hospitality

Ibi Latinum apud penates deos domesticum publico adiunxisse foedus filia Aeneae in matrimonium data.
  • ibi -- adverb; <ibi> there, then -- thereupon
  • Latinum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Latinus, Latini> Latinus -- Latinus
  • apud -- preposition; <apud> among, with -- in the presence of
  • penates -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <Penates, Penatium> household gods -- household gods
  • deos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <deus, dei> god -- gods
  • domesticum -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <domesticus, domestica, domesticum> domestic -- domestic
  • publico -- adjective; ablative singular neuter of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- in public
  • adiunxisse -- verb; perfect infinitive of <adiungō, adjungere, adjūnxī, adjūnctum> add -- added
  • foedus -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <foedus, foederis> treaty -- treaty
  • filia -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <filia, filiae> daughter -- daughter
  • Aeneae -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <Aeneas, Aeneae> Aeneas -- to Aeneas
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • matrimonium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <matrimonium, matrimoni> marriage -- marriage
  • data -- verb; ablative singular feminine of perfect participle passive of <dō, dare, dedī, dātum> give -- having given

Ea res utique Troianis spem adfirmat tandem stabili certaque sede finiendi erroris.
  • ea -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- this
  • res -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- event
  • utique -- adverb; <utique> certainly -- definitely
  • Troianis -- adjective used as substantive; dative plural masculine of <Troianus, Troiana, Troianum> Trojan -- for the Trojans
  • spem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <spes, spei> hope -- hope
  • adfirmat -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative of <adfīrmō, adfirmāre, adfirmāvī, adfirmātum> confirm -- confirmed
  • tandem -- adverb; <tandem> finally -- finally
  • stabili -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <stabilis, stabilis, stabile> stable -- stable
  • certaque -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <certus, certa, certum> certain + conjunction; <-que> and -- and secure
  • sede -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <sedes, sedis> seat, habitation -- home
  • finiendi -- verb; gerund(ive) genitive singular masculine of <finiō, finīre, finīvī, finītum> finish, end -- ended
  • erroris -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <error, erroris> wandering -- their wandering

Oppidum condunt.
  • oppidum -- noun, neuter; accusative singular <oppidum, oppidi> city -- a city
  • condunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present indicative of <condō, condere, condidī, conditum> found -- they founded

Aeneas a nomine uxoris Lavinium appellat.
  • Aeneas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Aeneas, Aeneae> Aeneas -- Aeneas
  • a -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- after
  • nomine -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <nomen, nominis> name -- the name
  • uxoris -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <uxor, uxoris> wife -- of his wife
  • Lavinium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <Lavinium, Lavinii> Lavinium -- Lavinium
  • appellat -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative of <appellō, appellāre, appellāvī, appellātum> call -- called

Lesson Text

Cum instructae acies constitissent, priusquam signa canerent, processisse Latinum inter primores ducemque advenarum evocasse ad conloquium. Percunctatum deinde qui mortales essent, unde aut quo casu profecti domo quidve quaerentes in agrum Laurentinum exissent. Postquam audierit multitudinem Troianos esse, ducem Aeneam, filium Anchisae et Veneris, cremata patria domo profugos sedem condendaeque urbi locum quaerere. Et nobilitatem admiratum gentis virique et animum vel bello vel paci paratum, dextra data fidem futurae amicitiae sanxisse. Inde foedus ictum inter duces, inter exercitus salutationem factam. Aeneam apud Latinum fuisse in hospitio. Ibi Latinum apud penates deos domesticum publico adiunxisse foedus filia Aeneae in matrimonium data. Ea res utique Troianis spem adfirmat tandem stabili certaque sede finiendi erroris. Oppidum condunt. Aeneas a nomine uxoris Lavinium appellat.

Translation

When the arranged lines of battle had been drawn up, before the signals were sounded, Latinus advanced among his chieftains and summoned the leader of the strangers to a conference. He then asked what men they were, where they had come from, what misfortune had caused them to leave their home, and what they were seeking in the land of Laurentinum. After he heard that the people were Trojans and their leader was Aeneas, the son of Anchises and Venus, and that their city had been burned, and driven from their home they were seeking a dwelling place and a site where they might build a city, in admiration of both the renown of the race and the spirit of the hero who was prepared either for war or for peace, he gave him his right hand and enacted a pledge of future friendship. A treaty was then struck by the leaders, and the armies saluted. Aeneas received guest friendship with Latinus. And then Latinus in the presence of his household gods added to the public treaty a domestic one by giving his daughter in marriage to Aeneas. This event definitely confirmed the hope of the Trojans of having ended their wanderings in a stable and certain home. They founded a city. Aeneas called it Lavinium after the name of his wife.

Grammar

1 Latin, a Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) Language.

The basic word order of Latin is SOV. Typical sentences then have the verb in final position, as in the sentence Oppidum condunt. Because personal subjects are included in the verb form, a separate subject may be lacking.

A fuller pattern is found in the following sentence: Aeneas ab nomine uxoris Lavinium appellat. The sentence also includes an adverbial phrase placed, as frequently, before the object, which typically stands directly before the verb. Similar sentences are found at the beginning of this passage.

2 Modifications of the basic sentence pattern, with non-finite forms making up the verbs in clauses.

Like many writers in the Classic Latin period, Livy introduced many modifications of the basic sentence pattern. As in this passage, he often used clauses with nominal forms of verbs, such as infinitives, participles, gerunds and gerundives rather than finite verbs.

Among them are clauses consisting of an infinitive with an accusative as subject, as in processisse Latīnum 'Latinus advanced', (Latinum) evocāsse 'Latinus summoned', Latīnum adiunxisse 'Latinus added'. As in the translations here, these are best treated as finite clauses in English. But many infinitives are used, like in English, as complements to finite verbs, e.g. postquam audierit multitudinem Trōiānōs esse 'after he heard that the people were Trojans'.

Participles may also be used instead of finite verbs, as in Inde foedus ictum 'Then a treaty was struck'. Such clauses may be viewed as simple sentences with a form of 'be' as verb omitted. The passage contains many examples, such as percunctatum, profectī, quaerentēs and so on. But a highly characteristic use of participles in Latin is found with both a noun and a participle in the ablative case -- the so-called ablative absolute construction. These are comparable to subordinate clauses; an example is dextrā datā, literally 'the right hand given' but often best treated as a finite clause as in 'he gave him his right hand'. The later example, filiā datā, literally 'daughter given', could be treated similarly, though here it is translated as a participial clause.

Gerundives are adjectival and gerunds are nominals that may be inflected in the oblique cases. They are characterized by an -nd- ending. An example of a gerundive in the text is condendae urbī 'for founding a city'. An example of a gerund is finiendī erroris 'for ending of their wandering'.

As this text illustrates, classical Latin syntax is highly stylized. It should be noted that it contains few particles. These are used in many languages for indicating emphasized items. In Latin such emphasis is indicated by shifts in word order, and often with separation of connected words. Besides shifts in word order, the inflection of nouns and of verbs is highly important for conveying nuances of meaning in the language.

3 Noun inflection.

Latin nouns are classed in five declensions that are determined by their endings. In this unit we will exemplify the first declension, which has final -a in the stem form, e.g. patria 'fatherland', and the second, most of which have final -us (from Proto-Indo-European -os), e.g. filius 'son'. Second declension nouns with bases ending in -r, e.g. vir 'man', may lack the final ending. Neuter nouns end in -um.

Nouns are inflected for gender, number, and case. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Most nouns of the first declension are feminine; those of the second are masculine, e.g. filius 'son', or neuter, e.g. bellum 'war'.

There are two numbers: singular, and plural.

There are five cases -- plus the vocative, a case of address for nouns to which it may apply, such as proper nouns. In declensions, the cases are listed as follows; the basic uses given here:

    1st declension         2nd declension
Case   Sg.   Pl.   Sg.   Pl.   Sg.   Pl.   Sg.   Pl.
Nom.   patria   patriae  |  filius   filiī   vir   virī   bellum   bella
Gen.   patriae   patriārum  |  filiī   filiōrum   virī   virōrum   bellī   bellōrum
Dat.   patriae   patriīs  |  filiō   filiīs   virō   virīs   bellō   bellīs
Acc.   patriam   patriās  |  filium   filiōs   virum   virōs   bellum   bella
Abl.   patriā   patriīs  |  filiō   filiīs   virō   virīs   bellō   bellīs

Greek nouns of the first declension, e.g. Aeneas and Anchises, have a final -s in the nominative, but are regular in the other cases. Like other first declension nouns they have -a in the vocative.

The vocative of regular second declension nouns ends in -e, e.g. filie 'oh son'; those nouns ending in -r have no ending, e.g. vir 'oh man'.

Adjectives are inflected like nouns, but may be inflected for all three genders, e.g. m. certus, f. certa, n. certum 'certain'.

4 Verb inflection.

Verbs are classed in four conjugations, in accordance with their stem vowels:

  1. those with infinitive ending in -āre belong to the first conjugation;
  2. those ending in -ēre belong to the second;
  3. those ending in -ere belong to the third;
  4. those ending in -īre belong to the fourth.

Verbs are inflected for two voices (active and passive), six tenses (present, imperfect, future, perfect, past perfect and future perfect), and for two moods (indicative and subjunctive). In addition there are two numbers (singular and plural), and three persons (first, second, and third). Moreover, there is an imperative for second and third persons.

Verbs have nominal forms: three infinitives (present, perfect, and future), two participles (present and future), a gerund, gerundive, and a supine.

Dictionaries list verbs in their first person singular present indicative, or a comparable form if the verb in question is inflected only in the passive. Moreover, dictionaries and grammars provide four principal parts, from which all forms can be made. These are given below, with examples from each of the four conjugations.

Conj.   Pres.
Indic.
  Pres.
Infin.
  Perf.
Indic.
  Perf. Part.
Passive
1   laudō 'praise'   laudāre   laudāvī   laudātum
2   moneō 'advise'   monēre   monuī   monītum
3   tegō 'cover'   tegere   tēxī   tectum
4   audiō 'hear'   audīre   audīvī   audītum

Although the texts included in the ten units present historical and literary information, so that verbs are chiefly in the third person, the six present indicative forms are given here to provide a basis for recognizing all forms.

      Conjugation  
      1   2   3   4  
  1 sg.   laudō   moneō   tegō   audiō  
  2 sg.   laudās   monēs   tegis   audīs  
  3 sg.   laudat   monet   tegit   audit  
 
  1 pl.   laudāmus   monēmus   tegimus   audīmus  
  2 pl.   laudātis   monētis   tegitis   audītis  
  3 pl.   laudant   monent   tegunt   audiunt  
5 The phonological system.

The phonological system of Latin is remarkably simple. It consists of sixteen consonants and five vowels, which may be long or short. In printed texts, length is not usually marked; when it is, a macron is placed over the long vowels.

The system is as follows:

    Labials   Dentals   Palato-velars
Voiceless:   p   t   k (also spelled c and q)
Voiced:   b   d   g
Fricatives:   f   s   h
Nasals:   m   n   ŋ (before k, g)
Semivowels:   w (v)       j (often spelled i)
             
Liquids:     l   r  
             
Vowels:   i             u
      e   o  
        a    

The vowels have "continental" values: i and e are pronounced as in cliché; a as in father, o as in note, u as in flute.

Diphthongs are pronounced as sequences of the two successive vowels, e.g. ae as in aisle, oe as in soil, ei as in rein, au as in rout.

Latin has a stress accent. In words of more than one syllable, the stress falls on the second to last syllable if it is long, but if not, then on the third to last.

Latin Online

Lesson 2

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

This selection is taken from Book 2, Section 10 of Livy's history. It deals with an episode in the struggle of the Romans to maintain themselves. Aeneas is assumed to have landed in Latium shortly before 750 B.C. In the following 250 years the Romans maintained themselves, but had conflicts with other peoples, especially the Etruscans.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The Etruscans were at the gates of Rome in 503, and set out to enter the city over a bridge across the Tiber River. The Romans retreated over it into the city and set out to destroy it. While they were doing so, it was defended by three men. Horatius Cocles asked the two others to withdraw as well and then held off the Etruscans by himself until the bridge was destroyed. He then plunged into the river and swam across in full armor. The episode was greatly celebrated. It formed the topic of the poem on Horatius in Thomas Babingdon Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome of 1842. (A passage after the sentence ending in pontis was omitted, to avoid undue length of this selection.)

Cum hostes adessent, pro se quisque in urbem ex agris demigrant, urbem ipsam saepiunt praesidiis.
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • hostes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <hostis, hostis> enemy -- enemies
  • adessent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <adsum, adesse, adfuī> be present -- appeared
  • pro -- preposition; <pro> for, before -- for
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; ablative of <sui> self -- self
  • quisque -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisque, quaeque, quodque> everyone -- each for himself
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • urbem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <urbs, urbis> city -- into the city
  • ex -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- from
  • agris -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <ager, agri> land -- the fields
  • demigrant -- verb; 3rd person plural present indicative of <dēmigrō, dēmigrāre, dēmigrāvi, dēmigrātum> withdraw -- withdrew
  • urbem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <urbs, urbis> city -- urbs
  • ipsam -- intensive pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <ipse, ipsa, ipsum> self -- itself
  • saepiunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present indicative of <saepiō, saepīre, saepsī, saeptum> surround -- they surrounded
  • praesidiis -- noun, neuter; dative plural of <praesidium, praesidii> guard -- with guards

Alia muris, alia Tiberi obiecto videbantur tuta.
  • alia -- pronominal adjective; nominative plural neuter of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- some parts
  • muris -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <murus, muri> wall -- by walls
  • alia -- pronominal adjective; nominative plural neuter of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- other parts
  • Tiberi -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <Tiber, Tiberis> Tiber -- by the Tiber
  • obiecto -- verb; ablative singular masculine of perfect participle passive of <obiciō, obicere, obiēcī, obiectum> oppose -- in front of them
  • videbantur -- verb; 3rd person imperfect passive of <videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum> see -- seemed
  • tuta -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <tutus, tuta, tutum> safe -- secure

Pons sublicius iter paene hostibus dedit, ni unus vir fuisset, Horatius Cocles.
  • pons -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <pons, pontis> bridge -- the bridge
  • sublicius -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sublicius, sublicia, sublicium> resting on piles -- resting on piles
  • iter -- noun, neuter; accusative singular <iter, itineris> way -- way
  • paene -- adverb; <paene> almost -- almost
  • hostibus -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <hostis, hostis> enemy -- to the enemies
  • dedit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <dō, dare, dedī, dātum> give -- provided
  • ni -- conjunction; <ni> if not, unless -- if there had not
  • unus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <unus, una, unum> one, alone -- one
  • vir -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <vir, viri> man -- man
  • fuisset -- verb; 3rd person singular past perfect subjunctive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- had been
  • Horatius -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Horatius, Horati> Horatius -- Horatius
  • Cocles -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Cocles, Coclitis> Cocles -- Cocles

Id munimentum illo die fortuna urbis Romanae habuit.
  • id -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- (on) this
  • munimentum -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <munimentum, munimenti> defence -- defence
  • illo -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular masculine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- on that
  • die -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <dies, diei> day -- day
  • fortuna -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <fortuna, fortunae> fortune -- fortune
  • urbis -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <urbs, urbis> city -- city
  • Romanae -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <Romanus, Romana, Romanum> Roman -- of Rome
  • habuit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- depended

Qui positus forte in statione pontis. [Sentences omitted at this point.]
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- he
  • positus -- verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect participle passive of <pōnō, ponere, posuī, positum> place, situate -- placed himself
  • forte -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <fortis, fortis, forte> strong -- in a mighty way
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- on
  • statione -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <statio, stationis> station, guard -- guard
  • pontis -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <pons, pontis> bridge -- of the bridge

Circumferens inde truces minaciter oculos ad proceres Etruscorum nunc singulos provocare, nunc increpare omnes.
  • circumferens -- verb; present participle nominative singular masculine of <circumferō, circumferre, circumtūlī, circumlātum> carry around -- darting
  • inde -- adverb; <inde> from that -- then
  • truces -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <trux, trucis> fierce -- fierce
  • minaciter -- adverb; <minaciter> threateningly -- threateningly
  • oculos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <oculus, oculi> eye -- glances
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- at
  • proceres -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <procer, proceris> nobleman -- chiefs
  • Etruscorum -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural masculine of <Etruscus, Etrusca, Etruscum> Etruscan -- of the Etruscans
  • nunc -- adverb; <nunc> now -- now
  • singulos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <singulus, singula, singulum> single, individual -- as individuals
  • provocare -- verb; present infinitive of <prōvocō, provocāre, provocāvī, provocātum> challenge -- he challenged
  • nunc -- adverb; <nunc> now -- now
  • increpare -- verb; present infinitive of <increpō, increpāre, increpuī, increpitum> scold, rebuke -- he rebuked
  • omnes -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all of them

Servitia regum superborum, suae libertatis immemores alienam oppugnatum venire.
  • servitia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <servitium, servitii> servitude -- as servants
  • regum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <rex, regis> king -- of kings
  • superborum -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <superbus, superba, superbum> haughty -- haughty
  • suae -- possessive pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- their own
  • libertatis -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <libertas, libertatis> liberty -- of ...liberty
  • immemores -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <immemor, immemoris> heedless -- heedless
  • alienam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <alienus, aliena, alienum> foreign, unfitting -- of others
  • oppugnatum -- verb; perfect participle passive of <oppūgnō, oppugnāre, oppugnāvī, oppugnātum> overthrow -- to overthrow
  • venire -- verb; present infinitive of <veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventum> come -- were coming

Cunctati aliquamdiu sunt, dum alius alium, ut proelium incipiant, circumspectant
  • cunctati -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <cunctor, cunctāri, cunctātus sum> hesitate with sunt -- hesitating
  • aliquamdiu -- adverb; <aliquamdiu> for a while -- for a while
  • sunt -- auxiliary verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am with cunctati -- ...
  • dum -- conjunction; <dum> while -- while
  • alius -- pronominal adjective; nominative singular masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- one
  • alium -- pronominal adjective; accusative singular masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- the other
  • ut -- conjunction; <ut> that, so that -- that
  • proelium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular <proelium, proelii> battle -- battle
  • incipiant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <incipiō, incipere, incēpī, inceptum> begin -- they might begin
  • circumspectant -- verb; 3rd person plural present indicative of <circumspectō, circumspectāre, circumspectāvī, circumspectātum> look around -- looked

Pudor deinde commovit aciem, et clamore sublato undique in unum hostem tela coniciunt.
  • pudor -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <pudor, pudoris> shame -- shame
  • deinde -- adverb; <deinde> then -- then
  • commovit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <commoveō, commovēre, commōvī, commōtum> move -- moved
  • aciem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <acies, aciei> line of battle -- line of battle
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • clamore -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <clamor, clamoris> shout -- shout
  • sublato -- verb; ablative singular masculine of perfect participle of <sufferō, sufferre, sustulī, sublātum> take up, lift -- having been started
  • undique -- adverb; <undique> from every quarter -- from all sides
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- at
  • unum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <unus, una, unum> one, alone -- a single
  • hostem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hostis, hostis> enemy -- enemy
  • tela -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <telum, teli> weapon, spear -- their javelins
  • coniciunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cōniciō, conicere, coniēcī, coniectum> throw -- they threw

Quae cum in obiecto cuncta scuto haesissent, neque ille minus obstinatus ingenti pontem obtineret gradu.
  • quae -- relative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- these
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- while
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • obiecto -- verb; ablative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <obiciō, obicere, obiēcī, obiectum> oppose -- opposed
  • cuncta -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <cunctus, cuncta, cunctum> all -- all
  • scuto -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <scutum, scuti> shield -- shield
  • haesissent -- verb; 3rd person plural pluperfect subjunctive of <haereō, haerēre, haesī, haesūrum> stick -- stuck
  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- no
  • ille -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- he
  • minus -- adverb; <minus> less -- less
  • obstinatus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <obstinatus, obstinata, obstinatum> obstinate -- obstinately
  • ingenti -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <ingens, ingentis> great -- strong
  • pontem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <pons, pontis> bridge -- the bridge
  • obtineret -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive of <obtineō, obtinēre, obtenuī, obtentum> hold -- he holds
  • gradu -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <gradus, gradus> step -- position

Iam impetu conabantur detrudere virum, cum simul fragor rupti pontis, simul clamor Romanorum alacritate perfecti operis sublatus, pavore subito impetum sustinuit.
  • iam -- adverb; <iam> already -- just as
  • impetu -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <impetus, impetus> attack, charge -- by a charge
  • conabantur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural imperfect passive of <cōnor, conārī, conātus sum> attempt, aim -- they tried
  • detrudere -- verb; infinitive of <dētrūdō, dētrūdere, dētrūsī, dētrūsum> dislodge -- to dislodge
  • virum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vir, viri> man -- the man
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • simul -- adverb; <simul> at the same time -- at the same time
  • fragor -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <fragor, fragoris> crashing, noise -- the crash
  • rupti -- verb; genitive singular masculine of perfect participle passive of <rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus> break -- broken
  • pontis -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <pons, pontis> bridge -- the bridge
  • simul -- adverb; <simul> at the same time -- and simultaneously
  • clamor -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <clamor, clamoris> shout -- the shouting
  • Romanorum -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural masculine of <Romanus, Romana, Romanum> Roman -- of the Romans
  • alacritate -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <alacritas, alacritatis> delight -- in delight
  • perfecti -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <perfectus, perfecta, perfectum> complete -- completed
  • operis -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <opus, operis> work -- at the ... work
  • sublatus -- verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect participle passive of <sufferō, sufferre, sustulī, sublātum> take up, lift -- elated
  • pavore -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <pavor, pavoris> fear, dread -- with dread
  • subito -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <subitus, subita, subitum> sudden -- sudden
  • impetum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <impetus, impetus> attack, charge -- their charge
  • sustinuit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <sustineō, sustinēre, sustinuī, sustentum> hold back -- held back

Tum Cocles "Tiberine pater," inquit, "te sancte precor, haec arma et hunc militem propitio flumine accipias."
  • tum -- adverb; <tum> then -- then
  • Cocles -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Cocles, Coclitis> Cocles -- Cocles
  • Tiberine -- adjective; vocative singular masculine of <Tiberinus, Tiberini> Tiberinus -- Tiberinus
  • pater -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <pater, patris> father -- father
  • inquit -- defective verb; 3rd person singular present indicative of <inquam> say -- said
  • te -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <tu> you -- you
  • sancte -- adjective; vocative singular masculine of <sanctus, sancta, sanctum> holy -- holy one
  • precor -- deponent verb; 1st person singular present indicative of <precor, precārī, precātus sum> pray -- I pray
  • haec -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • arma -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <arma, armorum> arms -- armor
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • hunc -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • militem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <miles, militis> soldier -- soldier
  • propitio -- adjective; ablative singular neuter of <propitius, propitia, propitium> propitious -- propitious
  • flumine -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <flumen, fluminis> river -- with stream
  • accipias -- verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive of <accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptum> receive -- receive

Ita sic armatus in Tiberim desiluit multisque superincidentibus telis incolumis ad suos tranavit
  • ita -- adverb; <ita> thus -- in this manner
  • sic -- adverb; <sic> so, thus -- so
  • armatus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <armatus, armata, armatum> armed -- armed
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- into
  • Tiberim -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Tiber, Tiberis> Tiber -- the Tiber
  • desiluit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <dēsiliō, dēsilīre, dēsiluī, dēsultus> jump down -- he jumped down
  • multisque -- adjective; dative plural neuter of <multus, multa, multum> many + conjunction; <-que> and -- and with many
  • superincidentibus -- verb; ablative plural neuter of present participle of <superincidō, superincindere> fall down -- falling down
  • telis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <telum, teli> weapon, spear -- spears
  • incolumis -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <incolumis, incolumis, incolume> unharmed -- unharmed
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • suos -- possessive pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- his own
  • tranavit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <trānō, tranāre, tranāvī> swim across -- he swam across

rem ausus plus famae habituram ad posteros quam fidei.
  • rem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- act
  • ausus -- verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect participle passive of <audeō, audēre, ausus sum> dare to do -- having dared to do
  • plus -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <plus> more -- more
  • famae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <fama, famae> report, talk -- fame
  • habituram -- verb; accusative singular feminine of future participle active of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- which would have
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- among
  • posteros -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <posteri, posterae, postera> future generations -- future generations
  • quam -- adverb used as conjunction; <quam> than -- than
  • fidei -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <fides, fidei> faith, pledge -- belief

Lesson Text

Cum hostes adessent, pro se quisque in urbem ex agris demigrant, urbem ipsam saepiunt praesidiis. Alia muris, alia Tiberi obiecto videbantur tuta. Pons sublicius iter paene hostibus dedit, ni unus vir fuisset, Horatius Cocles. Id munimentum illo die fortuna urbis Romanae habuit. Qui positus forte in statione pontis. [Sentences omitted at this point.] Circumferens inde truces minaciter oculos ad proceres Etruscorum nunc singulos provocare, nunc increpare omnes. Servitia regum superborum, suae libertatis immemores alienam oppugnatum venire. Cunctati aliquamdiu sunt, dum alius alium, ut proelium incipiant, circumspectant Pudor deinde commovit aciem, et clamore sublato undique in unum hostem tela coniciunt. Quae cum in obiecto cuncta scuto haesissent, neque ille minus obstinatus ingenti pontem obtineret gradu. Iam impetu conabantur detrudere virum, cum simul fragor rupti pontis, simul clamor Romanorum alacritate perfecti operis sublatus, pavore subito impetum sustinuit. Tum Cocles "Tiberine pater," inquit, "te sancte precor, haec arma et hunc militem propitio flumine accipias." Ita sic armatus in Tiberim desiluit multisque superincidentibus telis incolumis ad suos tranavit rem ausus plus famae habituram ad posteros quam fidei.

Translation

When the enemies appeared, the Romans withdrew, everyone for himself, from the fields into the city, and they surrounded the city itself with guards. Some parts seemed to be secure by their walls, others by the Tiber in front of them. The bridge resting on piles almost provided a way in to the enemies, if there had not been one man, Horatius Cocles. He was the defense on the day that the fortune of the city of Rome depended. He by chance was placed on guard of the bridge. ... Then darting around fierce glances threateningly at the chiefs of the Etruscans, he now challenged them individually, now rebuked all of them as servants of haughty kings heedless of their own liberty who were coming to overthrow that of others. They hesitated for a while -- one looked after the other that they might begin the battle. Then they moved the line of battle, and with a haughty shout they threw their spears from all sides at a single enemy. When these all struck on his opposing shield, he no less obstinately held the bridge with great dispatch. Just as they tried to dislodge him by a charge, at the same time the crash of the falling bridge and the shouting of the Roman elated with delight at the completed work checked the charge with sudden dread. Then Cocles said: "Father Tiber, I pray you, oh holy one, that you receive these arms and this soldier with a propitious stream." In the manner armed as he was, he jumped down into the Tiber, and unharmed by the falling spears he swam across to his own. He had dared to perform a deed that would have more favor than belief among future generations.

Grammar

6 Historical Present.

The historical present, also known as the dramatic present, refers to use of the present tense with past meaning. As the alternate designation indicates, it may be found where the author seeks to accentuate a statement. Used in older English literature, as by Shakespeare, it now is pretty well restricted to popular narration, as when a narrator uses sequences like "an' then he says...." Instances are found in these selections, such as adfirmat, condunt, and appellat in the first unit, adessent, demigrant, and saepiunt in the second; these forms in the first sentence of the second selection were clearly used to reflect the dangerous situation for the Romans. Infinitives may be used similarly, e.g. evocāre and quaerere in the first unit.

7 The subjunctive.

Beside the indicative mood, which expresses certainty, subjunctive mood forms are found for the present, the preterite, the perfect, and the pluperfect, active and passive. As a general characteristic, the subjunctive forms indicate uncertainty. In keeping with this meaning, they are used in many subordinate clauses introduced by conjunctions and pronouns. A typical use is found in the first sentence of this selection, cum hostēs adessent..., and also in the first sentence of the initial unit, cum ... constitissent.... The uncertainty is greater in the second sentence of that unit, where a question is asked: quī mortalēs essent and at its conclusion exissent. A use without conjunction is found in the prayer of Horatius to the Tiber: precor ... accipiās 'I ask that you accept.' As in this translation, subjunctive forms may correspond to English sentences that express fact, but often they are best represented by modal auxiliaries.

In the identification of verbal forms of these texts, those in the indicative are not especially so noted.

8 The third declension of nouns.

While nouns of the first and second declensions have bases ending in vowels and are accordingly regular, those of the third conjugation end in consonants or -i, with a possible consequent modification of the base in some forms. An example is the word for king, rex, which has a base ending in -g; when the nominative ending -s is added, the -g- is devoiced, and the two sounds are represented by -x. When the ending begins with a vowel, however, the base is unmodified, as in the genitive regis. Other modifications of bases may be determined from dictionary entries, which typically provide the genitive as well as the nominative.

Nouns in this declension may be masculine, feminine or neuter. Like the endings of the base, the gender must be noted from the dictionary entries.

Nom sg   rex   pons   genus   homo   urbs
Gen sg   regis   pontis   generis   hominis   urbis
Dat sg   regī   pontī   generī   hominī   urbī
Acc sg   regem   pontem   genus   hominem   urbem
Abl sg   rege   ponte   genere   homine   urbe
 
Nom pl   regēs   pontēs   genera   hominēs   urbēs
Gen pl   regum   pontum   generum   hominum   urbium
Dat pl   regibus   pontibus   generibus   hominibus   urbibus
Acc pl   regēs   pontēs   genera   hominēs   urbēs
Abl pl   regibus   pontibus   generibus   hominibus   urbibus
9 The perfect forms of verbs.

The perfect system of verbs is parallel to the present system. It consists of the simple perfect, the pluperfect or past perfect, and the future perfect, with indicative and subjunctive forms except for the future perfect, and passive forms beside the active. In general it implies past time, often with the meaning of completed action.

As the forms in these two units indicate, it is made in a variety of ways. In the first conjugation, as well as the fourth, it is generally made with a -v- suffix and further endings. In the second conjugation, and also the fourth, the marker is often -u-. The third conjugation verbs have a variety of markers, among them -s-. The differences among verbs provide the reason for learning the principal parts of verbs; these are generally included in dictionary entries. Examples are given here of the verbs cited in the section 4 of the grammar as well as forms of dō and haereō. Instead of the ending -erunt in the third plural, a short form -ere may be found, both with long -e-.

1 sg   laudāvī   monuī   tēxī   audīvī   dedī   haesī
2 sg   laudāvistī   monuistī   texistī   audivīstī   dēdīstī   haesistī
3 sg   laudāvit   monuit   tēxit   audīvit   dēdit   haesit
 
1 pl   laudāvimus   monuimus   tēximus   audīvimus   dēdimus   haesimus
2 pl   laudāvistis   monuistis   tēxistis   audīvistis   dēdistis   haesistis
3 pl   laudāvērunt   monuērunt   tēxērunt   audīvērunt   dēderunt   haeserunt
10 Prepositions.

Most prepositions govern the accusative case, as do ad and apud found in these units, as well as ante 'before', contra 'against', inter 'among', per 'through', post 'after', trans 'across', and many others. In and sub 'under', however, govern the accusative case when indicating direction, and the ablative when indicating place.

Latin Online

Lesson 3

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

In Book 6 of The Gallic War, Julius Caesar (100 - 44 B.C.) decided to describe the people of Gaul and of Germania. He has given us a brief anthropological account of their customs and activities. Only selections can be included here, but these indicate the differences between the two peoples.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The people of Gaul had obviously been influenced by the Greeks and Romans, while the people of Germania have resisted such influences. The account of the people of Germania consequently provides information on the conditions that applied in previous centuries, possibly even in late Indo-European times. On the other hand, the singling out of the classes of Druids and Knights, beside the common members of their society, shows a striking resemblance to the castes of Indian society, where the Brahmans or priests had the highest status, followed by the Kshatriyas or warriors. But in contrast with the two further Indian castes of Vaishyas and Shudras those not in these two Gallic classes were lumped together, and regarded much like the Indian outcastes. It is questionable, then, whether there is a historic connection between the Gallic class system and the Indian caste system.

Quoniam ad hunc locum perventum est, non alienum esse videtur de Galliae Germaniaeque moribus et quo differant hae nationes inter sese proponere.
  • quoniam -- conjunction; <quoniam> since -- since
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • hunc -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • locum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <locus, loci> place -- place
  • perventum -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <perveniō, pervenīre, pervēnī, perventum> arrive, reach with est -- has been reached
  • est -- auxiliary verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am with perventum -- ...
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • alienum -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <alienus, aliena, alienum> foreign, unfitting -- unfitting
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- be
  • videtur -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum> see -- seem
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- about
  • Galliae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Gallia, Galliae> Gaul -- of Gaul
  • Germaniaeque -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Germania, Germaniae> Germania + conjunction; <-que> and -- and of Germania
  • moribus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <mos, moris> custom -- practices
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • quo -- interrogative pronoun; ablative singular neuter of <quis, quis, quid> who, what -- how
  • differant -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <differō, differre, distulī, dīlātum> differ -- differ
  • hae -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural feminine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • nationes -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <natio, nationis> nation -- nations
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- among
  • sese -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- one another
  • proponere -- verb; infinitive of <prōpōnō, proponere, proposuī, propositum> point out, set forth -- to point out

In omni Gallia eorum hominum, qui aliquo sunt numero atque honore, genera sunt duo.
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • omni -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all of
  • Gallia -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <Gallia, Galliae> Gaul -- Gaul
  • eorum -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- those
  • hominum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <homo, hominis> man, human -- humans
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • aliquo -- pronoun adjective; ablative singular masculine of <aliqui, aliqua, aliquod> some, any -- some
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- are
  • numero -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <numerus, numeri> class, number, repute -- esteem
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • honore -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <honos, honoris> honor, distinction -- distinction
  • genera -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <genus, generis> kind, class -- kinds
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- there are
  • duo -- number; <duo, duae, duo> two -- two

Nam plebes paene servorum habetur loco, quae nihil audet per se, nullo adhibetur consilio.
  • nam -- conjunction; <nam> for -- for
  • plebes -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <plebs, plebis> common people -- the common people
  • paene -- adverb; <paene> almost -- almost
  • servorum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <servus, servi> slave -- of slaves
  • habetur -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- are regarded
  • loco -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <locus, loci> place -- in the position of, as
  • quae -- relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • nihil -- noun; indeclinable <nihil> nothing -- nothing
  • audet -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <audeō, audēre, ausus sum> dare to do -- dares
  • per -- preposition; <per> through, by -- by
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- themselves
  • nullo -- adjective; ablative singular neuter of <nullus, nulla, nullum> no, none -- not ... any
  • adhibetur -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <adhibeō, adhibēre, adhibuī, adhibitum> turn to, treat -- are ...taken as of
  • consilio -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <consilium, consilii> counsel -- account

Plerique, cum aut aere alieno aut magnitudine tributorum aut iniuria potentiorum premuntur, sese in servitutem dicant nobilibus.
  • plerique -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <plerusque, pleraeque, pleraque> most, the majority -- most of them
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- since
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- either
  • aere -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <aes, aeris> metal, copper, money -- by debt
  • alieno -- adjective; ablative singular neuter of <alienus, aliena, alienum> foreign, unfitting -- of another
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • magnitudine -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <magnitudo, magnitudinis> size -- by the size
  • tributorum -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <tributum, tributi> specific payment, tribute -- of their payments
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • iniuria -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <iniuria, injuriae> wrong, harsh treatment -- harsh treatment
  • potentiorum -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural masculine of comparative of <potens, potentis> powerful -- of the more powerful
  • premuntur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <premō, pemere, pressī, pressum> press, oppress -- are oppressed
  • sese -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- themselves
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • servitutem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <servitus, servitutis> servitude, slavery -- slavery
  • dicant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictum> say, state, declare -- declare
  • nobilibus -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <nobilis, nobilis, nobile> famous, noble -- to the nobles

In hos eadem omnia sunt iura, quae dominis in servos.
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- over
  • hos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- those
  • eadem -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <idem, eadem, idem> the same -- the same
  • omnia -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- are
  • iura -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <ius, iuris> right -- rights
  • quae -- relative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • dominis -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <dominus, domini> lord, master -- masters (have)
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- over
  • servos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <servus, servi> slave -- slaves

Sed de his duobus generibus alterum est druidum, alterum equitum.
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- in fact
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- of
  • his -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative plural neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • duobus -- number; ablative plural neuter of <duo, duae, duo> two -- two
  • generibus -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <genus, generis> kind, class -- classes
  • alterum -- pronoun adjective; nominative singular neuter of <alter, altera, alterum> the one, the other -- the one
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- consists of
  • druidum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <druides, druidum> Druids -- Druids
  • alterum -- pronoun adjective; nominative singular neuter of <alter, altera, alterum> the one, the other -- the other
  • equitum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <eques, equitis> horseman, knight -- knights

Illi rebus divinis intersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur.
  • illi -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- these
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matters
  • divinis -- adjective; dative plural feminine of <divinus, divina, divinum> divine, sacred -- sacred
  • intersunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <intersum, interesse, interfuī> lie between, concern -- are concerned with
  • sacrificia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <sacrificium, sacrifici> sacrifice -- sacrifices
  • publica -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • privata -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <privatus, privata, privatum> private, individual -- private
  • procurant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <prōcūrō, prōcūrāre, prōcūrāvi, prōcūrātum> take care of -- they take care of
  • religiones -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <religio, religionis> religious practice -- religious matters
  • interpretantur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <interpretor, interpretāri, interpretātus sum> interpret -- they interpret

Ad hos magnus adulescentium numerus disciplinae causa concurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore.
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • hos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • magnus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- large
  • adulescentium -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <adulescens, adulescentis> young people -- the young people
  • numerus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <numerus, numeri> class, number, repute -- number
  • disciplinae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <disciplina, disciplinae> discipline, education -- instruction
  • causa -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <causa, causae> cause, reason -- for the sake of
  • concurrit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <concurrō, concurrere, concurrī, concursum> assemble, come together -- come together
  • magnoque -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large + conjunction; <-que> and -- and ... great
  • hi -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- are
  • apud -- preposition; <apud> among, with -- among
  • eos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- them
  • honore -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <honos, honoris> honor, distinction -- in ... honor

Nam fere de omnibus controversiis publicis privatisque constituunt, et, si quid admissum facinus, si caedes facta, si de heriditate de finibus controversia est, idem decernunt, praemia poenasque constituunt.
  • nam -- conjunction; <nam> for -- for
  • fere -- adverb; <fere> almost -- almost
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • omnibus -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all
  • controversiis -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <controversia, controversiae> controversy -- controversies
  • publicis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • privatisque -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <privatus, privata, privatum> private, individual + conjunction; <-que> and -- and private
  • constituunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitūtum> decide -- they decide
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • quid -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <quis, quis, quid> someone, anything -- any
  • admissum -- verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <admittō, admittere, admīsī, admīssum> let, go, commit -- has been committed
  • facinus -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <facinus, facinoris> crime -- crime
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • caedes -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <caedes, caedis> murder -- murder
  • facta -- verb; nominative singular feminine of perfect participle passive of <faciō, facere, fēcī, factum> do, make -- has been done
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • heriditate -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <heriditas, heriditatis> heredity, inheritance -- inheritance
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • finibus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <finis, finis> border, limit -- boundaries
  • controversia -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <controversia, controversiae> controversy -- controversy
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- there is
  • idem -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <idem, eadem, idem> the same -- all the same
  • decernunt -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <dēcernō, decernere, decrēvī, decrētum> decide -- they decide
  • praemia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <praemium, praemii> reward -- rewards
  • poenasque -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <poena, poenae> punishment, penalty + conjunction; <-que> and -- and penalties
  • constituunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitūtum> decide -- they decide

Si qui aut privatus aut populus eorum decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt.
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • qui -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <qui, qua(e), quod> some, any -- any (one)
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • privatus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <privatus, privata, privatum> private, individual -- private
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • populus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <populus, populi> people -- public
  • eorum -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- their
  • decreto -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <decretum, decreti> decision -- by ... decree
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • stetit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <stō, stāre, stēti, statum> stand, abide -- does ... abide
  • sacrificiis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <sacrificium, sacrifici> sacrifice -- from the sacrifices
  • interdicunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <interdīcō, interdicere, interdīxi, interdictum> prohibit -- they ban (him)

Haec poena apud eos est gravissima.
  • haec -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • poena -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <poena, poenae> punishment, penalty -- punishment
  • apud -- preposition; <apud> among, with -- among
  • eos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- them
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- is
  • gravissima -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of superlative of <gravis, gravis, grave> grave, serious -- severest

Magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur.
  • magnum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- large
  • ibi -- adverb; <ibi> there, then -- there
  • numerum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <numerus, numeri> class, number, repute -- number
  • versuum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <versus, versus> verse -- of verses
  • ediscere -- verb; infinitive of <ēdiscō, ēdiscere, ēdidici, -> learn, memorize -- (they) memorize
  • dicuntur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictum> say, state, declare -- they say, it is said

Itaque annos nonnulli vicenos in disciplina permanent.
  • itaque -- adverb; <itaque> and also -- also
  • annos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <annus, anni> year -- years
  • nonnulli -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <nonnullus, nonulla, nonullum> some -- some
  • vicenos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <vicenus, viceni> twenty -- twenty
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • disciplina -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <disciplina, disciplinae> discipline, education -- training
  • permanent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <permaneō, permanēre, permansī, permansum> stay, continue -- remain

Neque fas esse existimant ea litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus, publicis privatisque rationibus Graecis litteris utantur.
  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- nor
  • fas -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <fas, -> right -- right
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- to be
  • existimant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <existimō, existimāre, existimāvī, existimātum> judge, consider -- do they consider
  • ea -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- these things
  • litteris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <littera, litterae> letter -- to letters, to writing
  • mandare -- verb; infinitive of <mando, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātum> commit -- to commit
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- because
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • reliquis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <reliquus, reliqua, reliquum> remaining, rest -- remaining
  • fere -- adverb; <fere> almost -- almost
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matters
  • publicis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • privatisque -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <privatus, privata, privatum> private, individual + conjunction; <-que> and -- and private
  • rationibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <ratio, rationis> account, affair -- in . . .affairs
  • Graecis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <Graecus, Graeca, Graecum> Greek -- Greek
  • litteris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <littera, litterae> letter -- letters
  • utantur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum> use -- they use

Lesson Text

Quoniam ad hunc locum perventum est, non alienum esse videtur de Galliae Germaniaeque moribus et quo differant hae nationes inter sese proponere. In omni Gallia eorum hominum, qui aliquo sunt numero atque honore, genera sunt duo. Nam plebes paene servorum habetur loco, quae nihil audet per se, nullo adhibetur consilio. Plerique, cum aut aere alieno aut magnitudine tributorum aut iniuria potentiorum premuntur, sese in servitutem dicant nobilibus. In hos eadem omnia sunt iura, quae dominis in servos. Sed de his duobus generibus alterum est druidum, alterum equitum. Illi rebus divinis intersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur. Ad hos magnus adulescentium numerus disciplinae causa concurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore. Nam fere de omnibus controversiis publicis privatisque constituunt, et, si quid admissum facinus, si caedes facta, si de heriditate de finibus controversia est, idem decernunt, praemia poenasque constituunt. Si qui aut privatus aut populus eorum decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt. Haec poena apud eos est gravissima. Magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur. Itaque annos nonnulli vicenos in disciplina permanent. Neque fas esse existimant ea litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus, publicis privatisque rationibus Graecis litteris utantur.

Translation

Since I have come to this point, it does not seem inappropriate to set forth the customs of Gaul and of Germania, and how these nations differ among each other. . . . In all Gaul there are two classes of humans who are of definite account and honor. But the common people are regarded almost at the level of slaves, who dare to do nothing by themselves and are taken as of no account. And most, since they are either oppressed by debt or by a great amount of tribute or by crimes of the more powerful, commit themselves in slavery to the nobles. They have indeed among these all the rights as masters over slaves. Of these two classes the one consists of Druids, the other of Knights. The former are concerned with divine worship; they handle public and private sacrifices, and they interpret religious matters. A great number of the youth gather around them for the sake of education, and they are held among these in great honor. For they make decisions about almost all public and private controversies, and if any crime has been committed, if a murder has been done, if there is controversy about boundaries, they decide the same, they determine rewards and punishments. If any one, either private or public, does not abide by their decree, they ban him from sacrifices. This punishment is the most serious among them. ... It is said that they memorize a great number of verses (in the Druidic schools). And for that reason some remain twenty years in training. Nor do they think it proper to commit these to writing, while in almost all other things, in public and private matters, they use Greek letters.

Grammar

11 Deponents.

Deponents are verbs that are passive in form but have active meaning. The meaning is typically one of state rather than vigorous action; the passive developed out of a stative conjugation in early Indo-European, and deponents reflect this meaning rather than that of a pure passive. In this unit, the deponents interpretor 'interpret' and utor 'use' are found. The previous units included precor 'ask' and profiscor 'set out'. None of these meanings indicates action as do verbs like concurrō 'run together' or constituō 'place'. Deponents are labeled as such in dictionaries.

12 The Passive.

As in the English verb system, the passive indicates that the subject of the verb is affected by rather than performing some action. In English the passive consists of compound forms, such as "they were invited by the organizers," in contrast with "the organizers invited them."

The inflectional system of the passive is parallel to that of the active. Examples of the present indicative passive are given here for the verbs illustrating the four conjugations in Unit 1. Since the imperfect is treated in section 14, the third singular and third plural imperfect is given here for the passive.

Present Indicative Passive
1 sg   laudor   moneor   tegor   audior
2 sg   laudāris   monēris   tegeris   audiēris
3 sg   laudātur   monētur   tegitur   audītur
 
1 pl   laudāmur   monēmur   tegimur   audīmur
2 pl   laudāminī   monēmini   tegimini   audīminī
3 pl   laudantur   monentur   teguntur   audiuntur

Imperfect Indicative Passive in the third persons
3 sg   laudābātur   monēbātur   tegēbātur   audiēbātur
3 pl   laudābantur   monēbantur   tegēbantur   audiēbantur

The perfect conjugation forms are made with the past participle accompanied by forms of the verb sum. They are accordingly easy to note and translate. Third singular forms are given here for the perfect and pluperfect of the four conjugations.

Perfect
3 sg   laudātus est   monitus est   tectus est   audītus est
Pluperfect
3 sg   laudātus erat   monitus erat   tectus erat   audītus erat
13 The Fourth and Fifth Declensions of Nouns.

The fourth and fifth declensions include relatively few nouns. The nominative in the fourth ending in -us, like the second declension; but the u-vowel is basically long, which is the ending also for neuters in the declension, e.g. cornu. The nominative in the fifth declension ends in -es; the declension includes few nouns, among them however the frequent dies 'day' and res 'thing'.

    Fourth Declension       Fifth declension
Nom sg   tribus 'tribe'   cornu 'horn'   diēs 'day'   rēs 'thing'
Gen sg   tribūs   cornūs   dieī   reī
Dat sg   tribuī   cornu   dieī   reī
Acc sg   tribum   cornu   diem   rem
Abl sg   tribū   cornū   diē   rē
 
Nom pl   tribūs   cornua   diēs   rēs
Gen pl   tribuum   cornuum   diērum   rērum
Dat pl   tribubus   cornibus   diēbus   rēbus
Acc pl   tribūs   cornua   diēs   rēs
Abl pl   tribubus   cornibus   diēbus   rēbus
14 The Imperfect, Indicative, and Subjunctive.

The imperfect is made with a ba-suffix in the indicative, and an re-suffix in the subjunctive. Since the endings are identical throughout the four conjugations, examples from only the first and third will be given here.

    First Conjugation   Third Conjugation
    Indicative   Subjunctive       Indicative   Subjunctive
1 sg   laudābam   laudārem   tegēbam   tegerem
2 sg   laudābās   laudārēs   tegēbās   tegerēs
3 sg   laudābat   laudāret   tegēbat   tegeret
 
1 pl   laudābāmus   laudārēmus   tegēbāmus   tegerēmus
2 pl   laudābātis   laudārētis   tegēbātis   tegerētis
3 pl   laudābant   laudārent   tegēbant   tegerent
15 Conjunctions.

As in English, conjunctions connect words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. They are straightforward lexical items, and the common ones are readily memorized. Lists of various kinds of the common coordinating conjunctions are given here.

  • Coordinating conjunctions: et, -que, atque, 'and', ac, neque 'and not'
  • Disjunctive conjunctions: aut, vel, -ve 'or'
  • Adversative conjunctions: at, autem, sed, tamen 'but, nevertheless'
  • Of the conjunctions introducing clauses, two have occurred: postquam 'after' and cum 'when, since, because'.

Latin Online

Lesson 4

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Members of the second class in Indian society are designated Kshatriyas, or the powerful; in contrast, they are referred to as Equites, horsemen or knights, in Celtic society. The term may well have been introduced from Roman society, where it was used to designate the members of the equestrian order that occupied the position between the Senate and the Plebs or common people. Here only sections of Caesar's description can be included.

Reading and Textual Analysis

In giving further information about this class, Caesar discusses the religious practices of the Gauls, their gods, and family relationships. Of further interest is the tradition that they are all descended from Dis, a term related to the word deus 'god', but referring to an underworld deity. As a result, they refer to periods of time by nights rather than days; we have a result of this in our word fortnight, a shortening of fourteen nights for two weeks. Here, the military and administrative practices are excerpted.

Alterum genus est equitum.
  • alterum -- pronoun adjective; nominative singular neuter of <alter, altera, alterum> the one, the other -- the other
  • genus -- noun, neuter; nominative singular <genus, generis> kind, class -- class
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- is (that of the)
  • equitum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <eques, equitis> horseman, knight -- knights

Hi, cum est usus atque aliquod bellum incidit (quod fere ante Caesaris adventum quotannis accidere solebat, uti aut ipsi iniurias inferrent aut illatas propulsarent), omnes in bello versantur.
  • hi -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- there is
  • usus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <usus, usus> use, practice -- occasion
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and especially
  • aliquod -- pronoun adjective; nominative singular neuter of <aliqui, aliqua, aliquod> some, any -- some
  • bellum -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <bellum, belli> war -- war
  • incidit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <incidō, incidere, incidī,-> fall in, occur -- occurs
  • quod -- relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • fere -- adverb; <fere> almost -- almost
  • ante -- preposition; <ante> before -- before
  • Caesaris -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Caesar, Caesaris> Caesar -- Caesar's
  • adventum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <adventus, adventus> arrival, coming -- coming
  • quotannis -- adverb; <quotannis> yearly -- every year
  • accidere -- verb; infinitive of <accidō, accidere, accidī, -> fall to, come, happen -- happen
  • solebat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <sōleō, solēre, solitum> be accustomed -- was accustomed to
  • uti -- conjunction; <uti> that, so that -- as
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- either
  • ipsi -- intensive pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ipse, ipsa, ipsum> self -- they themselves
  • iniurias -- noun, feminine; accusative plural <iniuria, injuriae> wrong, harsh treatment -- attacks
  • inferrent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <inferō, inferre, intulī, inlātum> introduce, produce -- would produce
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • illatas -- verb; accusative plural feminine of perfect participle passive of <inferō, inferre, intulī, inlātum> introduce, produce -- produced
  • propulsarent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <prōpulsō, propulsāre, propulsātus, -> ward off, repulse -- would repulse
  • omnes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • bello -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <bellum, belli> war -- war
  • versantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <versō, versāre, versāvī, versātum> turn often; pass. be involved -- are engaged

Atque eorum ut quisque est venere copiisque amplissimus, ita plurimos circum se ambactos clientesque habet.
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and indeed
  • eorum -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- of them
  • ut -- adverb; <ut> as, where -- as
  • quisque -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisque, quaeque, quodque> everyone -- each
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- is
  • venere -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <venus, veneris> grace, esteem -- esteem
  • copiisque -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <copia, copiae> abundance, wealth + conjunction; <-que> and -- and wealth
  • amplissimus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine superlative of <amplius> great, distinguished -- most distinguished
  • ita -- adverb; <ita> thus -- accordingly
  • plurimos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of superlative of <multus, multa, multum> many -- the most
  • circum -- preposition; <circum> around -- around
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- himself
  • ambactos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ambactus, ambacti> dependent -- subordinates
  • clientesque -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <cliens, clientis> retainer + conjunction; <-que> and -- and retainers
  • habet -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- he has

Hanc unam gratiam potentiamque noverunt.
  • hanc -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- This
  • unam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <unus, una, unum> one, alone -- the one
  • gratiam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <gratia, gratiae> esteem, regard -- esteem
  • potentiamque -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <potentia, potentiae> power + conjunction; <-que> and -- and power
  • noverunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <nōscō, nōscere, nōvī, nōtum> be acquainted with, get to know -- have come to know

Natio est omnis Gallorum admodum dedita religionibus.
  • natio -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <natio, nationis> nation -- nation
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- is
  • omnis -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- the entire
  • Gallorum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Galli, Gallorum> the Gauls -- of the Gauls
  • admodum -- adverb; <admodum> completely -- completely
  • dedita -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <deditus, dedita, deditum> devoted, addicted -- devoted to
  • religionibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <religio, religionis> religious practice -- religious practices

Atque ob eam causam, qui sunt adfecti gravioribus morbis quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, aut pro victimis homines immolant aut se immolaturos vovent, administrisque ad ea sacrificia druidibus utuntur. [Section omitted at this point.]
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and indeed
  • ob -- preposition; <ob> because of -- for
  • eam -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- this
  • causam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <causa, causae> cause, reason -- reason
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- those who
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- are
  • adfecti -- verb; nominative plural masculine of perfect participle passive of <adficiō, adficere, adfēcī, adfectum> afflict -- afflicted
  • gravioribus -- adjective; ablative plural masculine of comparative of <gravis, gravis, grave> grave, serious -- with more serious
  • morbis -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <morbus, morbi> illness -- illnesses
  • quique -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that + conjunction; <-que> and -- and those who
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • proeliis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <proelium, proelii> battle -- battles
  • periculisque -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <periculum, periculi> danger + conjunction; <-que> and -- and in dangers
  • versantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <versō, versāre, versāvī, versātum> turn often; pass. be involved -- are involved
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- either
  • pro -- preposition; <pro> for, before -- as
  • victimis -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <victima, victimae> sacrifice -- sacrifices
  • homines -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <homo, hominis> man, human -- people
  • immolant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <immolō, immolāre, immolāvī, immolātum> sacrifice, immolate -- sacrifice
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- they themselves
  • immolaturos -- verb; accusative plural masculine of future participle of <immolō, immolāre, immolāvī, immolātum> sacrifice, immolate -- will be sacrificed
  • vovent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <voveo, vovēre, vōvī, vōtum> vow -- they vow
  • administrisque -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <administer, administri> administrator + conjunction; <-que> and -- and ...as administrators
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- for
  • ea -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- those
  • sacrificia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <sacrificium, sacrifici> sacrifice -- sacrifices
  • druidibus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <druides, druidum> Druids -- Druids
  • utuntur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum> use -- they use

Quae civitates commodius suam rem publicam administrare existimantur, habent legibus sanctum, si quis quid de re publica a finitimis rumore aut fama accepterit, uti ad magistratum deferat neve cum quo alio communicet.
  • quae -- relative pronoun; nominative plural feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- the ... that
  • civitates -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <civitas, civitatis> state -- states
  • commodius -- adjective; comparative accusative singular neuter of <commodus, commoda, commodum> used adverbially = complete, advantageous -- more advantageously
  • suam -- possessive pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- their
  • rem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- affairs
  • publicam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • administrare -- verb; infinitive of <administrō, administrāre, administrāvī, administrātum> administer, conduct -- to conduct
  • existimantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <existimō, existimāre, existimāvī, existimātum> judge, consider -- are considered
  • habent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- have
  • legibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <lex, legis> law -- by law
  • sanctum -- verb; accusative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <sanciō, sancīre, sānxī, sānctum> enact -- prescribed
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • quis -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quis, quis, quid> someone, anything -- anyone
  • quid -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <quis, quis, quid> someone, anything -- anything
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • re -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- affair
  • publica -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • a -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • finitimis -- adjective used as substantive; ablative plural masculine of <finitimus, finitima, finitimum> bordering, neighbor -- neighbors
  • rumore -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <rumor, rumoris> murmur, rumor -- by rumor
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • fama -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <fama, famae> report, talk -- report
  • accepterit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect subjunctive of <acceptō, acceptāre, acceptāvī, acceptātum> receive -- might learn
  • uti -- conjunction; <uti> that, so that -- that
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • magistratum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <magistratus, magistratus> magistrate -- a magistrate
  • deferat -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <dēferō, deferre, detulī, delātum> report -- should report
  • neve -- conjunction; <neve> and not, nor -- and not
  • cum -- preposition; <cum> with -- with
  • quo -- indefinite pronoun; ablative singular masculine of <quis, quis, quid> someone, anything -- anyone
  • alio -- pronominal adjective; ablative singular masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- else
  • communicet -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <commūnicō, commūnicāre, commūnicāvī, commūnicātum> communicate -- share

Quod saepe homines temerarios atque imperitos falsis rumoribus terreri et ad facinus impelli et de summis rebus consilium capere cognitum est.
  • quod -- conjunction; <quod> that, because -- because
  • saepe -- adverb; <saepe> often -- often
  • homines -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <homo, hominis> man, human -- people
  • temerarios -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <temerarius, temeraria, temerarium> rash, indiscreet -- indiscreet
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and also
  • imperitos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <imperitus, imperita, imperitum> inexperienced -- inexperienced
  • falsis -- adjective; ablative plural masculine of <falsus, falsa, falsum> false -- by false
  • rumoribus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <rumor, rumoris> murmur, rumor -- rumors
  • terreri -- verb; passive infinitive of <terreō, terrēre, terruī, territus> terrify, frighten -- are frightened
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • facinus -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <facinus, facinoris> crime -- crime
  • impelli -- verb; passive infinitive of <impellō, impellere, impulī, impulsum> drive, move -- be driven
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • summis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <summus, summa, summum> highest with rebus -- the general (welfare)
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- welfare (see above)
  • consilium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <consilium, consilii> counsel with capere -- to form plans, make decisions
  • capere -- verb; infinitive of <capiō, capere, cēpī, captum> take, seize -- to make
  • cognitum -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <cognitus, cognita, cognitum> known -- known
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- it is

Magistratus quae visa sunt occultant quaeque esse ex usu iudicaverunt multitudini produnt.
  • magistratus -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <magistratus, magistratus> magistrate -- The magistrates
  • quae -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- what
  • visa -- verb; accusative plural neuter of participle perfect passive of <videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum> see -- seem proper
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- be
  • occultant -- 3rd person plural present of; <occultō, occultāre, occultāvī, occultātum> conceal -- conceal
  • quaeque -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that + conjunction; <-que> and -- and what
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- be
  • ex -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- of
  • usu -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <usus, usus> use, practice -- benefit
  • iudicaverunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <iūdicō, iūdicāre, iūdicāvī, iūdicātum> decide -- decide
  • multitudini -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <multitudo, multitudinis> multitude -- to the common people
  • produnt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <prōdō, prodere, prodīdī, proditum> put forth, make known -- make known

De re publica nisi per concilium loqui non conceditur.
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • re -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- affairs
  • publica -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • nisi -- conjunction; <nisi> if not, unless -- unless
  • per -- preposition; <per> through, by -- by means of
  • concilium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <concilium, concilii> council, assembly -- an assembly
  • loqui -- deponent verb; infinitive of <loquor, loquī, locutus sum> speak -- speak
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • conceditur -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <concēdō, concedere, concessī, concessum> grant, allow -- it is allowed

Lesson Text

Alterum genus est equitum. Hi, cum est usus atque aliquod bellum incidit (quod fere ante Caesaris adventum quotannis accidere solebat, uti aut ipsi iniurias inferrent aut illatas propulsarent), omnes in bello versantur. Atque eorum ut quisque est venere copiisque amplissimus, ita plurimos circum se ambactos clientesque habet. Hanc unam gratiam potentiamque noverunt. Natio est omnis Gallorum admodum dedita religionibus. Atque ob eam causam, qui sunt adfecti gravioribus morbis quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, aut pro victimis homines immolant aut se immolaturos vovent, administrisque ad ea sacrificia druidibus utuntur. [Section omitted at this point.] Quae civitates commodius suam rem publicam administrare existimantur, habent legibus sanctum, si quis quid de re publica a finitimis rumore aut fama accepterit, uti ad magistratum deferat neve cum quo alio communicet. Quod saepe homines temerarios atque imperitos falsis rumoribus terreri et ad facinus impelli et de summis rebus consilium capere cognitum est. Magistratus quae visa sunt occultant quaeque esse ex usu iudicaverunt multitudini produnt. De re publica nisi per concilium loqui non conceditur.

Translation

The knights are the other class. When there is an occasion and especially when a war arises (which would happen almost yearly before Caesar's arrival, so that either they themselves would carry out attacks or would repulse such), these are all engaged in war. And as each is most distinguished in esteem and by wealth, he accordingly has the most subordinates and retainers about him. They have recognized this as the single basis of esteem and power.
The entire nation of the Gauls is greatly devoted to religious affairs. And for that reason those who are afflicted with more serious illnesses and those who are involved in battles and dangers either sacrifice people as victims or they vow that they themselves will be sacrificed; and they make use of Druids as administrators for those sacrifices. [Section omitted at this point.]
The states that are considered to administer their public affairs more advantageously have it prescribed by law that, if anyone might learn anything about public affairs from neighbors by rumor or report, he should report it to a magistrate and not communicate with anyone else. For it is known that indiscreet and inexperienced men are often frightened by false rumors, and are driven to crime or to make decisions concerning the general welfare. Magistrates conceal what seems best, and they decide what is of use and provide it for the common people. It is not allowed to speak about public matters except by means of an assembly.

Grammar

16 Relative Clauses.

Relative clauses are introduced primarily by the relative pronouns, quī 'who', quae 'who', quod 'what', and their inflected forms. A number of examples have occurred in the texts here, such as (bellum) quod in the first sentence of this lesson. The forms are as follows:

  Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   quī   quae   quod  |  quī   quae   quae
Gen   cūius   cūius   cūius  |  quōrum   quārum   quōrum
Dat   cuī   cuī   cuī  |  quibus   quibus   quibus
Acc   quem   quam   quod  |  quos   quās   quae
Abl   quō   quā   quō  |  quibus   quibus   quibus

Another relative pronoun is quisquis 'whoever'. It is inflected like the interrogative pronoun quis 'who', which will be introduced in Lesson 5.

17 Adjectives and their Comparison.

Adjectives are inflected like nouns. Many of them are inflected in accordance with the first and second declensions, such as magnus, magna, magnum 'great'. Others are inflected in accordance with the third declension, such as acer, acris, acre 'sharp'. The declension of any adjective is noted in dictionaries.

As in English there are three degrees of comparison: Positive, Comparative and Superlative. The Comparative is made by adding -ior, the Superlative by adding -issimus. An example is clarus, clarior, clarissimus 'clear, clearer, clearest'. Many of the most common adjectives are irregular, such as their counterparts in English, like bonus, melior, optimus 'good, better, best'. Another example is magnus, maior, maximus 'great, greater, greatest'. These too are noted in dictionaries.

18 More Nouns in the Third Declension.

As noted earlier, nouns in the third declension end in consonants, so that there may be changes in form of the stem, especially in the nominative. Examples are given here for some of the sub-classes with the words pēs 'foot', pater 'father', sermo 'speech', finis 'end', nox 'night'.

    Singular
Nom   pēs   pater   sermo   finis   nox
Gen   pedis   patris   sermonis   finis   noctis
Dat   pedī   patrī   sermonī   finī   noctī
Acc   pedem   patrem   sermonem   finem   noctem
Abl   pede   patre   sermone   fine   nocte

    Plural
Nom   pedēs   patrēs   sermonēs   finēs   noctēs
Gen   pedum   patrum   sermonum   finium   noctium
Dat   pedibus   patribus   sermonibus   finibus   noctibus
Acc   pedēs   patrēs   sermonēs   finēs   noctēs
Abl   pedibus   patribus   sermonibus   finibus   noctibus
19 Verb Forms of sum.

As in English, forms of the verb esse 'to be' are irregular. They are also common, used as auxiliaries as well as straightforwardly. Accordingly they should be noted. The indicative active forms are listed below.

    Present   Past   Future   Perfect   Pluperfect   Future Perfect
1 sg   sum   eram   erō   fuī   fueram   fuerō
2 sg   es   erās   eris   fuistī   fuerās   fueris
3 sg   est   erat   erit   fuit   fuerat   fuerit
1 pl   sumus   erāmus   erimus   fuimus   fuerāmus   fuerimus
2 pl   estis   erātis   eritis   fuistis   fuerātis   fueritis
3 pl   sunt   erant   erunt   fuērunt   fuerant   fuerint
20 Adverbs.

Adverbs must be noted as independent lexical items. Those that are based on adjectives in the first and second declensions end in -e, such as male 'badly' from malus 'bad', bene 'well' from bonus 'good'. Those based on adjectives of the third declension end in -ter, such as graviter 'heavily' from gravis 'heavy'.

Like adjectives, they may have comparative and superlative forms. Those with forms from regular inflections have endings in -ius for the comparative and -e for the superlative, for example alte 'highly', altius 'more highly' and altissime 'most highly'. But some of the most frequent have irregular forms, such as bene, melius, optime 'well, better, best', multum, magis, maxime 'much, more, most'. These must be noted in dictionaries.

Latin Online

Lesson 5

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

After describing the civilization of the Gauls, Caesar has a brief but highly interesting section on the Germani. We may almost conclude from it that they had maintained the way of life we assume for the late Indo-European period. Their gods are those of the culture of the steppes. They are basically hunter-gatherers. Warfare makes up their principal activity. And in contrast with the Gauls they have no specific classes; this is in keeping with Meillet's conclusion that the Indo-Europeans were basically democratic, and also individualistic.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Caesar goes on to describe the large forests to the east, and some of the animals, such as the elk and the ure-oxen, noting how the Germans hunt them by having them fall in pits. The most interesting part of his account is that given here.

Germani multum ab hac consuetudine differunt.
  • Germani -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <Germanus, Germana, Germanum> Germani -- The Germani
  • multum -- adverb; <multum> greatly -- greatly
  • ab -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • hac -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular feminine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • consuetudine -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <consuetudo, consuetudinis> custom, way of life -- way of life
  • differunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <differō, differre, distulī, dīlātum> differ -- differ

Nam neque druides habent, qui rebus divinis praesint, neque sacrificiis student.
  • nam -- conjunction; <nam> for -- for
  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- neither
  • druides -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <druides, druidum> Druids -- Druids
  • habent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- do they have
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matters
  • divinis -- adjective; dative plural feminine of <divinus, divina, divinum> divine, sacred -- divine
  • praesint -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <praesum, praesse, praefuī> have charge of, preside over -- preside over
  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- nor
  • sacrificiis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <sacrificium, sacrifici> sacrifice -- sacrifices
  • student -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <studeō, studēre, studuī> give attention, be devoted -- they are devoted to

Deorum numero eos solos ducunt, quos cernunt et quorum aperte opibus iuvantur, Solem et Vulcanum et Lunam, reliquos ne fama quidem acceperunt.
  • deorum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <deus, dei> god -- of the gods
  • numero -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <numerus, numeri> class, number, repute -- among the number
  • eos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- those
  • solos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <solus, sola, solum> alone -- only
  • ducunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductum> lead, consider -- they consider
  • quos -- relative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- whom
  • cernunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cernō, cernere, crēvī, certum> discern, see -- they see
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • quorum -- relative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- whose
  • aperte -- adverb; <aperte> openly -- openly
  • opibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <ops, opis> assistance, wealth, resources -- assistance
  • iuvantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <iuvō, iuvāre, iūvī, iūtum> assist, help -- they are helped
  • Solem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Sol, Solis> sun -- the sun
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • Vulcanum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Vulcanus, Vulcani> Vulcan, the fire-god -- fire
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • Lunam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Luna, Lunae> Luna, the moon-god -- the moon
  • reliquos -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <reliquus, reliqua, reliquum> remaining, rest -- the rest
  • ne -- adverb; <ne> not -- not
  • fama -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <fama, famae> report, talk -- by report
  • quidem -- adverb; <quidem> in fact, even -- even
  • acceperunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptum> receive -- they have learned

Vita omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei militaris consistit.
  • vita -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <vita, vitae> life -- life
  • omnis -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- (Their) whole
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • venationibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <venatio, venationis> hunting -- hunting
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and also
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • studiis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <studium, studii> application, study -- application
  • rei -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- to ...affairs
  • militaris -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <militaris, militaris, militare> military -- military
  • consistit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <cōnsistō, cōnsistere, cōnstitī, cōnstitum> stand still, consist in -- consists

Ab parvulis labori ac duritiae student.
  • ab -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • parvulis -- adjective used as substantive; ablative plural masculine of <parvulus, parvula, parvulum> childhood -- childhood
  • labori -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <labor, laboris> labor, effort -- exertion
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • duritiae -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <duritia, duritiae> hardship -- hardship
  • student -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <studeō, studēre, studuī> give attention, be devoted -- they are devoted to

Qui diutissime impuberes permanserunt, maximam inter suos ferunt laudem.
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- (those) who
  • diutissime -- adverb; superlative of <diu> long -- longest
  • impuberes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <impubes, impuberis> youthful, chaste -- as virgins
  • permanserunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <permaneō, permanēre, permansī, permansum> stay, continue -- have stayed
  • maximam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine superlative of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- greatest
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- among
  • suos -- possessive pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- their fellows
  • ferunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum> bear, carry -- maintain
  • laudem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <laus, laudis> praise -- praise

Hoc ali staturam, ali vires nervosque confirmari putant.
  • hoc -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- by this
  • ali -- pronominal adjective; nominative plural masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- on the one hand
  • staturam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <statura, staturae> stature, height -- height
  • ali -- pronominal adjective; nominative plural masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- on the other hand
  • vires -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <vis, vis> power, strength -- strength
  • nervosque -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <nervus, nervi> muscle + conjunction; <-que> and -- and muscles
  • confirmari -- verb; infinitive passive of <cōnfīrmō, cōnfīrmāre, cōnfīrmāvī, cōnfīrmātum> make firm, strengthen -- are strengthened
  • putant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <putō, putāre, putāvī, putātum> think -- think

Intra annum vero vicesimum feminae notitiam habuisse in turpissimis habent rebus.
  • intra -- preposition; <intra> within, during -- before
  • annum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <annus, anni> year -- year
  • vero -- adverb; <vero> truly, but -- truly
  • vicesimum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <vicesimus, vicesima, vicesimum> twentieth -- twentieth
  • feminae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <femina, feminae> woman -- of a woman
  • notitiam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <notitia, notitiae> familiarity, carnal knowledge -- carnal knowledge
  • habuisse -- verb; perfect infinitive of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- to have had
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- among
  • turpissimis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine superlative of <turpis, turpis, turpe> shameful, disgraceful -- disgraceful
  • habent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- consider
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- things

Cuius rei nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in fluminibus perluntur et pellibus aut parvis renonum tegimentis utuntur magna corporis parte nuda.
  • cuius -- relative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- of which
  • rei -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matter
  • nulla -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <nullus, nulla, nullum> no, none -- no
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- there is
  • occultatio -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <occultatio, occultationis> secrecy -- secrecy
  • quod -- conjunction; <quod> that, because -- because
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- both
  • promiscue -- adverb; <promiscue> promiscuous -- promiscuously
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • fluminibus -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <flumen, fluminis> river -- the rivers
  • perluntur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <perluō, perluere, perluī, perlūtum> wash, bathe -- they bathe
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • pellibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <pellis, pellis> skin, hide -- hides
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • parvis -- adjective; ablative plural neuter of <parvus, parva, parvum> small -- small
  • renonum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <reno, renonis> deer-skin -- of deer-skins
  • tegimentis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <tegumen, teguminis> clothing, covering -- clothing
  • utuntur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum> use -- they wear
  • magna -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- with a large
  • corporis -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <corpus, corporis> body -- of the body
  • parte -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <pars, partis> part -- part
  • nuda -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <nudus, nuda, nudum> bare, naked -- bare

Agriculturae non student, maiorque pars eorum victus in lacte, caseo, carne consistit.
  • agriculturae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <agricultura, agriculturae> agriculture -- agriculture
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • student -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <studeō, studēre, studuī> give attention, be devoted -- they are devoted to
  • maiorque -- adjective; nominative singular feminine comparative of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large + conjunction; <-que> and -- and the greater
  • pars -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pars, partis> part -- part
  • eorum -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- of their
  • victus -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <victus, victus> sustenance, food -- food
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • lacte -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <lac, lactis> milk -- milk
  • caseo -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <caseus, casei> cheese -- cheese
  • carne -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <caro, carnis> meat -- (and) meat
  • consistit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <cōnsistō, cōnsistere, cōnstitī, cōnstitum> stand still, consist in -- consists of

Neque quisquam agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios.
  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- nor
  • quisquam -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisquis, quaeque, quicquid> whoever, whatever -- anyone
  • agri -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ager, agri> land -- of land
  • modum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <modus, modi> kind -- amount
  • certum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <certus, certa, certum> certain -- fixed
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • fines -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <finis, finis> border, limit -- boundaries
  • habet -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- has
  • proprios -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <proprius, propria, proprium> proper, own -- (his) own

Sed magistratus ac principes in annos singulos gentibus cognationibusque hominum, qui una coierunt, quantum et quo loco visum est agri attribuunt atque anno post alio transire cogunt.
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but
  • magistratus -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <magistratus, magistratus> magistrate -- magistrates
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • principes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <princeps, principis> chief -- chiefs
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • annos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <annus, anni> year -- years
  • singulos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <singulus, singula, singulum> single, individual -- separate
  • gentibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <gens, gentis> race, clan -- to tribes
  • cognationibusque -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <cognatio, cognationis> blood-relations, kindred + conjunction; <-que> and -- and to clans
  • hominum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <homo, hominis> man, human -- of persons
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • una -- adverb; <una> at the same place, together -- together
  • coierunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <coeo, coīre, coivī, coitum> come together, be assembled -- have assembled
  • quantum -- adverb; <quantum> as much -- as much
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • quo -- interrogative pronoun; ablative singular masculine of <qui, quae, quod> which, what -- whatever
  • loco -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <locus, loci> place -- place
  • visum -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum> see with est -- seems best
  • est -- auxiliary verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am with perventum -- ...
  • agri -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ager, agri> land -- land
  • attribuunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <attribuō, attribuere, attribuī, attribūtum> assign -- assign
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • anno -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <annus, anni> year -- year
  • post -- adverb; <post> after -- after
  • alio -- adverb; <alio> somewhere else -- to another place
  • transire -- verb; present infinitive of <trānseō, transīre, transīvī, transitum> go over -- to go
  • cogunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cōgō, cōgere, coēgi, cōactum> collect, compel -- they compel

Eius rei multas adferunt causas:
  • eius -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- for this
  • rei -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matter
  • multas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <multus, multa, multum> many -- many
  • adferunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <adferō, adferre, attulī, adlātum> bring, convey -- state
  • causas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <causa, causae> cause, reason -- reasons

ne adsidua consuetudine capti studium belli gerendi agricultura commutent;
  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • adsidua -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <adsiduus, adsidua, adsiduum> constant, continued -- by continued
  • consuetudine -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <consuetudo, consuetudinis> custom, way of life -- custom
  • capti -- verb; perfect participle passive of <capiō, capere, cēpī, captum> take, seize -- induced
  • studium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <studium, studii> application, study -- pursuit
  • belli -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <bellum, belli> war -- war
  • gerendi -- verb; gerund(ive) genitive singular neuter of <gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum> bear, carry out, wear -- of carrying out
  • agricultura -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <agricultura, agriculturae> agriculture -- for agriculture
  • commutent -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <commūtō, commūtāre, commūtāvi, commūtātum> change, exchange -- exchange

ne latos fines parare studeant, potentioresque humiliores possessionibus expellant;
  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • latos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <latus, lata, latum> broad -- extensive
  • fines -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <finis, finis> border, limit -- lands
  • parare -- verb; present infinitive of <parō, parāre, parāvī, parātum> prepare, obtain -- to obtain
  • studeant -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <studeō, studēre, studuī> give attention, be devoted -- they might become devoted to
  • potentioresque -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine comparative of <potens, potentis> powerful + conjunction; <-que> and -- and the more powerful
  • humiliores -- adjective; accusative plural masculine comparative of <humilis, humilis, humile> low, small -- the lower
  • possessionibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <possessio, possessionis> possession -- from their possessions
  • expellant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <expellō, expellere, expulī, expulsum> drive out -- drive

ne accuratius ad frigora atque aestus vitandos aedificent;
  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • accuratius -- adverb; comparative of <accurate> carefully -- more carefully
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- for
  • frigora -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <frigus, frigoris> cold -- cold
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and also
  • aestus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <aestus, aestus> heat -- heat
  • vitandos -- verb; verbal adjective of <vitō, vitāre, vitāvī, vitātus> avoid, evade -- avoiding
  • aedificent -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <aedificō, aedificāre, aedificāvī, aedificātum> build -- they might build

ne qua oriatur pecuniae cupiditas, qua ex re factiones dissensionesque nascuntur.
  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • qua -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <qui, qua(e), quod> some, any -- some
  • oriatur -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <orior, orīrī, ortus sum> arise -- might arise
  • pecuniae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pecunia, pecuniae> money -- for money
  • cupiditas -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <cupiditas, cupiditatis> desire -- desire
  • qua -- relative pronoun; ablative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • ex -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- from
  • re -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matter
  • factiones -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <factio, factionis> faction -- factions
  • dissensionesque -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <dissensio, dissensionis> dissension + conjunction; <-que> and -- and dissensions
  • nascuntur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <nāscor, nāscī, nātus sum> be produced, arise -- would arise

ut animi aequitate plebem contineant, cum suas quisque opes cum potentissimis aequari videat.
  • ut -- conjunction; <ut> that, so that -- so that
  • animi -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <animus, animi> soul, mind -- of spirit
  • aequitate -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <aequitas, aequitatis> uniformity, calmness -- in calmness
  • plebem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <plebs, plebis> common people -- the common people
  • contineant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <contineō, continēre, continuī, contentum> connect, maintain -- they might maintain
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • suas -- possessive pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- his own
  • quisque -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisque, quaeque, quodque> everyone -- someone
  • opes -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ops, opis> assistance, wealth, resources -- means
  • cum -- preposition; <cum> with -- with
  • potentissimis -- adjective; dative plural masculine superlative of <potens, potentis> powerful -- the most powerful
  • aequari -- deponent verb; passive infinitive of <aequō, aequāre, aequāvī, aequātus> to make equal, smoothe -- be equal to
  • videat -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum> see -- see

Lesson Text

Germani multum ab hac consuetudine differunt. Nam neque druides habent, qui rebus divinis praesint, neque sacrificiis student. Deorum numero eos solos ducunt, quos cernunt et quorum aperte opibus iuvantur, Solem et Vulcanum et Lunam, reliquos ne fama quidem acceperunt. Vita omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei militaris consistit. Ab parvulis labori ac duritiae student. Qui diutissime impuberes permanserunt, maximam inter suos ferunt laudem. Hoc ali staturam, ali vires nervosque confirmari putant. Intra annum vero vicesimum feminae notitiam habuisse in turpissimis habent rebus. Cuius rei nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in fluminibus perluntur et pellibus aut parvis renonum tegimentis utuntur magna corporis parte nuda. Agriculturae non student, maiorque pars eorum victus in lacte, caseo, carne consistit. Neque quisquam agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios. Sed magistratus ac principes in annos singulos gentibus cognationibusque hominum, qui una coierunt, quantum et quo loco visum est agri attribuunt atque anno post alio transire cogunt. Eius rei multas adferunt causas: ne adsidua consuetudine capti studium belli gerendi agricultura commutent; ne latos fines parare studeant, potentioresque humiliores possessionibus expellant; ne accuratius ad frigora atque aestus vitandos aedificent; ne qua oriatur pecuniae cupiditas, qua ex re factiones dissensionesque nascuntur. ut animi aequitate plebem contineant, cum suas quisque opes cum potentissimis aequari videat.

Translation

The Germani differ a great deal from this way of life. They have no Druids who preside over their divine affairs; nor are they devoted to sacrifices. They consider in the number of their gods only those whom they see and by whose assistance they are openly helped, the Sun and the Fire-god and the Moon; they have not even heard of the rest by report. Their whole life consists of hunting and of the pursuit of military affairs. From youth they are devoted to work and hardship. Those who remain celibate longest enjoy the greatest praise among their fellows. Some think that height, others that strength and sinews are strengthened by this. They truly consider it among the most disgraceful matters to have had intercourse with a woman before their twentieth year. There is no secrecy in the matter for they bathe promiscuously in the rivers and they wear skins or small coverings of deer skins with a large part of their body nude.
They do not practice agriculture; the greater part of their food consists of milk, cheese, and meat. Nor does anyone have a definite amount of land or fixed boundaries. But the magistrates and chiefs every year assign to the tribes and to related people who have grouped together, as much land and in whatever place seems best. And in the next year they compel them to move. They adduce many reasons for this matter: so that they would not change their zeal for warfare to agriculture, tempted by continuous association; so that they would not desire to acquire broad territories, and the more powerful might expel the weaker; so that they would not build more carefully against cold and heat; so that a desire for money would not arise, from which factions and dissentions might be produced; so that they might keep the common people in calmness of spirit, with each seeing his own means as equal to those of the most powerful.

Grammar

21 Personal and Reflexive Pronouns.

As we have noted, and as is clear from the texts in the first five lessons, few particles are used in Latin. On the other hand, pronouns are used to indicate relationships between words, clauses and sentences. The pronouns concerned are chiefly those labeled descriptive and relative, since historical texts use few personal pronouns, in part because the item in question is provided by the verb form. Nonetheless it is necessary to be aware of them, and accordingly they are given here.

The first and second person pronouns are also used as reflexives. The third person pronoun is reflexive, and is used for all three genders in the plural as well as the singular. The dative accordingly may mean 'to himself, to herself, to itself, to themselves.'

    1st Person   2nd Person   3rd Person
    Singular   Plural   Singular   Plural    
Nom   ego 'I'   nōs 'we'   tū 'thou'   vōs 'you'    
Gen   meī   nostrum, nostrī   tui   vestrum, vestrī   suī
Dat   mihi   nōbis   tibī   vōbis   sibī
Acc   mē   nōs   tē   vōs   sē, sēsē
Abl   mē   nōbis   tē   vōbis   sē, sēsē

The adjectival forms of these pronouns, known as possessives, are inflected in all cases and genders. They are: meus, mea, meum 'my', tuus, tua, tuum 'thy', suus, sua, suum 'his, her, its, their', noster, nostra, nostrum 'our', vester, vestra, vestrum 'your'.

22 Descriptive Pronouns.

These pronouns, which are also referred to as determinative or determiners or even demonstrative, are among the most frequent. They may be translated with forms of 'this' or with personal pronouns like 'he' or with other elements like 'the same'. The genitive and dative forms are the same for all three genders, except for the genitive plural where the feminine has -a- rather than -o-.

    is 'he, she, this'
    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   is   ea   id   iī   eae   ea
Gen   ēius   ēius   ēius   eōrum   eārum   eōrum
Dat   eī   eī   eī   iīs   iīs   iīs
Acc   eum   eam   id   eōs   eās   ea
Abl   eō   eā   eō   iīs   iīs   iīs
 
    idem 'the same'
Nom   īdem   eadem   idem   idem   eaedem   eadem
Gen   ēiusdem   ēiusdem   ēiusdem   eōrumdem   eārumdem   eōrumdem
Dat   eīdem   eīdem   eīdem   īsdem   īsdem   īsdem
Acc   eundem   eandem   idem   eōsdem   eāsdem   eadem
Abl   eōdem   eādem   eōdem   īsdem   īsdem   īsdem
 
    hic 'this'
Nom   hic   haec   hoc   hī   hae   haec
Gen   hūius   hūius   hūius   hōrum   hārum   hōrum
Dat   huīc   huīc   huīc   hīs   hīs   hīs
Acc   hunc   hanc   hoc   hōs   hās   haec
Abl   hōc   hāc   hōc   hīs   hīs   hīs
 
    ille 'that, such'
Nom   ille   illa   illud   illī   illae   illa
Gen   illīus   illīus   illīus   illōrum   illārum   illōrum
Dat   illī   illī   illī   illīs   illīs   illīs
Acc   illum   illam   illud   illōs   illās   illa
Abl   illō   illā   illō   illīs   illīs   illīs
23 The Intensive Pronoun ipse 'self'.
    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   ipse   ipsa   ipsum   ipsī   ipsae   ipsa
Gen   ipsīus   ipsīus   ipsīus   ipsōrum   ipsārum   ipsōrum
Dat   ipsī   ipsī   ipsī   ipsīs   ipsīs   ipsīs
Acc   ipsum   ipsam   ipsum   ipsōs   ipsās   ipsa
Abl   ipsō   ipsā   ipsō   ipsīs   ipsīs   ipsīs
24 The Relative Pronoun quī 'who'.
    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   quī   quae   quod   quī   quae   quae
Gen   cūius   cūius   cūius   quōrum   quārum   quōrum
Dat   cuī   cuī   cuī   quibus   quibus   quibus
Acc   quem   quam   quod   quōs   quās   quae
Abl   quō   quā   quō   quibus   quibus   quibus

Indefinite relatives are quicumque 'whoever' and quisquis 'whoever', quidquid 'whatever'. The first element of quicumque may be declined like the simple relative pronoun. The elements of quisquis may be declined like the interrogative pronoun, as demonstrated by the form quidquid; but other forms rarely occur.

25 The Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns.

The interrogative pronoun when used as a noun is quis 'who?'; when used as an adjective it is qui, as in qui homo 'Which man?'; it is inflected like the relative pronoun.

    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   quis   quis   quid   quī   quae   quae
Gen   cūius   cūius   cūius   quōrum   quārum   quōrum
Dat   cuī   cuī   cuī   quibus   quibus   quibus
Acc   quem   quem   quid   quōs   quās   quae
Abl   quō   quā   quō   quibus   quibus   quibus

Quis is also used as indefinite pronoun, noun, and adjective. When used as an adjective, the nominative forms are qui, quae and quod; when used as a noun, the neuter is quid.

Latin Online

Lesson 6

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

About a hundred and fifty years after Caesar wrote his Gallic War, the historian Tacitus produced a treatise on the Germani. We know less about Cornelius Tacitus than we do about Julius Caesar. He was apparently born around 55 A.D. and died around 120 A.D. He enjoyed a fine career in various government positions. Among his works, in addition to a history of his time known as Historiae and his Annales on the period from the death of Augustus Caesar in 14 A.D. to 68 A.D., is a work entitled De Moribus et Populis Germaniae 'Concerning the customs and peoples of Germania', or more simply Germania. While some authors in Classical times, among them Herodotus, Livy and Caesar, included brief accounts of other peoples in their writings, Tacitus' Germania is the only anthropological account of a people that we have from the period.

Reading and Textual Analysis

In his description of the public and private life of the German peoples, Tacitus gives us a much more comprehensive picture than did Caesar. On the other hand, their way of life seems much the same as it was in Caesar's day. At one point Tacitus does indicate that they have taken on some customs from outside, as in the brief statement iam et pecuniam accipere docuimus 'we have brought them also to accept money', but, as the excerpt given here shows, their habitations and clothing remained much the same.

Nullas Germanorum populis urbes habitari satis notum est, ne pati quidem inter se iunctas sedes.
  • nullas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <nullus, nulla, nullum> no, none -- no
  • Germanorum -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural masculine of <Germanus, Germana, Germanum> Germani -- of the Germani
  • populis -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <populus, populi> people -- by the peoples
  • urbes -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <urbs, urbis> city -- cities
  • habitari -- verb; passive infinitive of <habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātum> inhabit -- are inhabited
  • satis -- adverb; <satis> adequately, sufficiently -- quite
  • notum -- verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <nōscō, nōscere, nōvī, nōtum> be acquainted with, get to know -- known
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- it is
  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- that ... not
  • pati -- deponent verb; infinitive passive of <patior, patī, passus sum> suffer, endure -- they permit
  • quidem -- adverb; <quidem> in fact, even -- even
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- among
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- themselves
  • iunctas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <iunctus, iuncta, iunctum> joined, united -- connected
  • sedes -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <sedes, sedis> seat, habitation -- habitations

Colunt discreti ac diversi, ut fons, ut campus, ut nemus placuit.
  • colunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <colō, colere, coluī, cultum> dwell in, cultivate -- They live
  • discreti -- verb; nominative plural masculine perfect participle passive of <discernō, discernere, discrēvī, discrētum> separate, divide -- separately
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- as well as
  • diversi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <diversus, diversa, diversum> contrary, diverse -- diversely
  • ut -- adverb; <ut> as, where -- where
  • fons -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <fons, fontis> spring -- a spring
  • ut -- adverb; <ut> as, where -- where
  • campus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <campus, campi> plain, open field -- an open field
  • ut -- adverb; <ut> as, where -- where
  • nemus -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <nemus, nemoris> grove -- a grove
  • placuit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <placeō, placēre, placuī, placitum> please -- as they please

Vicos locant non in nostrum morem conexis et cohaerentibus aedificiis.
  • vicos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <vicus, vici> village -- villages
  • locant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <locō, locāre, locāvī, locātus> place, arrange -- they arrange
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in accordance with
  • nostrum -- possessive pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <noster, nostra, nostrum> our -- our
  • morem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mos, moris> custom -- custom
  • conexis -- adjective; ablative plural neuter of <conexus, conexa, conexum> adjoining -- adjoining
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • cohaerentibus -- ablative plural neuter of; <cohaerens, cohaerentis> continuous, adjoining -- continuous
  • aedificiis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <aedificium, aedificii> building -- buildings

Suam quisque domum spatio circumdat, sive adversus casus ignis remedium sive inscientia aedificandi.
  • suam -- possessive pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- his
  • quisque -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisque, quaeque, quodque> everyone -- everyone
  • domum -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <domus, domi> house -- house
  • spatio -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <spatium, spatii> space -- space
  • circumdat -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <circumdō, circumdare, circumdedī, circumdātum> surround -- surrounds
  • sive -- conjunction; <sive> or if, whether ... or -- whether
  • adversus -- adverb; <adversus> opposite to, against -- against
  • casus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <casus, casus> fall, misfortune, chance -- hazard
  • ignis -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ignis, ignis> fire -- of fire
  • remedium -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <remedium, remedii> remedy, assistance -- as a remedy
  • sive -- conjunction; <sive> or if, whether ... or -- or
  • inscientia -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <inscientia, inscientiae> ignorance -- through ignorance
  • aedificandi -- verb; genitive of gerund(ive) of <aedificō, aedificāre, aedificāvī, aedificātum> build -- of construction

Ne caementorum quidem apud illos aut tegularum usus.
  • ne -- adverb; <ne> not -- not
  • caementorum -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <caementum, caementi> quarry-stone -- of quarry-stones
  • quidem -- adverb; <quidem> in fact, even -- even
  • apud -- preposition; <apud> among, with -- among
  • illos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- them
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • tegularum -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <tegula, tegulae> tile -- of tiles
  • usus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <usus, usus> use, practice -- use

Materia ad omnia utuntur informi et citra speciem aut delectationem.
  • materia -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <materia, materiae> material -- material
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- for
  • omnia -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- everything
  • utuntur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum> use -- they use
  • informi -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <informis, informis, informe> unshapely, hideous -- unshapely
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • citra -- preposition; <citra> on this side of, without -- without
  • speciem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <species, speciei> appearance -- pleasing appearance
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • delectationem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <delectatio, delectationis> pleasure, delight -- beauty

Quaedam loca diligentius illinunt terra ita pura ac splendente, ut picturam ac liniamenta colorum imitetur.
  • quaedam -- indefinite pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <quidam, quaedam, quoddam> a certain, some -- some
  • loca -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <locus, loci> place -- places
  • diligentius -- adverb; comparative of <diligenter> industriously -- very industriously
  • illinunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <illinō, illere, illēvī, illitum> spread over -- they spread, smear
  • terra -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <terra, terrae> earth, land -- with earth
  • ita -- adverb; <ita> thus -- so
  • pura -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <purus, pura, purum> pure -- pure
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and also
  • splendente -- verb; ablative singular feminine of present participle of <splendeo, splendere, -, -> shine, be bright -- shiny
  • ut -- conjunction; <ut> that, so that -- that
  • picturam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <pictura, picturae> painting -- a painting
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and also
  • liniamenta -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <liniamentum, liniamenti> line, designs -- designs
  • colorum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <color, coloris> color -- of colors
  • imitetur -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular subjunctive present of <imitor, imitāre, imitātum> imitate, resemble -- they resemble

Solent et subterraneos specus aperire eosque multo insuper fimo onerant suffugium hiemis et receptaculum frugibus.
  • solent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sōleō, solēre, solitum> be accustomed -- They are accustomed
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- also
  • subterraneos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <subterraneus, subterranei> underground -- underground
  • specus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <specus, specus> cave, pit -- pits
  • aperire -- verb; infinitive of <aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertum> open -- to open
  • eosque -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this + conjunction; <-que> and -- and them
  • multo -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <multus, multa, multum> many -- with much
  • insuper -- adverb; <insuper> above, on top -- on top
  • fimo -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <fimus, fimi> dung -- dung
  • onerant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <onerō, onerāre, onerāvī, onerātum> load, burden -- they cover
  • suffugium -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <suffugium, suffugii> refuge, shelter -- as a shelter
  • hiemis -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <hiems, hiemis> winter -- from the winter
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • receptaculum -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <receptaculum, receptaculi> receptacle, storage place -- storage place
  • frugibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <frux, frugis> fruit, produce -- for fruit

Quia rigorem frigorum eius modi loci molliunt, et si quando hostis advenit, aperta populatur.
  • quia -- conjunction; <quia> because -- because
  • rigorem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <rigor, rigoris> rigor -- rigor
  • frigorum -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <frigus, frigoris> cold -- of the cold
  • eius -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- of that
  • modi -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <modus, modi> kind -- kind
  • loci -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <locus, loci> place -- places
  • molliunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <molliō, mollīre, mollīvī, mollītum> moderate, soften -- moderate
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • quando -- adverb; <quando> ever, at some time -- at some time
  • hostis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hostis, hostis> enemy -- an enemy
  • advenit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <adveniō, advenīre, advenī, adventum> arrive, appear -- arrived
  • aperta -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <apertus, aperta, apertum> open -- the open things
  • populatur -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <populor, populāri, populatus sum> devastate, plunder -- he would plunder

Abdita autem et defossa aut ignorantur aut eo ipso fallunt, quod quaerenda sunt.
  • abdita -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural neuter of <abditus, abdita, abditum> hidden place -- the hidden places
  • autem -- conjunction; <autem> but -- but
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • defossa -- participle used as substantive; nominative plural neuter of perfect participle passive of <dēfodiō, defossere, defōdī, defossum> dig deep, hide -- the caves
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- either
  • ignorantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <īgnōrō, īgnōrāre, īgnōrāvi, īgnōrātum> ignore, be unknown -- remain unknown
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • eo ipso -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular neuter of <is, ea, id> him, her, this + intensive pronoun; <ipse, ipsa, ipsum> self -- by that very reason
  • fallunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <fallō, fallere, fefellī, falsum> deceive, elude -- they elude
  • quod -- relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- what
  • quaerenda -- verbal adjective; nominative plural neuter of <quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītum> look for, search -- to be sought
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- they are

Tegumen omnibus sagum fibula aut, si desit, spina consertum.
  • tegumen -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <tegumen, teguminis> clothing, covering -- The covering
  • omnibus -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- for all
  • sagum -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <sagum, sagi> rough mantle -- (is) a rough mantle
  • fibula -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <fibula, fibulae> brooch -- with a brooch
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • desit -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <desum, deesse, defuī> be lacking -- is unavailable
  • spina -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <spina, spinae> thorn -- a thorn
  • consertum -- verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <cōnserō, cōnserere, cōnseruī, cōnsertum> connect -- held together

Cetera intecti totos dies iuxta focum atque ignem agunt.
  • cetera -- adverb; <cetera> otherwise -- Otherwise
  • intecti -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <intectus, intecta, intectum> uncovered -- naked
  • totos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <totus, tota, totum> entire -- entire
  • dies -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <dies, diei> day -- days
  • iuxta -- preposition; <iuxta> near -- near
  • focum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <focus, foci> fire-place, hearth -- the hearth
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • ignem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ignis, ignis> fire -- the fire
  • agunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <agō, agere, ēgī, āctum> move, conduct -- they spend

Locupletissimi reste distinguuntur, non fluitante, sicut Sarmatae ac Parthi, sed stricta et singulos artus exprimente.
  • locupletissimi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of superlative of <locuples, locupletis> rich in lands, wealthy -- The wealthy
  • reste -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <restis, restis> undergarment -- by an undergarment
  • distinguuntur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <dīstinguō, dīstinguere, dīstinxī, dīstinctum> divide, distinguish -- are distinguished
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • fluitante -- verb; ablative singular feminine of present participle of <fluitō, fluitāre, fluitāvī, -> flow -- flowing
  • sicut -- adverb; <sicut> as, like -- like
  • Sarmatae -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Sarmatae, Sarmatarum> Sarmatians -- the Sarmatians
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • Parthi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Parthi, Parthorum> Parthians -- Parthians
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but
  • stricta -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <strictus, stricta, strictum> drawn together, tight -- tight
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • singulos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <singulus, singula, singulum> single, individual -- the individual
  • artus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <artus, artus> joints, limbs -- limbs
  • exprimente -- verb; ablative singular feminine of present participle of <exprimō, exprimere, expressī, expressum> express -- revealing

Gerunt et ferarum pelles, proximi ripae neglegenter, ulteriores exquisitius, ut quibus nullus per commercia cultus.
  • gerunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum> bear, carry out, wear -- They wear
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- also
  • ferarum -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <fera, ferae> wild beast -- of wild animals
  • pelles -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <pellis, pellis> skin, hide -- hides
  • proximi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <proximus, proxima, proximum> next to -- (those) next to
  • ripae -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ripa, ripae> river-bank -- the river (= Rhine and Danube)
  • neglegenter -- adverb; <neglegenter> carelessly -- with no discrimination
  • ulteriores -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <ulterior, ulterioris> farther, remote -- those more remote
  • exquisitius -- adverb; comparative of <exquisitus, exquisita, exquisitum> exquisitely -- more exquisitely
  • ut -- adverb; <ut> as, where -- seeing that
  • quibus -- relative pronoun; dative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- for them
  • nullus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <nullus, nulla, nullum> no, none -- (there is) no
  • per -- preposition; <per> through, by -- through
  • commercia -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <commercium, commerci> commerce -- through commerce
  • cultus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <cultus, cultus> care, culture -- refinement

Eligunt feras et detracta velamina spargunt maculis pellibusque beluarum, quas exterior Oceanus atque ignotum mare gignit.
  • eligunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ēligō, ēlegere, elēgī, elēctum> choose, select -- they select
  • feras -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <fera, ferae> wild beast -- (the hides of) wild beasts
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • detracta -- verb; perfect participle passive of <dētrahō, detrahere, dētraxī, detractum> take off, remove -- removed
  • velamina -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <velamen, velaminis> cover, clothing -- clothing
  • spargunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <spargō, spargere, sparsī, sparsum> strew, sprinkle -- they distribute
  • maculis -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <macula, maculae> spot -- with spots
  • pellibusque -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <pellis, pellis> skin, hide + conjunction; <-que> and -- and with hides
  • beluarum -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <belua, beluae> wild animal, monster -- of wild animals
  • quas -- relative pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • exterior -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <exterior, exterioris> outer -- the outer
  • Oceanus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Oceanus, Oceani> ocean -- ocean
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • ignotum -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <ignotus, ignota, ignotum> unknown -- an unknown
  • mare -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <mare, maris> sea -- sea
  • gignit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <gīgnō, genere, genuī, genitum> generate, produce -- produces

Nec alius feminis quam viris habitus, nisi quod feminae saepius lineis amictibus velantur eosque purpura variant.
  • nec -- adverb; <nec> neither ... nor -- not
  • alius -- pronominal adjective; nominative singular masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- different
  • feminis -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <femina, feminae> woman -- for the women
  • quam -- adverb used as conjunction; <quam> than -- than
  • viris -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <vir, viri> man -- for the men
  • habitus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <habitus, habitus> clothing, dress -- clothing
  • nisi -- conjunction; <nisi> if not, unless -- except
  • quod -- conjunction; <quod> that, because -- that
  • feminae -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <femina, feminae> woman -- the women
  • saepius -- adverb; comparative of <saepe> often -- more often
  • lineis -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <lineus, linea, lineum> flaxen -- by flaxen
  • amictibus -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <amictus, amictus> outer garment -- outer garments
  • velantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <vēlō, velāre, velāvī, velātum> cover -- are covered
  • eosque -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this + conjunction; <-que> and -- and those
  • purpura -- ablative singular feminine of; <purpura, purpurae> purple, purple cloth -- with purple cloth
  • variant -- verb, 3rd person plural present of; <variō, variāre, variāvī, variātum> variegate -- they variegate

Partemque vestitus superioris in manicas non extendunt; nudae brachia ac lacertos; sed et proxima pars pectoris patet.
  • partemque -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <pars, partis> part + conjunction; <-que> and -- And ...part
  • vestitus -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <vestitus, vestitus> clothing -- of their ... clothing
  • superioris -- adjective; genitive singular masculine comparative of <superus, supera, superum> higher, gods -- upper
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- into
  • manicas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <manicae, manicarum> long sleeves -- sleeves
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • extendunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <extendō, extendere, extendī, extēnsum> extend -- they extend
  • nudae -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <nudus, nuda, nudum> bare, naked -- (are) bare
  • brachia -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <brachium, brachi> lower arm -- (their) lower arms
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • lacertos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <lacertus, lacerti> upper arm -- (their) upper arms
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but, in fact
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- also
  • proxima -- adjective; nominative singular feminine superlative of <prope> near -- nearest
  • pars -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pars, partis> part -- part
  • pectoris -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <pectus, pectoris> breast -- of their breast
  • patet -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <pateō, patēre, patuī, -> lie open, be exposed -- lies open

Lesson Text

Nullas Germanorum populis urbes habitari satis notum est, ne pati quidem inter se iunctas sedes. Colunt discreti ac diversi, ut fons, ut campus, ut nemus placuit. Vicos locant non in nostrum morem conexis et cohaerentibus aedificiis. Suam quisque domum spatio circumdat, sive adversus casus ignis remedium sive inscientia aedificandi. Ne caementorum quidem apud illos aut tegularum usus. Materia ad omnia utuntur informi et citra speciem aut delectationem. Quaedam loca diligentius illinunt terra ita pura ac splendente, ut picturam ac liniamenta colorum imitetur. Solent et subterraneos specus aperire eosque multo insuper fimo onerant suffugium hiemis et receptaculum frugibus. Quia rigorem frigorum eius modi loci molliunt, et si quando hostis advenit, aperta populatur. Abdita autem et defossa aut ignorantur aut eo ipso fallunt, quod quaerenda sunt. Tegumen omnibus sagum fibula aut, si desit, spina consertum. Cetera intecti totos dies iuxta focum atque ignem agunt. Locupletissimi reste distinguuntur, non fluitante, sicut Sarmatae ac Parthi, sed stricta et singulos artus exprimente. Gerunt et ferarum pelles, proximi ripae neglegenter, ulteriores exquisitius, ut quibus nullus per commercia cultus. Eligunt feras et detracta velamina spargunt maculis pellibusque beluarum, quas exterior Oceanus atque ignotum mare gignit. Nec alius feminis quam viris habitus, nisi quod feminae saepius lineis amictibus velantur eosque purpura variant. Partemque vestitus superioris in manicas non extendunt; nudae brachia ac lacertos; sed et proxima pars pectoris patet.

Translation

It is well known that cities are not inhabited by the peoples of the Germani, indeed that connected habitations are not permitted among them. They live separately and independently, where a spring, an open field or a wood has pleased them. They do not arrange their villages according to our custom, with adjoining and continuous buildings. Each surrounds his house with an open space, whether as a remedy against the occurrence of fire, or because of ignorance of construction. There is not even use of quarry-stones or tiles among them. For all things they use unshapely materials, without pleasant appearance or beauty. Some places they smear so carefully with such pure and shiny earth that they resemble a painting and designs of colors. And they also dig underground pits and cover them with much dung on top, for a shelter from the winter and a storage place for fruits. Because those places moderate the rigorous cold; and when an enemy appears, he would plunder only the open things. For the hidden places and the caves remain unknown or they elude them because they would have to be sought out.
The clothing for all is a rough mantle held together with a brooch or if that is lacking by a thorn. Otherwise they are unclothed; they spend entire days in this way near the hearth and fire. Only the richest are distinguished by an undergarment, not flowing, like those of the Sarmatians and Parthians, but tight and revealing all the limbs. They also wear hides of wild animals, those along the river not discriminating among them, but those more remote also more exquisitely. Because there is no culture through commerce there! They select the hides and spread the removed coverings with spots and hides of wild animals that the outer ocean and an unknown sea produce.
The clothing of the women does not differ from that of the men, except that they often are covered with flaxen outer garments and those they variegate with purple cloth. And they do not extend part of their upper clothing to their arms. Their lower and upper arms are bare. In fact, the nearest part of their breast also lies open.

Grammar

26 The importance of verb forms.

As we have noted, verbs are highly important for understanding and translating Latin. They often include the subject of a sentence. They also vary in form, so that they indicate the writer's intention, whether factual, hypothetical, or the like.

Besides active and passive voices and indicative and subjunctive moods, verbs in general have two systems, those based on the present tense and representing time of action, those based on the perfect tense and representing aspect as well as time of action. The twofold set may be determined from the lists of principal parts of verbs, as we may illustrate with an example of the patterns found in dictionaries:

dōnō 'I give', dōnāvī 'I have given', dōnātum 'given', dōnāre 'to give'.

From the first and last of these principal parts, one determines the forms of the present system; from the second one determines the forms of the perfect system. The third form is the perfect participle passive, which is used in making some of the passive forms, and it is often used as an adjective.

There are four conjugations, based on differing stems. The verbs of the first conjugation have stems ending in long --, such as dōnō, donāre 'give'; those of the second conjugation have stems ending in long --, such as habeō, habēre 'have'; those of the third conjugation have stems ending in short -e-, such as tegō, tegere 'cover'; those of the fourth conjugation have stems ending in long --, such as audiō, audīre 'hear'. To provide an overview of the numerous forms for any verb, we will give all forms of a verb of the first conjugation, because they are the most regular. We assume that with these lists you will be able to recognize any verb form, not that you will memorize them unless you so choose. Many of the forms are unlikely to occur in the narrative texts included here, such as the imperatives; these may however occur in poetry, especially drama. But they are most likely to occur in everyday conversation.

27 The Present Tense forms of the first conjugation verb dōnō, and the first singular forms of the three other conjugations.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Indicative   Subjunctive
1 sg   dōnō   dōnem   dōnor   dōner
2 sg   dōnās   dōnēs   dōnāris   dōnēris
3 sg   dōnat   dōnet   dōnātur   dōnētur
1 pl   dōnāmus   dōnēmus   dōnāmur   dōnēmur
2 pl   dōnātis   dōnētis   dōnāminī   dōnēminī
3 pl   dōnant   dōnent   dōnantur   dōnentur
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habeō   habeam   habeor   habear
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   tegō   tegam   tegor   tegar
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audiō   audiam   audior   audiar
28 The Imperfect Tense forms of the first conjugation verb dōnō, and the first singular forms of the three other conjugations.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Indicative   Subjunctive
1 sg   dōnābam   dōnārem   dōnābar   dōnārer
2 sg   dōnābās   dōnārēs   dōnābāris   dōnārētis
3 sg   dōnābat   dōnāret   dōnābātur   dōnārētur
1 pl   dōnābāmus   dōnārēmus   dōnābāmur   dōnārēmus
2 pl   dōnābātis   dōnārētis   dōnābāminī   dōnārēmini
3 pl   dōnābant   dōnārent   dōnābantur   dōnārentur
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habēbam   habērem   habēbar   habērer
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   tegēbam   tegerem   tegēbar   tegerer
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audiēbam   audīrem   audiēbar   audīrer
29 The Forms of the Future. Note that there is no subjunctive.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
1 sg   dōnābō   dōnābor
2 sg   dōnābis   dōnāberis
3 sg   dōnābit   dōnābitur
1 pl   dōnābimus   dōnābimur
2 pl   dōnābitis   dōnābiminī
3 pl   dōnābunt   dōnābuntur
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habēbō   habēbor
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   tegam   tegar
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audiam   audiar
30 The forms of the Imperative, the Present Infinitive, and the Present and Future Participles.
Imperative
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
2 sg pres   dōnā   dōnāre
2 pl pres   dōnāte   dōnāminī
2 sg fut   dōnātō   dōnātor
2 pl fut   dōnātōte   dōnantor
 
2nd conjugation
2 sg pres   habē   habēre
2 pl pres   habēte   habēminī
2 sg fut   habētō   habētor
2 pl fut   habētōte   habentor
 
3rd conjugation
2 sg pres   tege   tegere
2 pl pres   tegite   tegiminī
2 sg fut   tegitō   tegitor
2 pl fut   tegitōte   teguntor
 
4th conjugation
2 sg pres   audī   audīre
2 pl pres   audīte   audīminī
2 sg fut   audītō   audītor
2 pl fut   audītōte   audiuntor
 
Infinitive
1st conjugation
pres   dōnāre   dōnāri
 
2nd conjugation
pres   habēre   habērī
 
3rd conjugation
pres   tegere   tegī
 
4th conjugation
pres   audīre   audīrī
 
Participle
1st conjugation
pres   dōnāns    
fut   dōnātūrus    
 
2nd conjugation
pres   habēns    
fut   habitūrus    
 
3rd conjugation
pres   tegēns    
fut   tēctūrus    
 
4th conjugation
pres   audiēns    
fut   audītūrus    

Latin Online

Lesson 7

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Ennius, 239-169 BC, was born in southern Italy, at Rudiae, twenty miles from Brundisium. Besides Latin he spoke Greek and Oscan. Having joined the Roman army, he was brought to Rome and settled there for the rest of his life. He supported himself by teaching Greek, as well as through his writing. He had contacts with other literary figures of his day, though it is unclear whether Plautus was among them. Among his works were tragedies, poems and most important, the Annals, which, like the Homeric poems, is composed in dactylic hexameters. Beginning with its background at Troy, the Annals covered the history of Rome until shortly before the time of the death of Ennius.

Reading and Textual Analysis

This selection is taken from the Annals of Ennius. The text was "edited and translated" by E. H. Warmington in his four volumes of Remains of Old Latin I, page 30 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961, Loeb Classical Library No.294). It is of interest for its account of the naming of Rome, the contest between the two brothers, Romulus and Remus, and the account of the augury, as well as for an example of archaic Latin. Warmington has modified the spelling, so that it is in keeping with the conventions of classical Latin. There are, then, few differences in this text from the written language several centuries later. The Annals have come down to us in fragments, which Warmington has assembled; among these, this selection is relatively lengthy.

Curantes magna cum cura tum cupientes
Regni dant operam simul auspicio augurioque;
..........in monte..........
  • curantes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <cūrō, cūrāre, cūrāvī, cūrātum> care -- caring
  • magna -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- great
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- with
  • cura -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <cura, curae> care -- care
  • tum -- adverb; <tum> then -- then
  • cupientes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītum> desire -- desiring
  • regni -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <regnum, regni> kingship, supreme power -- supreme power
  • dant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <dō, dare, dedī, dātum> give -- they give
  • operam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <opera, operae> work, service, attention -- attention
  • simul -- adverb; <simul> at the same time -- simultaneously
  • auspicio -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <auspicium, auspicii> divination by the flight of birds -- to the omen from the birds
  • augurioque -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <augurium, augurii> interpretation of omens, augury + conjunction; <-que> and -- and to their interpretation
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- on
  • monte -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <mons, montis> mountain -- a mountain

Remus auspicio se devovet atque secundam
solus avem servat. At Romulus pulcher in alto
quaerit Aventino, servat genus altivolentum.
  • Remus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Remus, Remi> Remus -- Remus
  • auspicio -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <auspicium, auspicii> divination by the flight of birds -- to the omen from the birds
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- himself
  • devovet -- verb; 3rd person singular present, of <dēvoveō, dēvovēre, dēvōvī, dēvōtum> devote -- devotes
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • secundam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <secundus, secunda, secundum> second, favorable -- favorable
  • solus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <solus, sola, solum> alone -- by himself
  • avem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <avis, avis> bird -- bird
  • servat -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <servō, servāre, servāvī, servātum> guard, keep, watch -- watches
  • at -- adverb; <at> and -- but
  • Romulus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Romulus, Romuli> Romulus -- Romulus
  • pulcher -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum> beautiful, excellent -- handsome
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- on
  • alto -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <altus, alta, altum> high, deep -- high
  • quaerit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītum> look for, search -- searches
  • Aventino -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <Aventinus, Aventini> Aventine -- Aventine
  • servat -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <servō, servāre, servāvī, servātum> guard, keep, watch -- watches
  • genus -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <genus, generis> kind, class -- class
  • altivolentum -- adjective; genitive plural neuter of <altivolans, altivolantis> high flying -- high flying

Certabant urbem Romam Remoramve vocarent.
  • certabant -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <certō, certāre, certāvī, certātum> fight, contend -- they were contending
  • urbem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <urbs, urbis> city -- the city
  • Romam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Roma, Romae> Rome -- Rome
  • Remoramve -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Remora, Remorae> Remora + conjunction; <-ve> or -- or Remora
  • vocarent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātum> call -- (whether) they would call

Omnibus cura viris uter esset induperator:
  • omnibus -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- among all
  • cura -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <cura, curae> care -- (there was) concern
  • viris -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <vir, viri> man -- the men
  • uter -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <uter, utra, utrum> which of two -- which of the two
  • esset -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- would be
  • induperator -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <induperator, induperatoris> commander in chief, emperor -- commander

exspectant, veluti consul quom mittere signum
volt, omnes avidi spectant ad carceris oras
quam mox emittat pictis e faucibus currus.
  • exspectant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <exspectō, exspectāre, exspectāvī, exspectātum> wait for -- they wait
  • veluti -- adverb; <veluti> as, like -- as
  • consul -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <consul, consulis> consul -- the consul
  • quom -- conjunction; <quom> when -- when
  • mittere -- verb; infinitive of <mittō, mittere, mīsī, missum> send, give -- to give
  • signum -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <signum, signi> sign -- the signal
  • volt -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <volō, velle, voluī> wish, determine -- decides
  • omnes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all
  • avidi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <avidus, avida, avidum> eager -- eagerly
  • spectant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātum> look, gaze -- gaze
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- at
  • carceris -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <carcer, carceris> prison, starting-place in a race-course -- of the starting-place
  • oras -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ora, orae> mouth, boundary, coast -- the front
  • quam -- relative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • mox -- adverb; <mox> soon -- soon
  • emittat -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <ēmittō, ēmittere, ēmīsī, ēmīssum> send out -- he will send
  • pictis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <pictus, picta, pictum> painted -- painted
  • e -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- from
  • faucibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <fauces, faucis> throat, entrance -- the...entrance
  • currus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <currus, currus> chariot -- the chariots

sic exspectabat populus atque ora tenebat,
rebus utri magni victoria sit data regni.
  • sic -- adverb; <sic> so, thus -- so
  • exspectabat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <exspectō, exspectāre, exspectāvī, exspectātum> wait for -- were waiting
  • populus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <populus, populi> people -- the people
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • ora -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ora, orae> mouth, boundary, coast -- their tongues
  • tenebat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <teneō, tenēre, tenuī, -> hold, control, understand -- holding
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- by the events
  • utri -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <uter, utra, utrum> which of two -- to which of the two
  • magni -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- of great
  • victoria -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <victoria, victoriae> victory -- the victory
  • sit -- auxiliary verb; 3rd person singular perfect subjunctive passive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am with data -- would be
  • data -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect subjunctive passive of <dō, dare, dedī, dātum> give -- given
  • regni -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <regnum, regni> kingship, supreme power -- authority

Interea sol albus recessit in infera noctis.
  • interea -- adverb; <interea> in the meantime -- In the meantime
  • sol -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sol, solis> sun -- the... sun
  • albus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <albus, alba, album> white -- white
  • recessit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <recēdō, rēcedere, rēcessī, rēcessum> retire, withdraw -- had withdrawn
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- to
  • infera -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <inferus, inferi> lower part -- depths
  • noctis -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <nox, noctis> night -- of night

Exin candida se radiis dedit icta foras lux.
  • exin -- adverb; <exin> after that, then -- then
  • candida -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <candidus, candida, candidum> clear -- clear
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- itself
  • radiis -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <radius, radii> rod, beam -- with beams
  • dedit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <dō, dare, dedī, dātum> give -- gave
  • icta -- defective verb; nominative singular feminine of perfect participle passive of <īcere, īcī, ictum> strike -- struck
  • foras -- adverb; <foras> forth, out -- out
  • lux -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <lux, lucis> light -- light

et simul ex alto longe pulcherruma praepes
laeva volavit avis, simul aureus exoritur sol.
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • simul -- adverb; <simul> at the same time -- at the same time
  • ex -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- from
  • alto -- adjective used as substantive; ablative singular neuter of <altus, alta, altum> high, deep -- heaven
  • longe -- adverb; <longe> by far -- by far
  • pulcherruma -- adjective; nominative singular feminine superlative of <pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum> beautiful, excellent -- the most excellent
  • praepes -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <praepes, praepetis> of good omen, favorable -- favorable
  • laeva -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <laevus, laeva, laevum> left -- left
  • volavit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <volō, volāre, volāvī, volātum> fly -- flew
  • avis -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <avis, avis> bird -- bird
  • simul -- adverb; <simul> at the same time -- at the same time
  • aureus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <aureus, aurea, aureum> golden -- the golden
  • exoritur -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <exorior, exorīrī, exortus sum> arise, appear -- arose
  • sol -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sol, solis> sun -- sun

Cedunt de caelo ter quattuor corpora sancta
avium, praepetibus sese pulchrisque locis dant.
  • cedunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cēdō, cedere, cessī, cessum> go from, depart -- come down
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- from
  • caelo -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <caelum, caeli> sky, heavens -- the sky
  • ter -- number; <ter> three -- three
  • quattuor -- number; <quattuor> four -- four
  • corpora -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <corpus, corporis> body -- bodies
  • sancta -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <sanctus, sancta, sanctum> holy -- holy
  • avium -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <avis, avis> bird -- of birds
  • praepetibus -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <praepes, praepetis> of good omen, favorable -- to propitious
  • sese -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- themselves
  • pulchrisque -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum> beautiful, excellent + conjunction; <-que> and -- and beautiful
  • locis -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <locus, loci> place -- places
  • dant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <dō, dare, dedī, dātum> give -- arrange

Conspicit inde sibi data Romulus esse propritim
auspicio regni stabilita scamna solumque.
  • conspicit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <cōnspiciō, conspicere, conspēxī, conspectum> perceive -- perceives
  • inde -- adverb; <inde> from that -- From that
  • sibi -- reflexive pronoun; dative of <sui> self -- to him
  • data -- verb; nominative plural neuter of perfect participle passive of <dō, dare, dedī, dātum> give -- were given
  • Romulus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Romulus, Romuli> Romulus -- Romulus
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- to be
  • propritim -- adverb; <propritim> as one's own -- as his own
  • auspicio -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <auspicium, auspicii> divination by the flight of birds -- by the auspices
  • regni -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <regnum, regni> kingship, supreme power -- of supreme power
  • stabilita -- verb; accusative plural neuter of perfect participle passive of <stabiliō, stabilīre, stabilīvī, stabilītus> establish, confirm -- confirmed
  • scamna -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <scamnum, scamni> bench, seat -- the throne
  • solumque -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <solum, soli> foundation + conjunction; <-que> and -- and the land

Lesson Text

Curantes magna cum cura tum cupientes
Regni dant operam simul auspicio augurioque;
..........in monte..........
Remus auspicio se devovet atque secundam
solus avem servat. At Romulus pulcher in alto
quaerit Aventino, servat genus altivolentum.
Certabant urbem Romam Remoramve vocarent.
Omnibus cura viris uter esset induperator:
exspectant, veluti consul quom mittere signum
volt, omnes avidi spectant ad carceris oras
quam mox emittat pictis e faucibus currus.
sic exspectabat populus atque ora tenebat,
rebus utri magni victoria sit data regni.
Interea sol albus recessit in infera noctis.
Exin candida se radiis dedit icta foras lux.
et simul ex alto longe pulcherruma praepes
laeva volavit avis, simul aureus exoritur sol.
Cedunt de caelo ter quattuor corpora sancta
avium, praepetibus sese pulchrisque locis dant.
Conspicit inde sibi data Romulus esse propritim
auspicio regni stabilita scamna solumque.

Translation

Then with very great care and desiring the supreme power, they turn their attention at the same time to watching and to divination by the flight of birds ... on a hill. Remus devotes himself to the auspices and by himself looks for a favorable bird. But handsome Romulus searches on high Aventine, and looks for the high-flying kind. They contested whether they would call the city Rome or Remora. There is anxiety among all the men to see which of the two would be supreme chief. They are expectant, as when the consul will give the signal, and all look eagerly at the boundaries of the area to see how soon he will send out the chariots from the painted jaws. So the people were waiting and holding their tongues, looking forward to see to which of the two the victory of great authority would be given by the events. In the meantime the white sun has gone down to the depths of night. Then the clear light thrust out with its rays; and at the same time from far on high a most beautiful prophet of a bird flew at the left, at the same time as the gold sun rose. Three or four holy birds fly down from the heavens, and establish themselves on places that are auspicious and beautiful. From that Romulus sees that the established seat and throne of supreme power have been given to him as his own.

Grammar

31 The Perfect System.

The perfect system is comparable in tenses and moods to the present system. Its basic meaning is a state as a result of completed action. In many ways the difference is comparable to that in English. The past or imperfect simply indicates a situation or an action in past time; the perfect however has the additional connotation of completed action. We can say: "I went to town yesterday" but not "I have gone to town yesterday". The specification provided by the adverb "yesterday" does not permit a verbal form that indicates a state. At times, then, the Latin perfect may be translated with a present tense form.

32 The Perfect Tense forms of the first conjugation verb dono an the first singular forms of the three other conjugations.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Indicative   Subjunctive
1 sg   dōnāvī   dōnāverim   dōnātus sum   dōnātus sim
2 sg   dōnāvistī   dōnāveris   dōnātus es   dōnātus sīs
3 sg   dōnāvit   dōnāverit   dōnātus est   dōnātus sit
1 pl   dōnāvimus   dōnāverīmus   dōnātī sumus   dōnātī sīmus
2 pl   dōnāvistis   dōnaverītis   dōnātī estis   dōnātī sītis
3 pl   dōnāvērunt   dōnāverint   dōnātī sunt   dōnātī sint
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habuī   habuerim   habitus sum   habitus sim
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   tēxī   tēxerim   tēctus sum   tēctus sim
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audīvī   audīverim   audītus sum   audītus sim
33 The Pluperfect Tense forms of the first conjugation verb dōnō, and the first singular forms of the three other conjugations.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Indicative   Subjunctive
1 sg   dōnāveram   dōnāvissem   dōnātus eram   dōnātus essem
2 sg   dōnāverās   dōnāvissēs   dōnātus erās   dōnātus essēs
3 sg   dōnāverat   dōnāvisset   dōnātus erat   dōnātus esset
1 pl   dōnāverāmus   dōnāvissēmus   dōnātī erāmus   dōnātī essēmus
2 pl   dōnāverātis   dōnāvissētis   dōnātī erātis   dōnātī essētis
3 pl   dōnāverant   dōnāvissent   dōnātī erant   dōnātī essent
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habueram   habuissem   habitus eram   habitus essem
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   tēxeram   tēxissem   tēctus eram   tēctus essem
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audīveram   audīvissem   audītus eram   audītus essem

N.B. The full form for the 4th conjugation, Active voice, Indicative mood, Pluperfect tense is exemplified above by audiveram; however, according to Leumann et al., Vol. I., p. 598, the -v- has often been omitted since the time of Plautus. Therefore, Pluperfect forms such as audieram may be observed in later texts, like the one in our Lesson 10.

34 The Future Perfect Tense forms of the first conjugation verb dono, and the first singular forms of the three other conjugations.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
1 sg   dōnāverō   dōnātus erō
2 sg   dōnāveris   dōnātus eris
3 sg   dōnāverit   dōnātus erit
1 pl   dōnāverimus   dōnātī erimus
2 pl   dōnāveritis   dōnātī eritis
3 pl   dōnāverint   dōnātī erunt
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habuerō   habitus erō
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   tēxerō   tēctus erō
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audīverō   audītus erō
35 The forms of the Perfect Infinitive and Participle, with a brief statement on irregular conjugations.
    Infinitive   Participle
  1st conjugation
perf   dōnāvisse   dōnātus
 
  2nd conjugation
perf   habuisse   habitus
 
  3rd conjugation
perf   tēxisse   tēctus
 
  4th conjugation
perf   audīvisse   audītus

These forms have been given to provide an overview of the conjugations. A few statements provide information on additional patterns.

  1. As we have noted, deponent verbs have the forms of the passive.
  2. Some common verbs have irregular forms. These are given in dictionaries; as examples, a few are given here with their principal parts.
    • dō, dedī, datum, dare 'give'
    • eō, iī, itum, īre 'go'
    • ferō, tulī, lātum ferre 'bear'
    • fiō, factus, fierī 'become'
    • possum, potuī, posse 'be able'
    • volō, voluī, velle 'wish'
  3. The inflections are best determined from grammars.

Latin Online

Lesson 8

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

St. Augustine -- Aurelius Augustinus -- was born in North Africa at Tagaste in Numidia on November 13, 354 A.D. He was trained to be a rhetorician. While his mother was a Christian, he did not adopt Christianity until 387. In 395 he became Bishop of Hippo, and lived there until his death. With Ambrose, Jerome, and Gregory the Great he is considered one of the four great Fathers of the Church. Among his other notable works are De Doctrina Christiana and the City of God.

Reading and Textual Analysis

This section is a part of Book I, Section 8 of the Confessions. In Book I, St. Augustine describes his childhood. This section is remarkable for its account of his learning to talk. Few authors reach back into their infancy as St. Augustine does. Somewhat earlier in Book I, he notes that as an infant he was unable to communicate effectively. He would toss about his limbs and utter sounds that corresponded to his wishes, but others were unable to understand him. The selection may also illustrate how he depicted his personal feelings throughout his autobiography, an ability for which he has been greatly admired. The language is comparable with that of the great period of Classical Latin, though written four centuries later. This selection provides an example of conversational Latin, in contrast with the language of the previous texts.

Non enim eram infans, qui non farer, sed iam puer loquens eram.
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • enim -- conjunction; <enim> for, indeed -- for
  • eram -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- was
  • infans -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <infans, infantis> infant -- an infant
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- that
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • farer -- deponent verb; 1st person singular imperfect subjunctive of <for, fārī, fātus sum> talk -- could talk
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but
  • iam -- adverb; <iam> already -- already
  • puer -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <puer, pueri> boy -- boy
  • loquens -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <loquor, loquī, locutus sum> speak -- speaking
  • eram -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- I was

Et memini hoc, et unde loqui didiceram, post adverti.
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • memini -- defective verb; 1st person singular perfect of <memini> remember -- I remember
  • hoc -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • unde -- adverb; <unde> from whence -- how
  • loqui -- deponent verb; infinitive of <loquor, loquī, locutus sum> speak -- to speak
  • didiceram -- verb; 1st person singular pluperfect of <discō, discere, didicī, -> learn -- I learned
  • post -- adverb; <post> after -- afterwards
  • adverti -- verb; 1st person singular perfect of <advertō, advertere, advertī, adversum> turn to, note -- I noted

Non enim docebant me maiores homines, praebentes mihi verba certo aliquo ordine doctrinae sicut paulo post litteras.
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • enim -- conjunction; <enim> for, indeed -- for
  • docebant -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <doceō, docēre, docuī, doctum> teach -- did...teach
  • me -- pronoun; accusative singular of <ego> I -- me
  • maiores -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of comparative of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- older
  • homines -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <homo, hominis> man, human -- people
  • praebentes -- verb; nominative plural masculine present participle of <praebeō, praebēre, praebuī, praebitus> offer, provide -- by providing
  • mihi -- pronoun; dative singular of <ego> I -- me
  • verba -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <verbum, verbi> word -- words
  • certo -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <certus, certa, certum> certain -- in a certain
  • aliquo -- pronoun adjective; ablative singular masculine of <aliqui, aliqua, aliquod> some, any -- given
  • ordine -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <ordo, ordinis> order -- order
  • doctrinae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <doctrina, doctrinae> teaching -- of teaching
  • sicut -- adverb; <sicut> as, like -- as
  • paulo -- adverb; <paulo> little -- a little
  • post -- adverb; <post> after -- later
  • litteras -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <littera, litterae> letter -- (they did) the letters

Sed ego ipse mente, quem dedisti mihi, deus meus, cum gemitibus et vocibus variis et variis membrorum motibus edere vellem sensa cordis mei, ut voluntati pareretur.
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but
  • ego -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ego> I -- I
  • ipse -- intensive pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ipse, ipsa, ipsum> self -- myself
  • mente -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <mens, mentis> mind -- with the mind
  • quem -- relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- that
  • dedisti -- verb; 2nd person singular perfect of <dō, dare, dedī, dātum> give -- thou hast given
  • mihi -- pronoun; dative singular of <ego> I -- me
  • deus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <deus, dei> god -- God
  • meus -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <meus, mea, meum> my -- my
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- with
  • gemitibus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <gemitus, gemitus> sign, groan -- groans
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • vocibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <vox, vocis> voice -- voices
  • variis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <varius, varia, varium> various -- various
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • variis -- adjective; ablative plural masculine of <varius, varia, varium> various -- with various
  • membrorum -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <membrum, membri> member -- of my members
  • motibus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <motus, motus> movement -- movements
  • edere -- verb; infinitive of <ēdō, ēdere, ēdidī, ēditum> give out -- to express
  • vellem -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect subjunctive of <volō, velle, voluī> wish, determine -- I might wish
  • sensa -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <sensa, sensorum> ideas -- the ideas
  • cordis -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <cor, cordis> heart -- heart
  • mei -- pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <meus, mea, meum> my -- of my
  • ut -- conjunction; <ut> that, so that -- that
  • voluntati -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <voluntas, voluntatis> will, desire -- my desire
  • pareretur -- verb; 3rd person singular subjunctive imperfect passive of <pāreō, parēre, pāruī, -> comply -- were in accordance with

Nec valerem quae volebam omnia nec quibus volebam omnibus.
  • nec -- adverb; <nec> neither ... nor -- neither
  • valerem -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect subjunctive of <valeō, valēre, valuī, -> be able -- I was not able (to express)
  • quae -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- that
  • volebam -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <volō, velle, voluī> wish, determine -- I wanted
  • omnia -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all the things
  • nec -- adverb; <nec> neither ... nor -- nor
  • quibus -- relative pronoun; ablative plural neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- with (the expressions)
  • volebam -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <volō, velle, voluī> wish, determine -- I wished
  • omnibus -- adjective; ablative plural neuter of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all

Pensabam memoria.
  • pensabam -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <pēnsō, pēnsāre, pēnsāvī, pēnsātus> weigh, ponder -- I pondered
  • memoria -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <memoria, memoriae> memory, remembrance -- in remembrance

Cum ipsi appellabant rem aliquam et cum secundum eam vocem corpus ad aliquid movebant, videbam et tenebam hoc ab eis vocari rem illam, quod sonabant, cum eam vellent ostendere.
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • ipsi -- intensive pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ipse, ipsa, ipsum> self -- they
  • appellabant -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <appellō, appellāre, appellāvī, appellātum> call -- designated
  • rem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- thing
  • aliquam -- pronoun adjective; accusative singular feminine of <aliqui, aliqua, aliquod> some, any -- any
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • secundum -- preposition; <secundum> following -- after
  • eam -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- that
  • vocem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <vox, vocis> voice -- sound
  • corpus -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <corpus, corporis> body -- (their) body
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • aliquid -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <aliquis, aliquis, aliquid> anyone -- something
  • movebant -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <moveō, movēre, mōvi, mōtus> move -- they moved
  • videbam -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum> see -- I observed
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • tenebam -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <teneō, tenēre, tenuī, -> hold, control, understand -- I understood
  • hoc -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • ab -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- by
  • eis -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- them
  • vocari -- verb; passive infinitive of <vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātum> call -- named
  • rem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- thing
  • illam -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- that
  • quod -- conjunction; <quod> that, because -- in that
  • sonabant -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <sonō, sonāre, sonuī, sonitus> pronounce -- they pronounced (it)
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • eam -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- it
  • vellent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <volō, velle, voluī> wish, determine -- they wanted
  • ostendere -- verb; infinitive of <ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentum> show, point out -- to point out

Hoc autem eos velle, ex motu corporis aperiebatur, tamquam verbis naturalibus omnium gentium.
  • hoc -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • autem -- conjunction; <autem> but -- but
  • eos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- they
  • velle -- verb; infinitive of <volō, velle, voluī> wish, determine -- (they) wished (to indicate)
  • ex -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- from
  • motu -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <motus, motus> movement -- the movement
  • corporis -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <corpus, corporis> body -- of their body
  • aperiebatur -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect passive of <aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertum> open -- it was disclosed
  • tamquam -- adverb; <tamquam> just as, as if -- as if it were
  • verbis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <verbum, verbi> word -- by the ... words
  • naturalibus -- adjective; ablative plural neuter of <naturalis, naturalis, naturale> natural -- natural
  • omnium -- adjective; genitive plural feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- of all
  • gentium -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <gens, gentis> race, clan -- peoples

Quae fiunt vultu et nutu oculorum ceterorumque membrorum actu et sonitu vocis indicante affectionem animi in petendis, habendis, reiciendis fugiendisve rebus.
  • quae -- relative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • fiunt -- defective verb; 3rd person plural present of <fio, fierī> be made -- are made
  • vultu -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <vultus, vultus> expression, face -- by facial expression
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • nutu -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <nutus, nutus> nod, expression -- by the cast
  • oculorum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <oculus, oculi> eye -- of the eyes
  • ceterorumque -- adjective; genitive plural neuter of <ceteri, ceterae, cetera> other + conjunction; <-que> and -- and of other
  • membrorum -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <membrum, membri> member -- members
  • actu -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <actus, actus> gesture, expression -- by the action
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • sonitu -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <sonitus, sonitus> sound -- by the sound
  • vocis -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <vox, vocis> voice -- of the voice
  • indicante -- verb; ablative singular masculine of present participle of <indicō, indicāre, indicāvī, indicātum> indicate -- indicating
  • affectionem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <affectio, affectionis> affection -- the feelings
  • animi -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <animus, animi> soul, mind -- of the mind
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • petendis -- verbal adjective; ablative plural feminine of <petō, petere, petīvī, petītum> seek -- seeking
  • habendis -- verb; ablative plural feminine of present participle of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- possessing
  • reiciendis -- verb; ablative plural feminine of present participle of <rēiciō, rēicere, rējēcī, rējectum> push back, reject -- rejecting
  • fugiendisve -- verb; ablative plural feminine of present participle of <fugiō, fūgī> flee, avoid + conjunction; <-ve> or -- avoiding
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- things

Ita verba in variis sententiis locis suis posita et crebro audita quarum rerum signa essent paulatim colligebam.
  • ita -- adverb; <ita> thus -- in this way
  • verba -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <verbum, verbi> word -- words
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • variis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <varius, varia, varium> various -- various
  • sententiis -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <sententia, sententiae> sentence -- sentences
  • locis -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <locus, loci> place -- places
  • suis -- possessive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- in their proper
  • posita -- verb; accusative plural neuter of perfect participle passive of <pōnō, ponere, posuī, positum> place, situate -- put
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • crebro -- adverb; <crebro> frequently, often -- often
  • audita -- verb; accusative plural neuter of perfect participle passive of <audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum> hear -- heard
  • quarum -- relative pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- of which
  • rerum -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- things
  • signa -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <signum, signi> sign -- signs
  • essent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- they were
  • paulatim -- adverb; <paulatim> gradually -- gradually
  • colligebam -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <colligō, collēgī, colligere, collēctum> collect -- I collected

Edomito in eis signis ore, per haec enuntiabam.
  • edomito -- verb; ablative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <ēdomō, edomāre, edomuī, ēdomitum> conquer, subdue -- conquered
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- to
  • eis -- demonstrative pronoun; dative plural neuter of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- those
  • signis -- noun, neuter; dative plural of <signum, signi> sign -- signs
  • ore -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <os, oris> mouth -- mouth
  • per -- preposition; <per> through, by -- by means of
  • haec -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- them
  • enuntiabam -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <ēnūntiō, ēnūtiāre, ēnuntiāvī, ēnuntiātum> speak, express -- I expressed myself

Sic cum his, inter quos eram, voluntatum enuntiandarum signa communicavi.
  • sic -- adverb; <sic> so, thus -- So
  • cum -- preposition; <cum> with -- with
  • his -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative plural masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- those
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- among
  • quos -- relative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- whom
  • eram -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- I was
  • voluntatum -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <voluntas, voluntatis> will, desire -- of the desires
  • enuntiandarum -- verbal adjective; genitive plural feminine of <ēnūntiō, ēnūtiāre, ēnuntiāvī, ēnuntiātum> speak, express -- to be expressed (by me)
  • signa -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <signum, signi> sign -- signs
  • communicavi -- verb; 1st person singular perfect of <commūnicō, commūnicāre, commūnicāvī, commūnicātum> communicate -- I communicated

Lesson Text

Non enim eram infans, qui non farer, sed iam puer loquens eram. Et memini hoc, et unde loqui didiceram, post adverti. Non enim docebant me maiores homines, praebentes mihi verba certo aliquo ordine doctrinae sicut paulo post litteras. Sed ego ipse mente, quem dedisti mihi, deus meus, cum gemitibus et vocibus variis et variis membrorum motibus edere vellem sensa cordis mei, ut voluntati pareretur. Nec valerem quae volebam omnia nec quibus volebam omnibus. Pensabam memoria. Cum ipsi appellabant rem aliquam et cum secundum eam vocem corpus ad aliquid movebant, videbam et tenebam hoc ab eis vocari rem illam, quod sonabant, cum eam vellent ostendere. Hoc autem eos velle, ex motu corporis aperiebatur, tamquam verbis naturalibus omnium gentium. Quae fiunt vultu et nutu oculorum ceterorumque membrorum actu et sonitu vocis indicante affectionem animi in petendis, habendis, reiciendis fugiendisve rebus. Ita verba in variis sententiis locis suis posita et crebro audita quarum rerum signa essent paulatim colligebam. Edomito in eis signis ore, per haec enuntiabam. Sic cum his, inter quos eram, voluntatum enuntiandarum signa communicavi.

Translation

For I was no longer an infant that could not speak, but was already a speaking boy. And I remember this well and later noted how I first learned to speak. The older people did not teach me by providing words to me in a certain given order of instruction, as they did the letters later. But by the mind that Thou, my God, gave me, I on my own with grunts, varieties of voices and various motions of my body tried to express the ideas of my heart, that were in accordance with my desires. But I neither could express everything I wanted to, nor with all the expressions I wanted. Then I pondered when remembering. When they designated a thing, and when after that they moved their body toward something, I observed it and understood that this was the thing named by them in that they pronounced it when they wanted to point it out. And that they meant this or that thing was discovered by me through the motion of their body, as by the natural words (language) of all peoples. These are made by facial expression and by the cast of the eyes, by the acts of other members, and by the sound of the voice indicating the feelings of the mind, whether in desiring, enjoying, rejecting or avoiding anything. And in this way I gradually collected the words in various sentences that were put in their proper places and often heard for the things of which they were the signs. And when my mouth was conquered for these signs, I expressed my wishes by means of them. In this way, I communicated with those with whom I was, the signs of the desires I wished to express.

Grammar

36 The Declension of Substantives.

In earlier lessons, beginning with Grammar Selection 3, we have given examples of the declension of nouns. As we noted in the grammar selections on verbs, recognition of inflected forms is especially important for understanding Latin, since it includes few particles and much of the information for interpreting sentences is found in inflections. By way of summary, as well as information on the inflection of adjectives, an overall picture of substantival inflection will be given here. Since adjectives are inflected in general like nouns, though most of them in two or three genders, they may serve to provide examples of the inflection of substantives in general.

37 Substantives with Inflections of the First and Second Declensions.

A large number of adjectives are listed in dictionaries with endings in -us, e.g. magnus 'large'. These have their inflected forms in the masculine and neuter genders according to the second declension, in the feminine gender according to the first. The paradigm of magnus provides an example.

    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   magnus   magna   magnum   magnī   magnae   magna
Gen   magnī   magnae   magnī   magnōrum   magnārum   magnōrum
Dat   magnō   magnae   magnō   magnīs   magnīs   magnīs
Acc   magnum   magnam   magnum   magnōs   magnās   magna
Abl   magnō   magnā   magnō   magnīs   magnīs   magnīs

Most second declension nouns with stems ending in -ro- reduce the ending to -r, rather than -rus. Among them are common nouns like puer 'boy' and vir 'man'. Apart from these forms in the nominative, they have the regular inflections, e.g. genitives puerī and virī, etc. In the same way, parallel adjectives are listed in dictionaries with endings in -er, e.g. dexter 'right', genitive dexterī; ruber 'red', by contrast, has the genitive rubrī.

Pronominal adjectives ending in -us have their genitive and dative singulars inflected like pronouns, that is with -īus and - in the three genitives singular, e.g. solus 'alone', gen.sg. solīus, gen.sg. solī. Other examples are: totus 'whole', alīus 'other', nullus 'none', totus 'whole', unus 'one'. Similarly, those ending in -er, such as uter 'which of two', gen. utrīus, dat. utrī, as well as alter 'the other' and neuter 'neither'.

38 Substantives with Inflections of the Third Declension.

Like nouns of the third declension, adjectives in this declension have stems ending in consonants rather than in -a and -u- < -o-. Accordingly the nominative may differ in form of stem from the other cases, e.g. acer 'sharp' but oblique cases with stem acr-; some adjectives are regular, on the other hand, e.g. celer 'swift', celer-. The stems may be determined from dictionary entries.

Moreover, many adjectives of the third declension are inflected in only two genders, e.g. masc. gravis, nt. grave 'heavy'. The comparatives have bases ending in -r, which is replaced by -s in the neuter nom. and acc., e.g. melior, nt. melius, gen. melioris 'better'.

Some adjectives of the declension are inflected only in one gender; among these the present particles, such as donans, gen. donantis 'giving'. After their stem has been determined, the inflections of these two groups are like those of the adjectives inflected in the three genders.

    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   acer   acris   acre   acrēs   acrēs   acria
Gen   acris   acris   acris   acrium   acrium   acrium
Dat   acrī   acrī   acrī   acribus   acribus   acribus
Acc   acrem   acrem   acre   acrīs   acrīs   acria
Abl   acrī   acrī   acrī   acribus   acribus   acribus

By way of summary, and review of examples in previous grammar sections, examples are given here of third declension nouns in the nominative and genitive singular with stems ending in various consonants.

  • Stems ending in obstruents:
    masc. princeps, principis 'chief'; miles, militis 'soldier'; pēs, pedis 'foot'; rex, regis 'king; neut. caput, capitis 'head'; cor, cordis 'heart'.
  • Stems ending in resonants:
    masc. pater, patris 'father'; victor, victoris 'victor'; consul, consulis 'consul; neut. ebur, eboris 'ivory'; tuber, tuberis 'swelling'.
  • Stems ending in nasals:
    masc. sermo, sermonis 'speech'; fem. virgo, virginis 'virgin'; neut. nomen, nominis 'name'.
  • Stems ending in -s, most of which are neuters:
    genus, generis 'race'; corpus, corporis 'body'; masc. flōs, flōris 'flower'; fem. tellus, telluris 'earth'.
  • Stems ending in -i, most of which are masculine or feminine:
    The nominative ends in -is, like the genitive, e.g. finis 'end, gen. finis; and the genitive plural ends in -ium, e.g. finium. Neuters may have no ending, e.g. animal 'animal, animalis, gen.pl. animalium. Similarly, adjectives of the third declension have their genitive plural ending in -ium, as in the paradigm of acer above.

The third declension also includes irregular nouns. Among these are vīs 'force, acc.sg. vim, nom.pl. vīres; bōs 'cow' gen.sg. bovis, nom.pl. boves; Iuppiter 'Jupiter', gen.sg. Iovis.

The inflection of nouns in the fourth and fifth declensions has been given in Grammar Selection 13. These declensions have no adjectives.

The chief purpose for a reading knowledge of noting the declensions is to determine the form given in dictionaries. It is given with additional forms that illustrate the rest of the declined forms.

39 Comparison of Adjectives.

As in English, there are three degrees of comparison: Positive, Comparative and Superlative. Adjectives are listed in dictionaries in their Positive form, e.g. gravis 'heavy'. The Comparative has two endings, in accordance with such adjectives in the third declension, e.g. masc. and fem. gravior, neut. gravius 'heavier'. The superlative is made with the -issimus ending, and inflected in accordance with adjectives in the first and second declensions.

In Classical Latin the construction of the Comparative with a Standard has that indicated by quam 'than', e.g. gravior quam aquā 'heavier than water'. The Standard is often in the ablative case, which in the first declension has a long -a ending. In older Latin, and occasionally in Classical Latin, the Standard is placed before the Comparative form and has the ablative case, e.g. aquā gravior.

40 Formation of Adverbs.

Many adverbs are listed in dictionaries, and accordingly defined there. When adverbs are made from adjectives that are inflected according to the first and second declensions, they have an -e ending, e.g. alte 'highly'. Other endings are -(i)ter, as in graviter 'heavily', -tim as in privatim 'privatively', -um as in multum 'much'. Some adverbs have changes in the stem, such as bene 'well' beside bonus 'good'.

Comparative and Superlative forms may be illustrated by those of alte, i.e. altius 'more highly', altissime 'most highly'. As in English, these forms may be irregular for common adverbs, e.g. bene, melius, optime 'good, better, best'; male, peius, pessime 'bad, worse, worst; multum, plus, plurimum 'much, more, most'.

Latin Online

Lesson 9

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Einhard, author of the biography of Charlemagne, was closely involved with the church. Born about 770 and died on 14 March 840, he was singled out for his capabilities by his abbot, Baugulf, and sent to the school in the palace of Charlemagne. The head of the school was Alcuin, who was also an adviser to Charlemagne. In this way Einhard became a member of the court, and upon the entry of Alcuin to a monastery he became his successor in the school. He remained close to Charlemagne until his death in 814, and then continued as adviser to the following rulers until he, too, entered a monastery around 820. While his Vita Karoli Magni is his most highly regarded work, other writings of his have survived, among them many letters.

Reading and Textual Analysis

This selection is from the second part of Einhard's brief biography, which deals with the personal qualities of the emperor. In the first part he described Charlemagne's military and diplomatic undertakings. These were highly successful, leading to the expansion and establishment of the Frankish state. While the first part is of interest for the history of the period, the second provides interesting information about Charlemagne's capabilities and more general activities, such as his support of the indigenous language. Among other contributions, he devised Frankish names for the months, such as Uuintarmanoth for January, Ostarmanoth for April, and so on. He also identified twelve winds in place of the earlier four, and gave them names as well. The work ends with a lengthy account of his will.

Erat eloquentia copiosus et exuberans poteratque quicquid vellet apertissime exprimere.
  • erat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- He was
  • eloquentia -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <eloquentia, eloquentiae> eloquence -- in eloquence
  • copiosus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <copiosus, copiosa, copiosum> rich -- outstanding
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • exuberans -- defective verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <exūberō, exūberāre, -, -> be abundant -- superb
  • poteratque -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <possum, posse, potuī> be able + conjunction; <-que> and -- and could
  • quicquid -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <quisquis, quaeque, quicquid> whoever, whatever -- whatever
  • vellet -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive of <volō, velle, voluī> wish, determine -- he wished
  • apertissime -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of superlative of <apertus, aperta, apertum> open -- very clearly
  • exprimere -- verb; infinitive of <exprimō, exprimere, expressī, expressum> express -- express

Nec patrio tantum sermone contentus, etiam peregrinis linguis ediscendis operam impendit.
  • nec -- adverb; <nec> neither ... nor -- And not
  • patrio -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <patrius, patria, patrium> paternal -- with ...native
  • tantum -- adverb; <tantum> only -- only
  • sermone -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <sermo, sermonis> language -- language
  • contentus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <contentus, contenta, contentum> content -- satisfied
  • etiam -- adverb; <etiam> also, even -- also
  • peregrinis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <peregrinus, peregrini> foreign -- foreign
  • linguis -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <lingua, linguae> tongue, language -- languages
  • ediscendis -- ablative plural feminine of gerund(ive) of; <ēdiscō, ēdiscere, ēdidici, -> learn, memorize -- in learning
  • operam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <opera, operae> work, service, attention -- effort
  • impendit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <impendō, impendere, impendī, impēnsum> expend, devote -- expended

In quibus Latinam ita didicit, ut aeque illa ac patria lingua orare sit solitus, Graecam vero melius intellegere quam pronuntiare poterat.
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- Among
  • quibus -- relative pronoun; dative plural feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • Latinam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <Latinus, Latina, Latinum> Latin -- Latin
  • ita -- adverb; <ita> thus -- so (well)
  • didicit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <discō, discere, didicī, -> learn -- knew
  • ut -- conjunction; <ut> that, so that -- so that
  • aeque -- adverb; <aeque> equally -- to the same extent
  • illa -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular feminine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- it
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • patria -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <patrius, patria, patrium> paternal -- (his) native
  • lingua -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <lingua, linguae> tongue, language -- language
  • orare -- verb; infinitive of <ōrō, ōrāre, ōrāvī, ōrātum> speak -- to speak
  • sit -- verb; 3rd person singular subjunctive present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- he was
  • solitus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <solitus, solita, solitum> accustomed -- accustomed
  • Graecam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <Graecus, Graeca, Graecum> Greek -- Greek
  • vero -- adverb; <vero> truly, but -- but
  • melius -- adverb; <melius> better -- better
  • intellegere -- verb; infinitive of <intellegō, intellegere, intellēxī, intellēctum> understand -- understand
  • quam -- adverb used as conjunction; <quam> than -- than
  • pronuntiare -- verb; infinitive of <pronuntiō, pronuntiāre, pronuntiāvī, pronuntiātum> pronounce -- speak
  • poterat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <possum, posse, potuī> be able -- he could

Adeo quidem facundus erat, ut etiam dicaculus appareret.
  • adeo -- adverb; <adeo> so, so much -- so
  • quidem -- adverb; <quidem> in fact, even -- in fact
  • facundus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <facundus, facunda, facundum> fluent, eloquent -- eloquent
  • erat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- He was
  • ut -- conjunction; <ut> that, so that -- that
  • etiam -- adverb; <etiam> also, even -- rather
  • dicaculus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <dicaculus, dicacula, dicaculum> effusive -- effusive
  • appareret -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive of <appāreō, apparēre, apparuī, -> be visible, seem -- seemed

Artes liberales studiosissime coluit, earumque doctores plurimum veneratus magnis adficiebat honoribus.
  • artes -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ars, artis> skill, art -- arts
  • liberales -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <liberalis, liberalis, liberale> liberal -- (the) liberal
  • studiosissime -- adverb; superlative of <studiosus, studiosa, studiosum> eager, studious -- very studiously
  • coluit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <colō, colere, coluī, cultum> dwell in, cultivate -- He cultivated
  • earumque -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this + conjunction; <-que> and -- and ... of them
  • doctores -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <doctor, doctoris> teacher -- the instructors
  • plurimum -- adverb; <plurimum> very much, especially -- especially
  • veneratus -- deponent verb; perfect participle passive of <veneror, venerārī, venerātus sum> honor, venerate -- venerating
  • magnis -- adjective; ablative plural masculine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- with great
  • adficiebat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <adficiō, adficere, adfēcī, adfectum> afflict -- he treated
  • honoribus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <honos, honoris> honor, distinction -- honors

In discenda grammatica Petrum Pisanum diaconem senem audivit.
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- For the purpose of
  • discenda -- verbal adjective; ablative singular feminine of <discō, discere, didicī, -> learn -- learning
  • grammatica -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <grammatica, grammaticae> grammar -- grammar
  • Petrum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Petrus, Petri> Peter -- Peter
  • Pisanum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <Pisanus, Pisana, Pisanum> Pisan -- of Pisa
  • diaconem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <diaco, diaconis> deacon -- deacon
  • senem -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <senex, senis> aged -- the aged
  • audivit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum> hear -- he was taught by

In ceteris disciplinis Albinum cognomento Alcoinum, item diaconem, de Brittania Saxonici generis hominem, virum undecumque doctissimum praeceptorem habuit, apud quem et rethoricae et dialecticae, praecipue tamen astronomiae ediscendae plurimum et temporis et laboris impertivit.
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- In
  • ceteris -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <ceteri, ceterae, cetera> other -- the other
  • disciplinis -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <disciplina, disciplinae> discipline, education -- disciplines
  • Albinum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Albinus, Albini> Albinus -- Albinus
  • cognomento -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <cognomentum, cognomenti> surname -- with the surname
  • Alcoinum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Alcuinus, Alcuini> Alcuin -- Alcuin
  • item -- adverb; <item> also -- also
  • diaconem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <diaco, diaconis> deacon -- a deacon
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- from
  • Brittania -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <Brittania, Brittaniae> Britain -- Britain
  • Saxonici -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <Saxonicus, Saxonici> Saxon -- of Saxon
  • generis -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <genus, generis> kind, class -- race
  • hominem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <homo, hominis> man, human -- a human
  • virum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vir, viri> man -- man
  • undecumque -- adverb; <undecumque> from every side -- in all respects
  • doctissimum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine superlative of <doctus, docta, doctum> learned -- the most learned
  • praeceptorem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <praeceptor, praeceptoris> teacher -- as teacher
  • habuit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- he had
  • apud -- preposition; <apud> among, with -- with
  • quem -- relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- whom
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- both
  • rethoricae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <rhetorica, rhetoricae> rhetoric -- rhetoric
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • dialecticae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <dialectica, dialecticae> logic -- logic
  • praecipue -- adverb; <praecipue> chiefly -- chiefly
  • tamen -- conjunction; <tamen> nevertheless, but -- however
  • astronomiae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <astronomia, astronomiae> astronomy -- astronomy
  • ediscendae -- verb; genitive singular feminine gerund(ive) of <ēdiscō, ēdiscere, ēdidici, -> learn, memorize -- for learning
  • plurimum -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter superlative of <multus, multa, multum> many -- a great deal
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- both
  • temporis -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <tempus, temporis> time -- of time
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • laboris -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <labor, laboris> labor, effort -- of effort
  • impertivit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <impertiō, impertīre, impertīvī, impertītus> devote -- devoted

Discebat artem computandi et intentione sagaci siderum cursum curiosissime rimabatur.
  • discebat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <discō, discere, didicī, -> learn -- He learned
  • artem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ars, artis> skill, art -- the art
  • computandi -- verb; genitive of gerund(ive) of <computō, computāre, computāvī, computātum> compute -- of computing
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • intentione -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <intentio, intentionis> effort -- effort
  • sagaci -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <sagax, sagacis> keen, sagacious -- with ... keen
  • siderum -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <sidus, sideris> constellation, heavenly body -- of the heavenly bodies
  • cursum -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <cursus, cursus> course -- the course
  • curiosissime -- adverb; superlative of <curiosus, curiosa, curiosum> diligent -- most diligently
  • rimabatur -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <rimor, rimāri, rimātus sum> search, explore -- he explored

Temptabat et scribere tabulasque et codicellos ad hoc in lecto sub cervicalibus circumferre solebat, ut, cum vacuum tempus esset, manum litteris effigiendis adsuesceret.
  • temptabat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātum> attempt -- He tried
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- also
  • scribere -- verb; infinitive of <scrībō, scribere, scrīpsī, scriptum> write -- to write
  • tabulasque -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <tabula, tabulae> tablet + conjunction; <-que> and -- and ...tablets
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • codicellos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <codicelli, codicellorum> notebook -- notebooks
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- for
  • hoc -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this (purpose)
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- (to have) in
  • lecto -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <lectus, lecti> bed -- bed
  • sub -- preposition; <sub> under -- under
  • cervicalibus -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <cervical, cervicalis> pillow -- the pillows
  • circumferre -- verb; infinitive of <circumferō, circumferre, circumtūlī, circumlātum> carry around -- to carry around
  • solebat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <sōleō, solēre, solitum> be accustomed -- he was accustomed
  • ut -- conjunction; <ut> that, so that -- so that
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • vacuum -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <vacuus, vacua, vacuum> empty, free -- free
  • tempus -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <tempus, temporis> time -- time
  • esset -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- there might be
  • manum -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <manus, manus> hand -- (his) hand
  • litteris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <littera, litterae> letter -- letters
  • effigiendis -- verb; ablative plural feminine of gerund(ive) of <effingō, effingere, effinxī, effīctum> form -- at forming
  • adsuesceret -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive of <adsuēscō, adsuescere, adsuescēvī, adsuescētum> accustom -- he tried

Sed parum successit labor praeposterus ac sero inchoatus.
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but
  • parum -- adverb; <parum> too little -- very little
  • successit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <succēdō, succedere, successī, sucessum> enter, succeed -- had ... success
  • labor -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <labor, laboris> labor, effort -- (his) effort
  • praeposterus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <praeposterus, praepostera, praeposterum> unseasonable -- at the wrong time
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • sero -- adverb; <sero> too late -- too late
  • inchoatus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <incohatus, incohata, incohatum> begun -- begun

Lesson Text

Erat eloquentia copiosus et exuberans poteratque quicquid vellet apertissime exprimere. Nec patrio tantum sermone contentus, etiam peregrinis linguis ediscendis operam impendit. In quibus Latinam ita didicit, ut aeque illa ac patria lingua orare sit solitus, Graecam vero melius intellegere quam pronuntiare poterat. Adeo quidem facundus erat, ut etiam dicaculus appareret. Artes liberales studiosissime coluit, earumque doctores plurimum veneratus magnis adficiebat honoribus. In discenda grammatica Petrum Pisanum diaconem senem audivit. In ceteris disciplinis Albinum cognomento Alcoinum, item diaconem, de Brittania Saxonici generis hominem, virum undecumque doctissimum praeceptorem habuit, apud quem et rethoricae et dialecticae, praecipue tamen astronomiae ediscendae plurimum et temporis et laboris impertivit. Discebat artem computandi et intentione sagaci siderum cursum curiosissime rimabatur. Temptabat et scribere tabulasque et codicellos ad hoc in lecto sub cervicalibus circumferre solebat, ut, cum vacuum tempus esset, manum litteris effigiendis adsuesceret. Sed parum successit labor praeposterus ac sero inchoatus.

Translation

He was outstanding in eloquence and could express excellently whatever he wished. And not satisfied with just his paternal language, he also expended effort in learning foreign languages. Among these he knew Latin so well that he could speak it with the same control as his native language. But Greek he could understand better than speak. He was in fact so eloquent in speech that at times he seemed effusive. He cultivated the liberal arts very studiously, and in the instruction of these he treated his teachers with great honor. In learning grammar he was taught by the aged deacon, Peter the Pisan. In the other disciplines he had as teacher Albinus, with the surname Alcuin, also a deacon, a Saxon from Britain, a very learned man in all respects. With him he devoted effort and time to learn rhetoric and logic, but chiefly astronomy. He learned the art of computing and with keen effort he explored the course of the heavenly bodies. He also tried to write, and was accustomed to carry about tablets and notebooks to have under his pillow for this purpose, so that when there might be time he could apply his hand to writing letters. But he had very little success since his work was at the wrong time and begun too late.

Grammar

41 Simple Sentences.

In the basic word order of Latin the verb stands last in the sentence, as was noted in Grammar section 1. A fuller example than that given there is:

Aenēas ā nomine uxoris Lavinium appellat.
Aeneas calls it Lavinia from the name of his wife.

If, as here, a subject is included, it typically stands initially. Adverbial expressions and objects follow it. The same order is found in coordinate sentences, as in this sentence from Lesson 5:

Agriculturae nōn student, maiorque pars eōrum victus in lacte, caseō, carne consistit.
They do not practice agriculture, and the major part of their food consists of milk, cheese and meat.

We have also noted that the extensive inflection of nouns and verbs enables authors to modify the basic order, as for indicating emphasis on specific words; the final placement of laudem in the next example provides an illustration.

42 Complex Sentences.

As modifiers of a basic sentence, relative clauses may precede them, as in the following example from Lesson 5:

Quī diutissime impuberēs permanserunt, maximum inter suōs ferunt laudem.
Those who remain chaste longest have the greatest praise among them.

When modifying specific nouns, on the other hand, relative clauses may follow, e.g.

Nam neque druidēs habent, quī rebus divinīs praesint.
For they do not have Druids who preside over religious matters.

Subordinate clauses introduced by conjunctions also may follow the basic clause, e.g.

Cūius reī nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in fluminibus perluntur.
Nothing of this matter is hidden, because they bathe promiscuously in rivers.
43 The Use of Infinitives.

Infinitives may stand as complements to verbs, as in English, as in this example from lesson 6:

Solent et subterraneōs specūs aperire.
They are also accustomed to open up underground caves.

In such uses, they may correspond to subordinate clauses, as in this example from Lesson 8:

Hoc autem eos velle, ex motu corporis aperiabatur.
But that they wished this was apparent from the motion of their body.

A favorite construction in Latin is made by using accusatives as subjects of infinitives, in the so-called accusative with infinitive construction, e.g. Lesson 5:

Hōc alī staturam, alī vires nervōsque confirmārī putant.
Some think that height, others that sinews are strengthened by this.
44 Uses of Participles.

Participles are used as substantives, chiefly as adjectives. Since the perfect passive forms consist of the perfect participle passive with forms of esse 'be', such participles may be used alone, in view of the fact that forms of esse are often elided, as in this example from Lesson 1:

Inde foedus ictum inter ducēs.
Then a treaty was struck by the leaders.

Participles are also used frequently with nouns as abbreviations of subordinate clauses in the ablative absolute construction, as in the following examples from Lesson 1:

crematā patriā
their fatherland had been burned
dextrā datā
(right hand given) He gave him his right hand.
45 Lengthy Sentences.

Sentences may be long and complex, especially in the writings of the historians. Caesar writes more succinctly. For understanding the complex sentences, one must simply identify individual clauses and interpret them in turn, as in the following example from Lesson 1:

Postquam audierit multitudinem Trōiānōs esse, ducem Aeneam, filium Anchisae et Veneris, crematā patriā domō profugōs sedem condendaeque urbī locum quaerere.

After the initial clause, Postquam audierit, there is a construction of the accusative with infinitive: multitudinem Trōiānōs esse. This is followed by a clause in which the verb is lacking, and that in turn by an appositive clause: ducem Aeneam, filium ... The next two words make up an ablative absolute construction: crematā patriā. These are followed by two clauses in which the verbs are participles. And finally there is another infinitive clause introduced by the verb audierit.

As edited in Lesson 1, this is treated here as a complete sentence; but strictly speaking it is actually a subordinate clause introduced by postquam, that stands before the basic clause: fidem ... sanxisse 'he enacted a pledge'. That in turn includes a number of subordinate clauses or their variants. Once again, the key to understanding such complex sentences is provided by the inflections.

Latin Online

Lesson 10

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The great epic poet, Virgil -- Virgilius Maro -- was born on October 15, 70 B.C. in Cisalpine Gaul, where his father reputedly had a small estate. He received an excellent education, after which he returned to the estate and began his writings. Besides the Aeneid, these include the Eclogues and the Georgica. He later became an intimate of the court of the Emperor, Caesar Augustus, and thanks to his patronage was able to enjoy a life of leisure. Among other friends, he was highly respected by Horace. He died on September 22, 19 B.C. in Brundisium, in the company of the Emperor on their return to Italy from Athens.

The Aeneid was the last of his great works. With its glorification of the founders of Rome, it reflects his attachment to the Roman court. Written in hexameters, it is patterned after the Homeric epics. These begin with a word characterizing them -- the Iliad with the word for wrath, the Odyssey with the word for man. Virgil innovated by giving two words as indicating the central content of the epic -- arms and the man. Milton followed him in this respect, beginning Paradise Lost with the line: Of man's first disobedience and the fruit of that forbidden tree... The Aeneid was widely read throughout the Middle Ages and later. In earlier times, every educated person could recite its beginning verses. There are numerous translations into verse and prose -- among those into verse, one by John Dryden published in 1697, and another by William Morris published in 1875. There are also numerous editions and commentaries.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The Aeneid builds on the tradition of the founding of Rome as depicted by Livy in the texts of the first two lessons of LATOL, especially the first. Ascribing the early era to one of the Trojan heroes, it provides a similar function as that of the Homeric epics for the Greeks in proposing a long and illustrious history of the Romans. The first six books with their climax in the stay of Aeneas with Dido and then his departure from her foreshadow the conflict between Rome and Carthage. The sixth book includes the visit of Aeneas to Hades, where he sees Dido, but she disdains him after her suicide. The book is said to have greatly influenced Dante in his production of The Divine Comedy. The second six books deal with the landing in Latium and the conquest of Italy by Aeneas, which was accomplished in twenty days. But as with Livy, the gap between the arrival of Aeneas in Italy, presumably in the twelfth century, and the actual founding of Rome by Romulus, presumably in the eighth, is passed over. Aeneas himself was killed in a battle; his body was not found, and by one tradition it was assumed that he was carried up to heaven.

Arma virumque cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris
Italiam fato profugus Laviniaque venit
Litora -- multum ille et terris jactatus et alto
Vi superum, saevae memorem Junonis ob iram,
Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem
Inferretque deos Latio -- genus unde Latinum
Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae.
  • arma -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <arma, armorum> arms -- arms
  • virumque -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vir, viri> man + conjunction; <-que> and -- and a man
  • cano -- verb; 1st person singular present of <canō, canere, cecinī, cantum> sing -- I sing about
  • Trojae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Troja, Trojae> Troy -- of Troy
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • primus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <primus, prima, primum> first -- as the first
  • ab -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • oris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <ora, orae> mouth, boundary, coast -- the coasts
  • Italiam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Italia, Italiae> Italy -- to Italy
  • fato -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <fatum, fati> fate, divine utterance -- by fate
  • profugus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <profugus, profuga, profugum> fugitive -- in flight
  • Laviniaque -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <Lavinius, Lavinia, Lavinium> Lavinian + conjunction; <-que> and -- and to the Lavinian
  • venit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventum> come -- came
  • litora -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <litus, litoris> shore -- shores
  • multum -- adverb; <multum> greatly -- very much
  • ille -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- he
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- both
  • terris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <terra, terrae> earth, land -- on land
  • jactatus -- verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect passive participle of <jactō, jactāre, jactāvī, jactātum> throw -- tossed about
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • alto -- adjective used as substantive; ablative singular neuter of <altus, alta, altum> high, deep -- on sea
  • vi -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <vis, vis> power, strength -- by the power
  • superum -- adjective used as substantive; genitive masculine plural of <superus, supera, superum> higher, gods -- of the gods
  • saevae -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <saevus, saeva, saevum> fierce, cruel -- of fierce
  • memorem -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <memor, memoris> mindful, remembering -- relentless
  • Junonis -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Juno, Junonis> Juno -- of Juno
  • ob -- preposition; <ob> because of -- because of
  • iram -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ira, irae> anger -- anger
  • multa -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <multus, multa, multum> many -- many things
  • quoque -- adverb; <quoque> also -- also
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • bello -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <bellum, belli> war -- in battle
  • passus -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect participle passive of <patior, patī, passus sum> suffer, endure -- he suffered
  • dum -- conjunction; <dum> while -- while
  • conderet -- verb; 3rd person singular subjunctive imperfect of <condō, condere, condidī, conditum> found -- he founded
  • urbem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <urbs, urbis> city -- the city
  • inferretque -- verb; 3rd person singular subjunctive imperfect of <inferō, inferre, intulī, inlātum> introduce, produce + conjunction; <-que> and -- and brought in
  • deos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <deus, dei> god -- the gods
  • Latio -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <Latium, Latii> Latium -- to Latium
  • genus -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <genus, generis> kind, class -- the race
  • unde -- adverb; <unde> from whence -- from which place
  • Latinum -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <Latinus, Latina, Latinum> Latin -- Latin
  • Albanique -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <Albanus, Albana, Albanum> Alban + conjunction; <-que> and -- and the Alban
  • patres -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <pater, patris> father -- fathers
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • altae -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <altus, alta, altum> high, deep -- of lofty
  • moenia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <moenia, moenium> walls -- the walls
  • Romae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Roma, Romae> Rome -- Rome

Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso
Quidve dolens regina deum tot volvere casus
Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores
Impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?
  • Musa -- noun, feminine; vocative singular of <Musa, Musae> Muse -- Oh Muse,
  • mihi -- pronoun; dative singular of <ego> I -- me
  • causas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <causa, causae> cause, reason -- the reasons
  • memora -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <memorō, memorāre, memorāvī, memorātus> relate, tell -- tell
  • quo -- interrogative pronoun; ablative singular neuter of <qui, quae, quod> which, what -- for what
  • numine -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <numen, numinis> authority -- authority
  • laeso -- verb; perfect participle passive of <laedō, laedere, laesī, laesum> strike, offend -- offended
  • quidve -- interrogative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <quis, quis, quid> who, what + conjunction; <-ve> or -- or ... what
  • dolens -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present participle of <doleō, dolēre, doluī, dolitum> suffer, be angry -- angry
  • regina -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <regina, reginae> queen -- queen
  • deum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <deus, dei> god -- of the gods
  • tot -- adjective number; <tot> so much, so many -- so many
  • volvere -- verb; infinitive of <volvō, volvere, volvī, volūtum> pass through, undergo -- to undergo
  • casus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <casus, casus> fall, misfortune, chance -- misfortunes
  • insignem -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <insignis, insignis, insigne> distinguished -- distinguished
  • pietate -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <pietas, pietatis> piety -- for piety
  • virum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vir, viri> man -- a man
  • tot -- adjective number; <tot> so much, so many -- so many
  • adire -- verb; infinitive of <adeō, adīre, adiī, adītum> approach, encounter -- to encounter
  • labores -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <labor, laboris> labor, effort -- hardships
  • impulerit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <impellō, impellere, impulī, impulsum> drive, move -- drove
  • tantaene -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <tantus, tanta, tantum> such + interrogative adverb; <-ne> ... -- Are such
  • animis -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <animus, animi> soul, mind -- minds
  • caelestibus -- adjective; dative plural feminine of <caelestis, caelestis, caeleste> celestial -- in the celestial
  • irae -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <ira, irae> anger -- angers

Urbs antiqua fuit (Tyrii tenuere coloni)
Karthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli.
  • urbs -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <urbs, urbis> city -- city
  • antiqua -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <antiquus, antiqua, antiquum> ancient -- an ancient
  • fuit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- There was
  • Tyrii -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <Tyrius, Tyria, Tyrium> Tyrian -- Tyrian
  • tenuere -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <teneō, tenēre, tenuī, -> hold, control, understand -- controlled
  • coloni -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <colonus, coloni> farmer, settler -- settlers
  • Karthago -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Karthago, Karthaginis> Carthage -- Carthage
  • Italiam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Italia, Italiae> Italy -- Italy
  • contra -- preposition; <contra> opposite, facing -- opposite
  • Tiberinaque -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <Tiberinus, Tiberina, Tiberinum> of Tiber + conjunction; <-que> and -- and the Tiberine
  • longe -- adverb; <longe> by far -- and far from
  • ostia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ostium, ostii> mouth, entrance -- the mouths
  • dives -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <dives, divitis> rich -- rich in
  • opum -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <ops, opis> assistance, wealth, resources -- wealth
  • studiisque -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <studium, studii> application, study + conjunction; <-que> and -- and the ... pursuits
  • asperrima -- adjective; nominative singular feminine superlative of <asper, aspera, asperum> rough, harsh -- harshest
  • belli -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <bellum, belli> war -- of war

quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam
posthabita coluisse Samo: hic illius arma,
hic currus fuit; hoc regnum dea gentibus esse,
si qua fata sinant, iam tum tenditque fovetque.
  • quam -- relative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- It
  • Juno -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Juno, Junonis> Juno -- Juno
  • fertur -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum> bear, carry -- is said
  • terris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <terra, terrae> earth, land -- lands
  • magis -- adverb; <magis> more -- more than
  • omnibus -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all
  • unam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <unus, una, unum> one, alone -- alone
  • posthabita -- verb; ablative singular feminine of perfect passive participle of <posthabeō, posthabēre, posthabuī, posthabitum> place after, esteem less -- was esteemed less
  • coluisse -- verb; infinitive perfect of <colō, colere, coluī, cultum> dwell in, cultivate -- to have cherished
  • Samo -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <Samos, Sami> Samos -- even Samos
  • hic -- adverb; <hīc> here, now -- here (were)
  • illius -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- her
  • arma -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <arma, armorum> arms -- arms
  • hic -- adverb; <hīc> here, now -- here
  • currus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <currus, currus> chariot -- her chariot
  • fuit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- was
  • hoc -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • regnum -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <regnum, regni> kingship, supreme power -- the leading kingdom
  • dea -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <dea, deae> goddess -- the goddess
  • gentibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <gens, gentis> race, clan -- among the peoples
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- to be
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • qua -- indefinite pronoun; ablative singular feminine of <quis, quis, quid> someone, anything -- by some way
  • fata -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <fatum, fati> fate, divine utterance -- the fates
  • sinant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <sinō, sinere, sīvī> permit, allow -- would permit it
  • iam -- adverb; <iam> already -- already
  • tum -- adverb; <tum> then -- then
  • tenditque -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <tendō, tenere, tenuī, tentum> stretch, pursue + conjunction; <-que> and -- she both pursued
  • fovetque -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <foveō, fovēre, fōvī, fōtum> warm, favor + conjunction; <-que> and -- and favored it

Progeniem sed enim Troiano a sanguine duci
audierat Tyrias olim quae verteret arces.
  • progeniem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <progenies, -> offspring, race -- a race
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but
  • enim -- conjunction; <enim> for, indeed -- indeed
  • Troiano -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <Troianus, Troiana, Troianum> Trojan -- Trojan
  • a -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • sanguine -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <sanguis, sanguinis> blood -- blood
  • duci -- verb; infinitive passive of <dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductum> lead, consider -- would be drawn
  • audierat -- verb; 3rd person singular pluperfect of <audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum> hear -- she had heard
  • Tyrias -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <Tyrius, Tyria, Tyrium> Tyrian -- Tyrian
  • olim -- adverb; <olim> some day -- some
  • quae -- relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • verteret -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive of <vertō, vertere, vertī, versum> turn, overturn -- would overturn
  • arces -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <arx, arcis> citadel, fortress -- citadels

Lesson Text

Arma virumque cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris
Italiam fato profugus Laviniaque venit
Litora -- multum ille et terris jactatus et alto
Vi superum, saevae memorem Junonis ob iram,
Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem
Inferretque deos Latio -- genus unde Latinum
Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae.
Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso
Quidve dolens regina deum tot volvere casus
Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores
Impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?
Urbs antiqua fuit (Tyrii tenuere coloni)
Karthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli.
quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam
posthabita coluisse Samo: hic illius arma,
hic currus fuit; hoc regnum dea gentibus esse,
si qua fata sinant, iam tum tenditque fovetque.
Progeniem sed enim Troiano a sanguine duci
audierat Tyrias olim quae verteret arces.

Translation

I sing of arms and the man, who as first (among the Romans) came from the coasts of Troy to the Lavinian shores in flight driven by fate. Tossed about on lands and the sea by the might of the gods, he suffered many things also in battle through the relentless anger of fierce Juno as he brought the gods to Latium, whence the Latin race and the Alban fathers and also the walls of lofty Rome.
Remind me of the causes, oh Muse, offended for what authority, or angry at what the queen of the gods caused a man outstanding in piety to undergo so many troubles, to suffer so many labors. Are there such angers in the celestial minds?
There was an ancient city (Tyrian colonists maintained it), Carthage, a long way opposite Italy and the mouths of the Tiber, rich in wealth and very fierce in the pursuits of war, which alone Juno is said to have cherished more than all others, even esteeming Samos less. Here were her arms; here, her chariot. This was the ruling power among the races for the goddess, and as the fates permitted, she favored and supported it. But she had heard that a race from Trojan blood would at some time overturn the Tyrian citadels.

Grammar

46 Texts.

As a result of the long and detailed attention, the texts of the Latin authors have been fixed. For example, the texts of the first two lessons are identical in the publication by Mauritius Mueller (Leipzig: Teubner, 1892) and that of the Loeb Classical Library published in 1919 and reprinted numerous times to 1998. And the text of Einhard's biography of Charlemagne was fixed after numerous other editions in that of O. Holder-Egger (Hannover, 1911), which has subsequently been reprinted.

Unless a text with extensive commentary is desired, readers of the Latin texts will do well to use the editions of the Loeb Classical Library, which have the added advantage of including translations. These are readily available from the Harvard University Press (Cambridge, Mass. and London, England). The texts that have been widely read in schools and universities, such as those of Caesar and Virgil, are readily available. They have been published with introductions and commentaries, often also with glossaries. References may be found in catalogues of libraries and publishers.

47 Grammars.

In much the same way, the grammars of Latin are based on long attention. The fullest grammar is that of Manu Leumann, Joh. Bapt. Hofmann and Anton Szantyr, Lateinische Grammatik. I. Laut-und Formenlehre (Munich: Beck, 1977), II. Syntax und Stilistik (Munich: Beck, 1965). For ready reference, most readers will find useful a shorter grammar, such as A Latin Grammar of 1903, by William Gardner Hale and Carl Darling Buck (Tuscaloosa: Alabama University Press, 1966).

For a historical treatment, see the Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, by Carl Darling Buck (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933). A successor is the New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, by Andrew L. Sihler (Oxford: University Press, 1995); it is written like a novel -- no references, no bibliography.

48 Dictionaries.

Dictionaries of various extent are also readily available. A Latin Dictionary, by Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (Oxford University Press, 1956) is extensive. The companion Elementary Latin Dictionary by Lewis (Oxford University Press, 1969) is also comprehensive, and less costly.

49 Specialized handbooks.

As catalogues in libraries and in lists of the concerned publishers indicate, one may readily find handbooks dealing with all aspects of Roman culture and history. Among examples, the Oxford University Press (2001 Evans Road, Cary, NC 27513) has published The Oxford History of the Roman World, eds. John Boardman, Jasper Griffin, Oswyn Murray (2001), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World by the same editors (2001), Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome, by Lesley Adkins and Roy A. Adkins (1998), Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire, by K.R.Bradley (1987), Rome, by M. Rostovtzeff (1960), among many other more specialized works. References works like A Smaller Classical Dictionary, ed. E.H.Blakeney (New ork: Dutton, 1928) provide compact entries on persons, places and things in the Roman and Greek world.

One should not overlook the essays in encyclopedias, such as those in the celebrated 13th edition of the Encyclopedia Brittanica. These deal with various aspects of culture and history.

50 The Legacy of the Roman World.

The Roman world has exerted massive influence on the western world, as its linguistic effects and institutions indicate. An example is Salus Mundi 'welfare or prosperity of the world', the name of the foundation that sponsored the present work. Among many other examples, we may cite Cursor Mundi, the name of an English epic poem of the 13th century that sketches the history of the world according to the Old and New Testaments. Its unidentified author explains the title with the lines:

Cursur of werld man aght it call
For almast it overrennes all.

(Cf. Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 7, p. 650. London: The Encyclopedia Britannica Co., 1926, 13th ed.) Another expression, E pluribus unum -- one out of many -- was selected as characterizing the United States. And Summa cum laude -- with the highest praise -- indicates academic excellence.

James Bradstreet Greenough and George Lyman Kittredge state in their work Words and their Ways in English Speech (New York: Macmillan, 1902) p. 93: "The influence of Latin is not confined to the technical vocabulary. It is felt in almost every sentence that we utter. It pervades the whole system of English speech." A sentence like the first in this section provides ample support for the statement. They also point to the Roman numerals and the symbol &c for Latin et cetera. Moreover, they cite doublets, like reason, ration and ratio, the first of which was taken from the Old French reflex of the Latin word, the second somewhat later from French in military use, and the last directly from Latin in mathematical use.

The institutions are of lesser concern here, but as the linguistic importations indicate, they as well as our clerical, military and educational terms are heavily based on those developed in the Roman world. Such effects indicate excellent reasons for reading Latin texts, as promoted by this series of online lessons.