Baltic Online

Series Introduction

Virginija Vasiliauskiene, Lilita Zalkalns, and Jonathan Slocum

Baltic Peoples

The term 'Baltic' as a common name for Latvian, Lithuanian, and Old Prussian was first used by the German linguist Ferdinand Nesselman in 1845. This name was derived from the Baltic Sea. Lithuanian belongs to the Indo-European family, and is descended from the East Baltic branch. Only Lithuanian and Latvian have survived from this large family. The Baltic, the Slavic, and the Germanic languages have many common traits; there are even more similarities among the Baltic and Slavic languages. These similarities have given rise to various theories: some researchers claim there was a common Balto-Slavic stage after the break-up of the Proto-Indo-European, others consider them to have resulted from convergence.

Archaeological data show that a large part of northeastern Europe, approximately from Moscow to Berlin including the northen part of the Dniepr Basin, was Baltic-speaking territory during the 1st millennia B.C. and A.D. Slavs entered this area later. This territory was covered by near-impenetrable forests and was far from the major migration and more important trade routes. These factors facilitated the preservation of an extremely archaic language family.

Lithuanian Origins and Geographic Location

Lithuanians are first mentioned in historical sources at the beginning of the 11th century. The name "Lithuania" is mentioned for the first time in 1009 A.D. in the Quedlinburgh chronicles ("Annales Quedlinburgenses"), written in Latin as "Litua." A bit later, this name starts appearing in Russian chronicles (Russian "Litva"). From the end of the 12th century, Lithuania is mentioned frequently in source materials of Poland and Germany. The forms of the Slavic tradition (with root i instead of ie) became dominant in German (cf. "Litauen") and Latin (cf. "Lituania").

Researchers tend to localize the ethnographic Lithuanian teritory in the area between the Neris, Nemunas, and Merkys rivers. The name Zemaitish (from the word žẽmas 'low') was given to the territory in the central lowlands of present-day ethnographic Lithuania; it was also used later for the former Curonian lands that had been Lithuanianized, up to the Baltic Sea. The Curonian substratum had a particularly distinct influence on the formation of the current Samogitian (Zemaitish) dialect. In contrast to the Zemaitish, the Lithuanians who lived to the east were given the name Aukstaitish (from the word áukštas 'high'). The Lithuanian boundaries with both the West (Prussians and Yotvingians) and East Balts (Curonians, Semigallians, Selonians and Latgallians) were unstable. Some of those living in closer areas were Lithuanianized.

The West Baltic teritories were conquered by the Teutonic Knights in the 13th century. Lithuania, united under Mindaugas (1236-1263), stopped the German assault in the Baltic area; however, fierce battles continued between the Lithuanians and the Teutonic Order in this region for almost two hundred years. The union with Poland in 1386 was very important in breaking down the power of the Teutonic Knights. 1387 is considered the official date of adopting Christianity from Poland because, after King Mindaugas' death, Lithuanians had reverted to paganism.

Lithuanians had begun expanding to the East in the second half of the 12th century. A very large region of East Slavs, up to the Black Sea, was incorporated into the multinational Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The chancellory language of Lithuania was based on an Eastern Slavic language, which can be considered as the predecessor of Balatarusian.

After the Union of Lithuania and Poland in 1569, the Polish language became dominant in the Zeczpospolita (a common Polish-Lithuanian state). Russification in the 19th century was very strong in Lithuania, as Lithuanians were Roman Catholics. At the end of 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, the reformation and standardization of Lithuanian was established.

Lithuanian Background

Lithuanian tribes on the left bank of the Nẽmunas were under German rule for about 700 years. In the beginning the largest Lithuanian river, the Nẽmunas, separated them from other Lithuanians. After that, government boundaries and religion began to separate them. In the year 1525 the Order of the Knights of the Cross was disbanded; its last grand master Albrecht accepted Protestantism and created the secular Prussian duchy. An attempt was made to incorporate the Lithuanians living there into the state, and to separate them from both the religious and the cultural point of view from the other Lithuanians who lived in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and who had remained Catholics. The Lithuanians living in these two areas even called themselves by different names: those in Lithuania Minor (i.e., in the Lithuanian lands of Prussia) called themselves lietùvninkai, and those in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania called themselves lietùviai.

With the goal of consolidating Protestantism and extending its influence to neighboring countries, the government of the Grand Duchy of Prussia in the middle of the 16th century was very interested in the preparation and the publication of religious texts. The better educated and more talented pastors were empowered to prepare the most essential religious literature in the local languages. The work begun by the author of the first Lithuanian book, Martynas Mazvydas (Mosvidius), and his cousin Baltramiejus Vilentas, was continued at the end of the 16th century by Jonas Bretkunas. As a result of the quantity and quality of religious writings prepared by him, he became the most famous Lithuanian author in East Prussia. In addition to collections of hymns and sermons, he was the first to translate, in the course of 12 years, the entire Bible into Lithuanian.

The 17th century witnessed a continuation of this collective tradition of producing religious works in East Prussia, as well as linguistic works exemplified by the first Lithuanian grammar, published by Daniel Klein in 1653.

The 18th century was a time when Lithuanian culture and literature flourished in East Prussia. Here for the first time the pastor Mýkolas Mèrlinas began a linguistic program with other pastors on the kind of language to use with the common people. His followers began to gather and publish Lithuanian folklore and folk songs in their linguistic tracts, grammars and dictionaries. In the middle of the 18th century the first complete translation of the Bible into Lithuanian was published, new editions of hymns were prepared, even several grammars and dictionaries. The German poet Goethe was charmed by the beauty and the poetry of the Lithuanian folk songs published in linguistic works. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was persuaded to affirm the significance of the Lithuanian language and culture for East Prussia; he wrote the foreword to a Lithuanian grammar. When later, in the 19th century, the Lithuanian language became an object of unusual interest to Indo-Europeanists, they could rely partially on linguistic studies of the previous century. In East Prussia the first original belles-lettres work, The Seasons was written by Kristijõnas Doneláitis; this work belongs to the golden inheritance of world literature. When political conditions became unfavorable to Lithuanian culture in Lithuania Major, and when later they lost their statehood (1797), Prusssian Lithuanians published Lithuanian grammars and dictionaries, created belles-lettres, and investigated their language, folklore, and mythology.

Following an unsuccessful uprising against Tsarist Russia in 1863, Lithuanians were forbidden to use the Latin alphabet in their written documents. The Tsarist Russian government required that all Lithuanian publications be printed in the Cyrillic alphabet. Therefore during this complicated period books written with the Latin alphabet began to be published in East Prussia and delivered to Lithuania from there. The initiator and supporter of this work is thought to be the Samogitian bishop, Motiejus Valancius. Later activists of the Lithuanian revival used the path which he had prepared, organizing here the publication of the first Lithuanian newspapers. Almost two decades after the uprising, and with the advent of a new generation, plans for the restoration of the Lithuanian government began to be raised, but this time not on the basis of the Zeczpospolita (a common Polish-Lithuanian state), but on a national basis. However, on the basis of nationality, a significant portion of the cultural heritage, which in the course of several centuries had been created in the multinational Lithuanian grand duchy, was frequently rejected because it might have undergone foreign influence or was written in some language other than Lithuanian.

One of the most important signs of the national spring time in Eastern Europe was the revival of the native language and a promotion of its importance. Activists of the Lithuanian national revival in the first newspapers Ausra 'Dawn' (1883-1886) and Varpas 'Bell' also began to publish ideas about the revival of the Lithuanian language and the creation of a new standard language. In the language of the documents of that time there were many dialect forms and Polonisms. The most active segment of society was no longer satisfied with the tradition of the written language reaching back to the beginning of the 17th century, which reflected the epoch of a common Lithuanian and Polish state. The West Aukshtaitish dialect became the basis of the new standard language. This was close to the written language used in East Prussia. Having considerable influence on the choice of this dialect was the fact that this variant of the written language was the most thoroughly investigated and was described in the grammars by August Schleicher and Friedrich Kurschat.

Linguistic work to codify the norms of standard Lithuanian was initiated at the end of the 19th century and carried into the 20th by the linguists Kazìmieras Būgà and Jõnas Jablònskis, with their linguistic works and articles in the press, as well as by other Lithuanian cultural activists and writers who helped enrich the language. During this period, use was made not only of the living language, as by Jablònskis, but but also of developmental characteristics of the standard language, correct usage, and the specifics of different styles. An important contribution in this work was made by the Lithuanian Language Society and the journal Gimtóji kalbà 'Native Language'.

Immediately after World War I, a great misfortune befell Lithuanian linguistics. With the death of the outstanding Lithuanian linguist Kazìmieras Būgà, Lithuanian linguistic science collapsed. At the University of Kaunas there was no one to teach the linguistic disciplines, so Alfred Senn and Franz Brender were brought in from Switzerland. Not until 1930, when Prãnas Skar̃džius and Antãnas Salỹs had completed their studies in Germany and returned to Lithuania, was the the renaissance of Lithuanian linguistics to begin.

In 1923 Lithuania Minor was divided into two parts: the Klaĩpėda region fell to Lithuania, and East Prussia remained in German control. Lithuanians in the Klaĩpėda region always emphasized their language, cultural and religious differences from the rest of Lithuania, and did not call themselves Samogitians (žemaĩčiai) even though they were representatives of that dialect. Retaining the tradition of Lithuania Minor, they still used the Gothic script, especially in religious writings. They didn't want to hear anything about language reform and the replacement of traditional borrowings with Lithuanian words, processes that were taking place in the rest of Lithuania. For them, the greatest authorities in language were Frìdrichas Kuršáitis (F. Kurschat) and August Schleicher.

In the years before World War II, a great deal was accomplished in the Republic of Lithuania: terminology was created for various fields; separate language styles were established; orthography, vocabulary, accentuation, place names and family names were normalized; dialect data, data for a thesaurus-type dictionary, etc., were gathered. These activities later helped Lithuania hold out during the Soviet occupation and even in some instances to continue, for better or worse, work that had begun in earlier years, such as the publication of a large standard explanatory dictionary. Lithuania is now one of the states of the European Union.

Latvian Origins, Geographic Location, and Background

About the end of the first millenium A.D., the territory known today as Latvia was populated by four Baltic tribes: the Curonians in the west, the Semigallians in the south and the Selonians and Lettgallians in the central and eastern parts of the land. The Livs, a Finnish-Ugric tribe, lived on a stretch of land extending around the Bay of Riga and up into what today is southern Estonia.

Priests travelling with the Vikings from Scandinavia in the 9th and 10th centuries first introduced Christianity to the Baltic tribes populating the western and southern parts of present day Latvia. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Orthodox teachings, via Old Russian, were spread to the inhabitants living in the eastern and central parts. No written legacies of the languages spoken in this area during this period have been found, though archeologists speculate about the possibility that some type of runic writing system borrowed from the Scandinavians may have been used. Borrowed words in use today, which reflect this early Old Russian influence on the Latvian language, include for example baznīca 'church', grāmata 'book', svece 'candle', svēts 'holy', and zvans 'bell'.

The first written document in which Latvia is mentioned is in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia (Henrici Chronikon Lyvoniae), written in Latin by Henricus Lettus in 1225/26, with a supplement in 1227. The chronicle tells the story of how the Augustinian monk Meinhard, together with crusaders and tradesmen from Germany, sailed up the river Daugava in 1196 to begin the christianization of the pagan Baltic tribes. Henricus Lettus, as his name implies, used the Latinate names of "Lettigallia" and "Lethia," derived from the Lettgallian tribe, to designate the territory of present-day Latvia. This root is still found in the older designation for the Latvian language as "Lettish," and in the German name for Latvia as "Lettland."

After a century of warfare the pagan tribes lost their independence, and by the end of the 13th century they were completely subjugated to the German-led Livonian Order and the Catholic Church. Over the next few centuries, major differences in tribal language and culture gradually disappeared, and by the 16th century the Semigallian and Lettgallian languages had formed the basis for a more or less unified spoken Latvian language.

The Livs, who lived along the Daugava and Gauja rivers and spoke a Finno-Ugric language, were the first to be quelled by the colonizing Germans. Their name was taken over as the name for Livonia, the German dominated confederation which fell in the 16th century and which roughly corresponds to Latvia and Estonia of today. About a hundred Livian speakers have survived to the present, and in the 20th century they lived mainly in the Curonian fishing villages on the coast of the Baltic Sea between Kolka and Mazirbe. The influence of Livian is found especially in the Tamnieku dialect, one of the three major dialects of modern Latvian. The other two dialects are High Latvian, which is spoken in the east, and Central Latvian, spoken in the area between Tamnieku to the west and High Latvian to the east.

In the 16th century, German-speaking clergymen began to translate hymnals, agendas, liturgies, prayerbooks and fragments of the Bible into the Latvian language. The oldest preserved printed texts are the Catholic Catechism (tr. 1585) and the Lutheran Handbook (Catechism, pericopes and psalm book, tr. 1586/87).

Because the clergymen were not native speakers and because they were bound by rigid translation conventions -- which dictated word to word translation of Christian texts in order to rule out the possibility of sacrilege -- the resulting Early Written Latvian (EWL) was quite different from the natural spoken language. EWL is characterized by an overabundance of German grammatical forms and constructions. A striking example of German influence from this period is the introduction of the conjunction un 'and' into written Latvian, a loan from German und.

Georgius Mancelius (1593-1654), the former dean of Tartu University and court priest, introduced extensive corrections to the earlier forms of EWL in his many publications, and is generally regarded as having set the groundwork for modern Latvian literary language. A milestone in the standardization of written Latvian was the translation of the Bible (published 1685-1694), which promoted the use of the Central Latvian dialect as the basis for standard Latvian. This Bible translation also indirectly provided for the use of the Central Latvian dialect as the basis for colloquial Latvian by the Latvian people, as this was the one standard work that was distributed to the major parishes as part of their inventory.

Along with the ideas of the Enlightenment, a new direction toward secular Latvian literature was introduced by another German clergyman, Gothard Friedrich Stender (1714-1796). Interest in the presumed simple and natural life of the "native peoples" and their folklore was expressed by German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803), who published eleven Latvian folk songs in German translation in his two volume book Alte Volkslieder (Old Folk Songs, 1778-1779).

After the end of the Swedish-Polish war in 1629, the eastern region of Latvia, today called Latgale, was for a few hundred years under different administrative jurisdiction than the rest of Latvia (first Polish/Lithuanian, then Russian). This, coupled with the fact that the majority of Latgalians were Catholics as opposed to the Lutherans living in central and western Latvia, led to the development of a distinct spoken language or dialect and a different writing tradition. The first book in Latgalian, Evangelia toto anno (The Evangelical Year), was published in 1753. A heavy blow to the region's intellectual development was the ban on the use of the Latin alphabet between 1861 and 1904. By the forced use of the Cyrillic alphabet, the Russian administration hoped to convert the Latgalians to the Orthodox belief and turn them away from Roman Catholicism. However, the attempts to separate Latgale from the rest of Latvia and to eradicate its writing tradition were not successful. Today Latgalian is the main language spoken in Latgale, and the region's cultural development is supported by the European Union.

Parallel to the written tradition dominated by the Baltic Germans, the Latvian peasantry kept up its oral tradition of telling tales and singing folk songs. The first ethnic Latvian authors (i.e. whose first language was Latvian) were published in the early 19th century, and the beginnings of Modern Standard Latvian were established with the advent of the National Awakening in the 1850s. In the late 1860s, leading Latvian intellectuals discussed the necessity of recording their nation's folklore before the oral tradition was lost. Krišjānis Barons (1835-1923), a mathematician and astronomer turned folklorist, succeeded in collecting and systematizing almost a quarter of a million dainas (short folk songs), which were published in eight volumes between 1900 and 1915.

By the time Latvia's independence was declared in 1918, a fully functional Modern Standard Latvian (MSL) had developed in both written and spoken form. During the first period of Latvian independence (1918-1939), Latvian was the country's primary language, and continual attention was given to questions concerning orthography, style and terminology, as well as documentation and research of dialects, folklore, etc.

During the Soviet occupation of Latvia (1945-1991), the Latvian language had a secondary position, but the passing of the Latvian Language Law of 1989 and the renewal of Latvian independence in 1991 gave Latvian the status of the official State Language of Latvia. Today, the National Language Commission and the State Language Agency continues work in promoting the status of Latvian in Latvia, and advanced research in Latvian is carried out at the many higher education institutes including the Latvian Language Institute at the University of Latvia.

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Baltic Online

Lesson 1: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

One of the most distinguished Lithuanian poets and playwrights of the second half of the 20th century, Justìnas Marcinkevičius has chosen as the basis of many of his works the most prominent cultural phenomena of the Lithuanian nation and, the most significant events of its history. The heroes of his dramas and poems are the first king of Lithuania, King Miñdaugas, the author of the first Lithuanian book, Martýnas Mãžvydas, the most famous writer, Kristijõnas Doneláitis, and the author of the first history of Lithuania, Sìmonas Daũkantas.

In his works, Justìnas Marcinkẽvičius gives meaning to the national culture (the birth of the state, writing, art and science) as a condition for the survival of the nation. Lithuanians do not have a heroic epic as do many other European nations. Thus the poems and plays of this writer have become a special national epic about the fundamental elements out of which Lithuania developed and from which Lithuania began.

Marcinkẽvičius is considered one of the most vivid stimulators of national consciousness and a supporter of passive resistance during the years of Soviet occupation. In his words, by using language, especially written, a nation enhances its existence and its self-consciousness.

Reading and Textual Analysis

In the selection given from Justínas Marcinkẽvičiuš book of essays, "The unity of the flowing river" (1994), there is a discussion of the first Lithuanian book, Martýnas Mãžvydaš catechism. This selection reflects the difficulty of the establishment of the Lithuanian language in its own country. In it the meaning of the book for all mankind is stressed. Marcinkẽvicius also points out some of the important characteristics of the preface of the first Lithuanian book -- its rhymed form and the use of personification. In his preface the readers are addressed with these words: "Brothers and sisters, take me and read (me) ..." In this statement it is possible to find several orthographic and phonetic features characteristic of the Old Lithuanian language, the lack of the marking of the long vowel y in the word sẽseris, the use of the Indo-European long a in place of the long o of the contemporary Lithuanian language (cf. brálei and bróliai), etc.

The language of the Old Lithuanian writings will be discussed at greater length in lessons 5-7.

"Brálei, sẽseris im̃kiet màni ir̃ skaitíkiet..."
  • brálei -- noun, masculine; vocative plural of <brólis> brother -- brothers
  • sẽseris -- noun, feminine; vocative plural of <sesuõ> sister -- sisters
  • im̃kiet -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <im̃ti, ìma, ė̃mė> begin, start -- take
  • màni -- pronoun; accusative singular of <àš> I -- me
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • skaitíkiet -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <skaitýti, skaĩto, skaĩtė> read -- read (me)

Ìš didelė̃s méilės, viltiẽs ir̃ tikė́jimo kỹla tokiẽ žõdžiai, rẽtas Lietuvojè jų̃ nežìno, neskaĩtė ar̃ negirdė́jo.
  • ìš -- preposition; <ìš> from -- from
  • didelė̃s -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <dìdelis, dìdelė> great, large -- great
  • méilės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <méilė> love -- love
  • viltiẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <viltìs> hope -- hope
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • tikė́jimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <tikė́jimas> faith -- faith
  • kỹla -- verb; 3rd person present of <kìlti, kỹla, kìlo> arise -- arise
  • tokiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <tóks, tokià> such -- such
  • žõdžiai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <žõdis> word -- words
  • rẽtas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine, of <rẽtas, retà> rare -- rare (man)
  • Lietuvojè -- proper noun, feminine; locative singular of <Lietuvà> Lithuania -- in Lithuania
  • jų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- them
  • nežìno -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person present of <žinóti, žìno, žinójo> know -- does not know
  • neskaĩtė -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person preterit of <skaitýti, skaĩto, skaĩtė> read -- has not read
  • ar̃ -- conjunction; <ar̃> if, or -- or
  • negirdė́jo -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person preterit of <girdė́ti, gir̃di, girdė́jo> hear -- has not heard

Ìš tolimõs praeitiẽs ataĩdi jiẽ lìgi šių̃ dienų̃.
  • ìš -- preposition; <ìš> from -- from
  • tolimõs -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <tólimas, tolimà> distant -- distant
  • praeitiẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <praeitìs> past -- the past
  • ataĩdi -- verb; 3rd person present of <ataidė́ti, ataĩdi, ataidė́jo> echo -- echo
  • jiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- they
  • lìgi -- preposition; <lìgi> until -- until
  • šių̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <šìs, šì> this -- these
  • dienų̃ -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <dienà> day -- days

Užsižiẽbę istòrijos tamsojè, jiẽ nùšvietė erškėčiúotą lietùviško žõdžio kẽlią ir̃ lýg pìrmas naujãgimio klỹksmas prànešė pasáuliui, kàd gìmė rãštas, gìmė pirmóji lietùviška knygà.
  • užsižiẽbę -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <užsižiẽbti, užsižiẽbia, užsìžiebė> flash -- have flashed
  • istòrijos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <istòrija> history -- of history
  • tamsojè -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <tamsà> darkness -- in the darkness
  • jiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- they
  • nùšvietė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <nušviẽsti, nušviẽčia, nùšvietė> light -- have lighted
  • erškėčiúotą -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <erškėčiúotas, erškėčiúota> thorny -- thorny
  • lietùviško -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <lietùviškas, lietùviška> Lithuanian -- of Lithuanian
  • žõdžio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <žõdis> word -- the word
  • kẽlią -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kė̃lias> path -- the path
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- like
  • pìrmas -- number; nominative singular masculine of <pìrmas, pirmà> first -- the first
  • naujãgimio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <naujãgimis> new-born -- of the new-born
  • klỹksmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <klỹksmas> cry, scream -- cry
  • prànešė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pranèšti, pràneša, prànešė> announce, inform -- have announced
  • pasáuliui -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <pasáulis> world -- to the world
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • gìmė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <gìmti, gìmsta, gìmė> be born -- has been born
  • rãštas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <rãštas> writing -- writing
  • gìmė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <gìmti, gìmsta, gìmė> be born -- has been born
  • pirmóji -- definite number; nominative singular feminine of <pìrmas, pirmà> first -- the first
  • lietùviška -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <lietùviškas, lietùviška> Lithuanian -- Lithuanian
  • knygà -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <knygà> book -- book

Taĩ įvỹko, kaĩp atspáusta titulìniame jõs pùslapyje, tū́kstantis penkì šimtaĩ kẽturiasdešimt septintų̃ mẽtų saũsio aštuñtą diẽną.
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • įvỹko -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <įṽykti, įvỹksta, įvỹko> happen -- happened
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • atspáusta -- verb; neuter of preterit participle passive of <atspáusti, atspáudžia, atspáudė> print -- printed
  • titulìniame -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <titulìnis, titulìnė> title -- title
  • jõs -- pronoun; pronoun <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- its
  • pùslapyje -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <pùslapis> page -- on the page
  • tū́kstantis -- number; nominative singular of <tū́kstantis> thousand -- one thousand
  • penkì -- number; nominative masculine of <penkì, peñkios> five -- five
  • šimtaĩ -- number; nominative plural of <šim̃tas> hundred -- hundred
  • kẽturiasdešimt -- number; <kẽturiasdešimt> forty -- forty
  • septintų̃ -- number; genitive plural masculine of <septiñtas, septintà> seventh -- seven
  • mẽtų -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <mẽtai> year -- in the year
  • saũsio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <saũsis> January -- of January
  • aštuñtą -- number; accusative singular feminine of <aštuñtas, aštuntà> eighth -- on the eighth
  • diẽną -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <dienà> day -- ...

Knỹgos atėjìmą pàs žmónes galė́tumėm prilýginti Prometė́jo žỹgdarbiui - diẽviškosios ugniẽs pagrobìmui, jõs išdalìjimui žmonė́ms.
  • knỹgos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <knygà> book -- of a book
  • atėjìmą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <atėjìmas> arrival, coming -- the arrival
  • pàs -- preposition; <pàs> at, to -- among
  • žmónes -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <žmónės> people -- men
  • galė́tumėm -- verb; 1st person plural subjunctive of <galė́ti, gãli, galė́jo> can -- we could
  • prilýginti -- verb; infinitive of <prilýginti, prilýgina, prilýgino> compare -- compare with
  • Prometė́jo -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Prometė́jas> Prometheus -- of Prometheus
  • žỹgdarbiui -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <žỹgdarbis> deed, feat -- the deed
  • diẽviškosios -- definite adjective; genitive singular feminine of <diẽviškas, diẽviška> divine -- divine
  • ugniẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ugnìs> fire -- of the fire
  • pagrobìmui -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <pagrobìmas> steal -- the stealing
  • jõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- (and) its
  • išdalìjimui -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <išdalìjimas> distribution -- distribution
  • žmonė́ms -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <žmónės> people -- to men

Sù knygà põ žẽmę ė̃mė sklìsti šviesà ir̃ šilumà, jì nè sỹkį gýnė žmõgų nuõ tamsõs ir̃ mẽlo žvėriũ, šìldė sugrùbusią jõ síelą, žãdino miñtį, skãtino veĩklai ir̃ kūrýbai.
  • -- preposition; <sù> with -- with
  • knygà -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <knygà> book -- a book
  • -- preposition; <põ> after, over, on -- over
  • žẽmę -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <žẽmė> earth -- the earth
  • ė̃mė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <im̃ti, ìma, ė̃mė> begin, start -- began
  • sklìsti -- verb; infinitive of <sklìsti, skliñda, sklìdo> spread -- to spread
  • šviesà -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <šviesà> light -- light
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • šilumà -- noun, feminine; nominative singular <šilumà> warmth -- warmth
  • -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- not
  • sỹkį -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <sỹkis> once -- once
  • gýnė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <gìnti, gìna, gýnė> defend -- defended
  • žmõgų -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <žmogùs> human being, person -- man
  • nuõ -- preposition; <nuõ> from -- from
  • tamsõs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <tamsà> darkness -- of darkness
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • mẽlo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <mẽlas> falsehood -- of falsehood
  • žvėriũ -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <žvėrìs> beast -- the beasts
  • šìldė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <šìldyti, šìldo, šìldė> warm -- it warmed
  • sugrùbusią -- verb; accusative singular feminine of preterit participle active of <sugrùbti, sugrum̃ba, sugrùbo> numb -- benumbed
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • síelą -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <síela> soul -- soul
  • žãdino -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <žãdinti, žãdina, žãdino> awake -- awakened
  • miñtį -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <mintìs> thought -- thought
  • skãtino -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <skãtinti, skãtina, skãtino> encourage, induce -- encouraged
  • veĩklai -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <veiklà> activity -- activity
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • kūrýbai -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <kūrýba> creativity -- creativity

Taĩgi knygà prabỹla lietùviškai, ir̃ nè bèt kaĩp, õ eiliúotai.
  • taĩgi -- conjunction; <taĩgi> thus -- thus
  • knygà -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <knygà> book -- the book
  • prabỹla -- verb; 3rd person present of <prabìlti, prabỹla, prabìlo> speak -- speaks
  • lietùviškai -- adverb; <lietùviškai> Lithuanian -- (in) Lithuanian
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- not
  • bèt kaĩp -- adverb; <bèt kaĩp> anyhow -- any kind
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- but
  • eiliúotai -- adverb; <eiliúotai> rhyme -- rhymed

Jõs áutorius, supràsdamas momeñto iškilmingùmą, pačiõs knỹgos vardù įtaigiaĩ kreĩpiasi į̃ skaitýtojus, pranèšdamas jíems, jóg taĩ, kõ tėvaĩ ir̃ prótėviai neregė́jo,- dabar̃ štaĩ ateĩna.
  • jõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- its
  • áutorius -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <áutorius> author -- author
  • supràsdamas -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <supràsti, suprañta, suprãto> understand -- understanding
  • momeñto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <momeñtas> moment -- of the moment
  • iškilmingùmą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <iškilmingùmas> solemnity -- the solemnity
  • pačiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <pàts, patì> itself -- itself
  • knỹgos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <knygà> book -- of the book
  • vardù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <var̃das> name -- in the name
  • įtaigiaĩ -- adverb; <įtaigiaĩ> suggestively -- suggestively
  • kreĩpiasi -- verb; 3rd person present reflexive of <kreĩptis, kreĩpiasi, kreĩpėsi> address -- addresses himself
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • skaitýtojus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <skaitýtojas> reader -- the readers
  • pranèšdamas -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <pranèšti, pràneša, prànešė> announce, inform -- announcing
  • jíems -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- to them
  • jóg -- conjunction; <jóg> that -- that
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- all that
  • -- pronoun; genitive of <kàs> which, what -- which
  • tėvaĩ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <tėvaĩ> parent -- their fathers
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • prótėviai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <prótėvis> ancestor -- forefathers
  • neregė́jo -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person preterit of <regė́ti, rẽgi, regė́jo> see -- had never seen
  • dabar̃ -- adverb; <dabar̃> now -- now
  • štaĩ -- particle; <štaĩ> here -- here
  • ateĩna -- verb; 3rd person present of <ateĩti, ateĩna, atė̃jo> come -- is at hand

Lesson Text

"Brálei, sẽseris im̃kiet màni ir̃ skaitíkiet..." Ìš didelė̃s méilės, viltiẽs ir̃ tikė́jimo kỹla tokiẽ žõdžiai, rẽtas Lietuvojè jų̃ nežìno, neskaĩtė ar̃ negirdė́jo. Ìš tolimõs praeitiẽs ataĩdi jiẽ lìgi šių̃ dienų̃. Užsižiẽbę istòrijos tamsojè, jiẽ nùšvietė erškėčiúotą lietùviško žõdžio kẽlią ir̃ lýg pìrmas naujãgimio klỹksmas prànešė pasáuliui, kàd gìmė rãštas, gìmė pirmóji lietùviška knygà. Taĩ įvỹko, kaĩp atspáusta titulìniame jõs pùslapyje, tū́kstantis penkì šimtaĩ kẽturiasdešimt septintų̃ mẽtų saũsio aštuñtą diẽną. Knỹgos atėjìmą pàs žmónes galė́tumėm prilýginti Prometė́jo žỹgdarbiui - diẽviškosios ugniẽs pagrobìmui, jõs išdalìjimui žmonė́ms. Sù knygà põ žẽmę ė̃mė sklìsti šviesà ir̃ šilumà, jì nè sỹkį gýnė žmõgų nuõ tamsõs ir̃ mẽlo žvėriũ, šìldė sugrùbusią jõ síelą, žãdino miñtį, skãtino veĩklai ir̃ kūrýbai. Taĩgi knygà prabỹla lietùviškai, ir̃ nè bèt kaĩp, õ eiliúotai. Jõs áutorius, supràsdamas momeñto iškilmingùmą, pačiõs knỹgos vardù įtaigiaĩ kreĩpiasi į̃ skaitýtojus, pranèšdamas jíems, jóg taĩ, kõ tėvaĩ ir̃ prótėviai neregė́jo,- dabar̃ štaĩ ateĩna.

Translation

"Brothers and sisters, take me and read (me) ..." Such words arise from great love, hope and faith and (it is) a rare Lithuanian (who) does not know, has not read or has not heard them. They echo from the distant past until today. Having flashed bright in the darkness of history, they have lighted the thorny path of Lithuanian literature (the word) and like the first cry of the new-born have announced to the world that writing has been born that the first Lithuanian book has been born. That happened, as printed on the title page on the eighth of January in the year one thousand five hundred and forty-seven.
We could compare the arrival of a book among men with the heroic deed of Prometheus, the stealing of the divine fire and its distribution to men. With a book light and warmth began to spread over the earth, not once (but many times) it defended man from the beasts of darkness and falsehood, it warmed his benumbed soul, awakened thought, encouraged activity and creativity.
Thus the book speaks Lithuanian, and not any kind, but rhymed. Its author, understanding the solemnity of the moment, in the name of the book itself, addresses himself suggestively to the readers announcing to them that all that which their fathers and forefathers had never seen, is now at hand.

Grammar

1 The Alphabet

The present-day Lithuanian alphabet took shape in the early 20th century. It developed from the Latin alphabet under the influence of the writing systems of such languages as Polish, German and Czech. The first Lithuanian alphabet was presented in the first printed Lithuanian book, the catechism by Martýnas Mãžvydas.

Today the Lithuanian alphabet consists of 32 letters: 20 consonants and 12 vowels --

    a   ą   b   c   č   d   e   ę   ė   f   g   h   i   į   y   j
    k   l   m   n   o   p   r   s   š   t   u   ų   ū   v   z   ž

Among the differences between the Lithuanian and English alphabets are 4 additional letters:

  • š = sh (as in 'push');
  • ž = zh (as in 'pleasure');
  • č = ch (as in 'check');
  • ė = eh (as in German 'Ehre').

Also, "nasal" letters ą, ę, į, ų are used. In the 16th and 17th centuries they represented long nasalized vowels. Now the diacritic below a letter denotes a long oral vowel, e.g., skų́sti 'to complain about', and may differentiate one grammatical form from another, e.g., accusative singular žõdį 'a word' vs. locative singular žõdy 'in the word'.

1.1 Vowels

The Lithuanian vowels are pronounced as they are in Latin. The letters į and y always denote a long vowel as in English 'be' and ų and ū as in English 'moon'. The letter a denotes a short vowel when stressed with the grave accent, or unstressed (as in English 'box'), but it is always long when under the circumflex accent, e.g., nãmas. It is similar to the English long vowel in 'calm'. ą always denotes a long vowel: acc.sg. diẽną 'day'. e denotes a long vowel when under the circumflex accent, e.g., sẽnas 'old' (as in English 'man'). It can also denote a short vowel (mostly in stressed final and unstressed syllable): loc.sg. kiemè 'in the yard', nom. sg. vedė́jas 'manager', nèšti 'to carry'. It is similar to the English short vowel in 'let'. In borrowings e is shorter and narrower, e.g., ètika 'ethics'. ę always denotes a long vowel: acc.sg. žẽmę 'earth'. ė always denotes a long vowel (close to English 'yeah'), e.g., gėlė̃ 'flower'. i and u denote short vowels (as in English 'sit' and 'book'): mìškas 'forest', bùtas 'apartment'. o denotes a long vowel (as in English 'bought'): nósis 'nose'. In some borrowings, however, it denotes a short vowel, e.g., tònas 'tone' (as in English 'brawny').

1.2 Consonants

The letter j corresponds to the English 'y' (as in 'yet'). The articulation of Lithuanian consonants differs from that of English consonants. Lithuanian consonants are pronounced with the speech organs relatively relaxed. No Lithuanian consonant is aspirated like English 'p', 't', 'k'. The Lithuanian r is rolled as in Spanish.

Consonants have two variants, one hard or unpalatalized and the other soft or palatalized, the only exception being j. Consonants are always soft before front vowels: rẽtas 'rare'. This feature is not marked in writing in any other way. Consonants that occur before back vowels may be hard or soft, e.g., rãtas 'wheel', siū́las 'thread'. The front vowel letter i before back vowels denotes palatalization; the letter does not stand for a separate sound, but marks palatalized consonants only, e.g., gen.pl. žvėrių̃ 'wild animals', žãlias 'green'. Palatalized t and d become č and when they occur before back vowels, cf. nom.pl. kãtės 'cats' and gen.pl. kačių̃ 'of cats', nom.sg. mẽdis 'tree' and gen.sg. mẽdžio 'of tree'.

Although the feature of palatalization occurs simultaneously with the pronunciation of the consonant, to the American ear the effect is that of a 'y' sound following the consonant. In the beginning of native Lithuanian words and in international words j is commonly pronounced, but not written, e.g., ieškóti 'to search', variántas 'variant' The letters f, ch, h occur only in recent loanwords.

1.3 Other Notes

Some sounds are represented by digraphs: ch (as in the Scottish pronunciation of 'loch'), dz (as in 'adz'), ('g' as in 'age').

In scholarly and teaching texts, diacritics indicate word stress and syllable intonation. There are three stress marks: the grave, as in à; the acute, as in é; and the circumflex, as in ĩ. The stress is not fixed in Lithuanian, and may fall on any syllable of the word. The stressed syllable can be short (with a short vowel) or long (with a long vowel or a diphthong).

The manner of pronouncing a long stressed syllable is called intonation. Two types of intonation can be distinguished: falling (acute) or rising (circumflex). Falling intonation is usually marked by the acute on a long vowel or by the grave on the first element of the diphthongs ùi, ìl, ìm, ìn, ìr, ùl, ùm, ùn, ùr, e.g., brólis 'brother', méilė 'love', výras 'man', pìrmas 'the first', kùmštis 'fist'.

Rising intonation is marked by the circumflex on a long vowel or on the second element of a diphthong, e.g., žõdis 'word', vỹnas 'wine', var̃das 'a name', šim̃tas 'hundred', saũsas 'dry'.

Short stressed syllables are always marked by the grave on the vowel, e.g., dìdelis 'big', pùsė 'half'. Intonation helps to distinguish words otherwise having the same sound structure, e.g., imper. šáuk, 'fire, shoot' and šaũk 'cry, shout', áušta 'it cools' and aũšta 'dawn is breaking'.

2 The Sound System

Sounds in Lithuanian may be divided into vowels and consonants. The sounds may be arranged in tables according to their articulation. Vowels can be classified as follows:

    Short Front   Short Back   Long Front   Long Back
High   i   u   i   u
Middle   (e)   (o)   ė   o
Low   e   a   e   a

Vowels make up about one-third of all the sounds used in speech. Under similar circumstances, the long vowels are twice as long as the short ones and in stressed position they are articulated more clearly.

o and u are rounded vowels. In their production, the lips are spread somewhat sideways but not protruded, e.g., ùpė 'river', ožỹs 'goat'. Short mid vowels o, e occur in words of foreign origin: poètas'poet', òpera, 'opera'. In the diagram above they are given in parentheses because they are not equivalent to the corresponding long vowels o, ė. They are considered peripheral members of the Lithuanian vowel system.

The table below lists consonant sounds:

    Voiceless   Voiced
Plosives   p   b
    t   d
    k   g
Sibilants   s   z
    š   ž
    ch   h
    f    
Sonorants       v
        j
        m
        n
        l
        r

All the consonants except palatal j can be contrasted as being either palatalized or unpalatalized. As was already mentioned above, palatalization before back vowels is indicated by the letter i. If a consonant of a cluster is palatalized, the immediatelly preceding consonant will also be palatalized, e.g. ram̃stis 'prop', penkì 'five'.

The affricates c (t + s), dz (d + z), č (t + š), (d + ž) are composite sounds. They may also be either hard or soft: giñčas 'argument', čiùpti 'to snatch'.

Voiced consonants occurring in final position are devoiced, e.g., kàd 'that', daũg 'much, many'. English voiced consonants are not devoiced in word-final position. Lithuanian consonants may be subject to assimilation. The main rules of assimilation are:

  • a voiced consonant followed by a voiceless one becomes voiceless, e.g., darbštùs 'industrious', žiñgsnis 'step' (in these examples the b is pronounced like p, and the g like k),
  • a voiceless consonant followed by a voiced one becomes voiced, e.g., kasdiẽn 'every day', išbė́gti 'to run out' (in these examples the s is pronounced like z, and the š like ž).

Assimilation of consonants in Lithuanian differs from that in English. In Lithuanian geminate consonants are simplified to a single consonant, e.g., pùsseserė '(she) cousin', iššókti 'jump out'.

3 Noun Inflection

Nouns in Lithuanian are inflected to show their relations with other words and their function in the sentence. Endings play a very important role. They mark number, case and (usually) the gender of the noun.

For the most part a noun is masculine or feminine. For nouns denoting living beings natural gender is common, i. e., the gender of the noun is determined by the sex of the living being referred to: arklỹs 'horse' is masculine and kárvė 'cow' is feminine. The gender of nouns denoting inanimate things is usually indicated by case endings: masc. stógas 'roof', fem. žiemà 'winter'.

Contemporary Lithuanian has two numbers, singular and plural, which are indicated by endings. Some nouns in Lithuanian cannot change their number but are either singular (singularia tantum), e.g., medùs 'honey' or plural (pluralia tantum), e.g., vestùvės 'wedding'. In dialects and older writings the dual may appear (see Lesson 7).

There are seven cases in Lithuanian: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, vocative. The vocative is used to address a person or thing, e.g., voc.sg. bróli 'brother'. The locative singular and plural, the instrumental singular and plural, and the dative plural are frequently shortened. In addition, there are four other cases with a locative meaning encountered in dialects and old writings: inessive, illative, adessive, allative. These will be discussed later.

There are five declensions in Lithuanian. The nominative and genitive singular provide information on the declension to which a noun belongs:

Declension   Nominative   Genitive   Gender   Stem
1st   -(i)as   -(i)o   masc.   (i)a
    -is   -io   masc.   ia
    -ys   -io   masc.   ia
2nd   -(i)a   -(i)os   fem. (masc. possible)   (i)o
    -ė   -ės   fem. (masc. possible)   ė
    -i   -ios   fem.   io
3rd   -is   -ies   fem. (masc. possible)   i
4th   -(i)us   -(i)aus   masc.   (i)u
5th   -uo   -ens   masc.   n
    -uo   -ers   fem.   r
    -ė   -ers   fem.   r
3.1 The 1st Declension

The first declension is the most common declension of masculine nouns. This declension is further classified according to whether the final stem consonant is hard (unpalatalized) or soft (palatalized). Soft variants of the first declension have the nominative singular -ias, -is, -ys. The paradigms below are for the first declension nouns výras 'man' kẽlias 'road', brólis 'brother' and ožỹs 'goat'.

    Hard   Soft   Soft   Soft
Nom sg   výras 'man'   kẽlias 'road'   brólis 'brother'   ožỹs 'goat'
Gen sg   výro   kẽlio   brólio   óžio
Dat sg   výrui   kẽliui   bróliui   óžiui
Acc sg   výrą   kẽlią   brólį   óžį
Inst sg   výru   keliú   bróliu   óžiu
Loc sg   výre   kelyjè   brólyje   ožyjè
        kelỹ   bróly   ožỹ
Voc sg   výre   kelỹ   bróli   ožỹ
                 
Nom pl   výrai   keliaĩ   bróliai   ožiaĩ
Gen pl   výrų   kelių̃   brólių   ožių̃
Dat pl   výrams   keliáms   bróliams   ožiáms
    výram   keliám   bróliam   ožiám
Acc pl   výrus   keliùs   brólius   óžius
Inst pl   výrais   keliaĩs   bróliais   ožiaĩs
Loc pl   výruose   keliuosè   bróliuose   ožiuosè
    výruos   keliuõs   bróliuos   ožiuõs
Voc pl   výrai   keliaĩ   bróliai   ožiaĩ
3.2 The 2nd Declension

The great majority of feminine nouns belong to the second declension. A few nouns refer to male persons, e.g., dė̃dė 'uncle', Smetonà (surname). Only two nouns have the nom.sg. ending -i: martì 'daughter-in-law' and pati 'wife'. The following are paradigms for the second declension nouns síela 'soul', žinià 'news', bìtė 'bee' and martì 'daughter-in-law'.

    Hard   Soft   Soft   Soft
Nom sg   síela 'soul'   žinià 'news'   bìtė 'bee'   martì 'daughter-in-law'
Gen sg   síelos   žiniõs   bìtės   marčiõs
Dat sg   síelai   žìniai   bìtei   mar̃čiai
Acc sg   síelą   žìnią   bìtę   mar̃čią
Inst sg   síela   žinià   bitè   marčià
Loc sg   síeloje   žiniojè   bìtėje   marčiojè
    siéloj   žiniõj   bìtėj   marčiõj
Voc sg   síela   žìnia   bìte   martì
                 
Nom pl   síelos   žìnios   bìtės   mar̃čios
Gen pl   síelų   žinių̃   bìčių   marčių̃
Dat pl   síeloms   žinióms   bìtėms   marčióms
    síelom   žinióm   bìtėm   marčióm
Acc pl   síelas   žiniàs   bitès   marčiàs
Inst pl   síelomis   žiniomìs   bìtėmis   marčiomìs
    síelom   žiniõm   bìtėm   marčiõm
Loc pl   síelose   žiniosè   bìtėse   marčiosè
Voc pl   síelos   žìnios   bìtės   mar̃čios
4 Verb Inflection

Verbs are inflected for person, number, tense, and mood. The first and second person endings show not only person, but also number, e.g., the 1st singular present klausaũ 'I listen'. The 3rd person singular and the 3rd person plural are the same in all tenses in Lithuanian.

Lithuanian has four simple (non-compound) verb tenses: present, simple past (preterit), frequentative past (frequentative preterit), and future. The frequentative past is rather recent; some Lithuanian dialects lack this tense. The Lithuanian tense system is rather simple compared with that of other Indo-European languages.

The aspect system, word formation, and compound tenses all compensate for this rather spare tense system. Compound tenses are formed with participles. In addition to the singular and plural, the dual number was still alive and used until the middle of the 20th century.

Lithuanian has four moods: indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and optative (permissive). Traditionally, the imperative mood includes the forms of the optative. Some grammars also give an indirect mood which is formed with participles of various tenses.

The infinitive, the 3rd person present, and the 3rd person preterit forms are the principal parts of the verb. They are listed in Lithuanian dictionaries. From their stems are derived all other verb forms. The infinitive ending is -ti; the shortened form -t is also common.

Lithuanian verbs are divided into 3 conjugations. The conjugation is determined by the endings of the third person, present tense: the 1st -(i)a (šóka 'dances'), the 2nd -i, (žiū̃ri 'looks'), the 3rd -o (sãko 'says').

4.1 The Present Tense

The present tense is formed from the present tense stem by adding the appropriate personal endings. There are no progressive forms in Lithuanian. The Lithuanian present tense can correspond to all the other English present tense forms: the simple present, the present continuous, the present perfect, and the present perfect continuous. The present tense forms are used independently of whether the action is regular, continuous, and whether it is taking place at the moment of speech, earlier, or later.

A good number of Lithuanian verbs have irregular conjugation. This is particularly characteristic of non-derived (two syllable) verbs of the first conjugation (-(i)a stem). They can have infixes, e.g., -n-, -v-, -st- or a lengthened root vowel, cf. gáuti 'to get', gauna 'gets', pū́ti 'to rot', pū̃va 'rots', pỹkti 'to be angry', pỹksta '(he) is angry', šìlti 'to get warm', šỹla 'gets warm'. In 3rd conjugation verbs (o stem) the suffixes -y- or -o- might be deleted: rašýti 'to write', rãšo 'writes', bijóti 'to fear', bìjo 'fears'; in 2nd conjugation (i stem) the suffix -ė-: sėdė́ti 'to sit', sė́di 'sits', etc. For this reason, it is always good to check the principal parts of the verb in the dictionary.

Plural forms can easily be formed by adding -me or -te respectively to the 3rd person form. The 1st and 2nd plural forms are trisyllabic and frequently shortened. Below those parts of the endings that may be dropped are given in parentheses.

    'grow'   'wait'   'have'   'read'
1st sg   áugu   láukiu   turiù   skaitaũ
2nd sg   áugi   láuki   turì   skaitaĩ
3rd sg   áuga   láukia   tùri   skaĩto
                 
1st pl   áugam(e)   láukiam(e)   tùrim(e)   skaĩtom(e)
2nd pl   áugat(e)   láukiat(e)   tùrit(e)   skaĩtot(e)
3rd pl   áuga   láukia   tùri   skaĩto
4.2 The Past Tense

The simple preterit expresses an event which took place in the past. The event may be still in progress or completed. The past tense chiefly refers only to one occasion. The past event may or may not be connected with present moment of speaking.

The 3rd person ending of the simple preterit has either the ending -o or - ė, by which two conjugations are distinguished:

  • -au, -ai, -ome, -ote.
  • -iau, -ei, -ė, -ėme, -ėte.

The relationship of the preterit tense stems with the present and the infinitive stems is rather complicated. Many verbs have an irregular preterit. The past tense stem is formed by dropping the infinitive ending -ti; if a -y- precedes the -t- then -yti is dropped, e.g., ver̃kti 'to cry', ver̃kė 'cried', rašýti 'to write', rãšė 'wrote'. First conjugation verbs with an infinitive stem in -uo- or -au- replace final -uo- or -au- with -av-, e.g., dainúoti 'to sing', dainãvo 'sang', keliauti 'to travel', keliãvo 'traveled'. Second and third conjugation verbs with infinitive stems in -ė- or -o- drop the -ti and insert -j- between the stem and the ending, e.g., mylė́ti 'to love' mylė́jo 'loved', žinóti 'to know', žinójo 'knew'. One cannot always predict from the infinitive or present tense what the past tense conjugation will be.

    'grew'   'waited'   'had'   'read'
1st sg   áugau   láukiau   turė́jau   skaičiaũ
2nd sg   áugai   láukei   turė́jai   skaiteĩ
3rd sg   áugo   láukė   turėjo   skaĩtė
                 
1st pl   áugom(e)   láukėm(e)   turė́jom(e)   skaĩtėm(e)
2nd pl   áugot(e)   láukėt(e)   turė́jot(e)   skaĩtėt(e)
3rd pl   áugo   láukė   turėjo   skaĩtė
5 Word Order

Word order in Lithuanian is not rigidly determined. It may vary depending on the communicative value (Functional Sentence Perspective) of the constituents. In an unemphatic declarative sentence, constituents conveying communicatively unimportant information (theme) generally precede those conveying communicatively important information (rheme). Grammatical relations between the constituents are indicated morphologically. All of the following word orders are possible:

  • Dū́mai gráužė akìs 'Smoke was making the eyes smart';
  • Gráužė dū́mai akìs;
  • Akìs dū́mai gráužė, etc.

In emphatic sentences the order is reversed, e.g., Ìš didelė̃s méilės kỹla tokiẽ žõdžiai 'Such words arise from great love'. Word order in interrogative sentences is usually the same as in declarative sentences: Ar̃ dū́mai gráužė akìs? 'Was smoke making the eyes smart?'

There are no articles in Lithuanian. Definiteness and indefiniteness may be expressed by word order and various pronouns and quantifiers. Nouns occurring in the initial position are usually considered to be definite, and nouns occurring in final position, indefinite: Brólis per̃ka mašìną 'The brother is buying a car'; Mašìną per̃ka brólis 'The car is being bought by a brother'.

In unemphatic speech, attributes precede their headnouns, e.g., dìdelė méilė 'great love', Prometė́jo žỹgdarbis 'deed of Prometheus' (lit. Prometheus' deed).

Lithuanian word order has become much more strict in the course of the last century. This can be connected with the process of the formation of the standard language at the end of the 19th century and the influence of other Indo-European languages. This rigidity of word order is particularly evident in attributive phrases. In the written language of the 16-19th centuries, the position of the defining genitive was not fixed and it was possible to say either Diẽvo tarnaĩ or tarnaĩ Diẽvo 'God's servants'.

Baltic Online

Lesson 2: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

In the summer of 1941 Nazi Germany occupied Lithuania, but the Nazis were unable to form Lithuanian legions for their army. In revenge, in March of 1943 they arrested a group of Lithuanian intellectuals and sent them to the Stuthoff concentration camp. Among these was Balys Sruoga, a writer, specialist in literature, and a professor at Vytautas the Great and Vilnius universities. He considered totalitarianism the greatest enemy of mankind. In Stutthof it fell to his lot to experience the horror of the Nazi system of violence, and several times he narrowly escaped death. But still another tragedy awaited him on his return to Lithuania in 1945. His wife, an historian, and his daughter, fleeing from Soviet occupation, had gone west as had thousands of other Lithuanian scholars, artists and writers. The cruelties of Soviet occupation, the trains with Lithuanians exiled to Siberia had forced Sruoga to send them a warning: "Don't return home." He never saw them again.

After the war, Sruoga wrote in a few months a book about the Stutthof concentration camp called Dievų̃ mìškas 'Forest of the gods'. This is one of the first memoirs in Europe about the Nazi concentration camps. In it the process of dehumanization, which the totalitarian systems perpetrated, is exposed from within. Unlike many other works of this genre, here an attempt is made to conceal fragile human nature under external irony, laughter through tears, a screen for what cannot be completely told. But the book was received with hostility by the Soviet system because of its subtle irony, which did not allow a note of sentimentality to thrust its way through in the presence of the brutality and meaninglessness of death. The book was not published until about a decade later, when Europe had more or less had its fill of this kind of memoir. It is entitled "Forest of the Gods," after the name of the swampy place in which the Stutthof concentration camp had been built. Sruoga's health never recovered after Stutthof, and he died in 1947.

Reading and Textual Analysis

In the selection given below, the repressed voice of the humanist Sruoga (a voice which frequently recurs in this book) breaks through when he sees the Stutthof camp's "team of klipatas." Sruoga had invented the new word klìpata to denote the lame and crippled people who could hardly move, the physically injured and morally broken prisoners, out of whom the desire to live had been beaten and who no longer wished to resist death. His 'team' does not resemble living people, but a moving crowd of ghosts. The Nazis didn't kill the Stutthof prisoners immediately, but turned them into floundering shadows, klìpatas.

Here, Nazism is treated as contempt for the human being and a rejection of the ethical and cultural norms of millennia of human history. The writer depicts the forced death as an act of degradation of the world, rejecting all of the values which had existed until the present time. It is not the horror of death that is accentuated, but rather its senselessness, its outrageous, disfigured, befouled image. It is beyond the realm of natural relationships and natural feelings. It is unimaginable to measure it with the emotions of pity and sympathy. This death does not even evoke protest, because it is unclear to whom to protest.

In this selection we encounter a few phraseologisms: dū́mą nurýti 'to smoke', maũškę išmèsti 'to take a strong drink', nustóti prõto 'to go mad'. The book was translated into English by Balys Sruoga's granddaughter Aušrìnė (Aush) Bylà in 1996 (Vilnius: Vaga). A few changes have been made in the selected part of this translation in order to adapt it better for English speakers.

Mìršta žmónės kãro laukuosè baisiosè kančiosè.
  • mìršta -- verb; 3rd person present of <mir̃ti, mìršta, mìrė> die -- die
  • žmónės -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <žmónės> people -- people
  • kãro -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kãras> war -- of the war
  • laukuosè -- noun, masculine; locative plural of <laũkas> field -- on the fields
  • baisiosè -- adjective; locative plural feminine of <baisùs, baisì> terrible, horrible -- horrible
  • kančiosè -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <kančià> agony, suffering -- in agony

Bèt tenaĩ - visì lýgūs.
  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • tenaĩ -- adverb; <tenaĩ> there -- there
  • visì -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <vìsas, visà> all -- all
  • lýgūs -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <lýgus, lýgi> equal -- (are) equal

Teñ tàvo mirtìs ir̃ kañčios šiokiõs tokiõs prasmė̃s tùri: dė̃l kuriõs nórs idė́jos kariáujama, dė̃l tėvỹnės, dė̃l láisvės...
  • teñ -- adverb; <teñ> there, thither -- there
  • tàvo -- pronoun; genitive singular of <tù> you -- your
  • mirtìs -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <mirtìs> death -- death
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • kañčios -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <kančià> agony, suffering -- sufferings
  • šiokiõs tokiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <šióks tóks, šiokià tokià> some, a little -- some kind
  • prasmė̃s -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <prasmė̃> sense, meaning -- of meaning
  • tùri -- verb; 3rd person present of <turė́ti, tùri, turė́jo> have -- have
  • dė̃l -- preposition; <dė̃l> because, for -- for
  • kuriõs nórs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <kurìs nórs, kurì nórs> any, some -- any
  • idė́jos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <idė́ja> idea -- an idea
  • kariáujama -- verb; neuter of present participle passive of <kariáuti, kariája, kariãvo> fight -- (somebody is)fighting
  • dė̃l -- preposition; <dė̃l> because, for -- for
  • tėvỹnės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <tėvỹnė> homeland -- a homeland
  • dė̃l -- preposition; <dė̃l> because, for -- for
  • láisvės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <láisvė> freedom -- a freedom

Õ čià - niẽkur niẽko! Jokiõs prasmė̃s!
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- but
  • čià -- adverb; <čià> here -- here
  • niẽkur -- adverb; <niẽkur> anywhere -- anywhere
  • niẽko -- pronoun; genitive singular of <niẽkas> no one, nobody, nothing -- nothing
  • jokiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <jóks, jokià> no, none -- no
  • prasmė̃s -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <prasmė̃> sense, meaning -- meaning

Niẽkas táu jokiõs pagálbos neteĩks.
  • niẽkas -- pronoun; nominative singular of <niẽkas> no one, nobody, nothing -- no one
  • táu -- pronoun; dative singular of <tù> you -- to you
  • jokiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <jóks, jokià> no, none -- any
  • pagálbos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pagálba> aid, help -- aid
  • neteĩks -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person future of <teĩkti, teĩkia, teĩkė> give, render -- will not give

Niẽkas tavę̃s neatjaũs, nepaguõs, į̃ mirtiẽs pãslaptį pakeleivìngos méilės žodžiù nepalydė̃s.
  • niẽkas -- pronoun; nominative singular of <niẽkas> no one, nobody, nothing -- no one
  • tavę̃s -- pronoun; genitive singular of <tù> you -- you
  • neatjaũs -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person future of <atjaũsti, atjaũčia, àtjautė> sympathize, comfort -- will not comfort
  • nepaguõs -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person future of <pagúosti, pagúodžia, pagúodė> console -- will not console
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • mirtiẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <mirtìs> death -- of death
  • pãslaptį -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <paslaptìs> mystery -- the mystery
  • pakeleivìngos -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <pakeleivìngas, pakeleivìnga> fellow traveller -- parting
  • méilės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <méilė> love -- of love
  • žodžiù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <žõdis> word -- with a word
  • nepalydė̃s -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person future of <palydė́ti, palỹdi, palydė́jo> accompany -- will not accompany

Seniaũ, beñt kituosè kraštuosè, kariamájam beñt paskutìnį nórą paténkindavo - dúodavo paválgyti, dū́mą nurýti, láišką parašýti, kókią maũškę išmèsti...
  • seniaũ -- adverb; comparative of <seniaĩ> early, long ago -- in earlier times
  • beñt -- particle; <beñt> at least -- at least
  • kituosè -- pronoun; locative plural masculine of <kìtas, kità> other -- other
  • kraštuosè -- noun, masculine; locative plural of <krãštas> country -- in countries
  • kariamájam -- verb /; dat.sg.masc. of pres.ptc.pass.def. of <kárti, kãria, kórė> hang -- to a hanging one
  • beñt -- particle; <beñt> at least -- at least
  • paskutìnį -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <paskutìnis, paskutìnė> last, final -- final
  • nórą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <nóras> wish -- a wish
  • paténkindavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <paténkinti, paténkina, paténkino> meet, satisfy, grant -- used to grant
  • dúodavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <dúoti, dúoda, dãvė> give -- used to give (him)
  • paválgyti -- verb; infinitive of <paválgyti, paválgo, paválgė> eat -- to eat
  • dū́mą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <dū́mas> smoke -- a smoke
  • nurýti -- verb; infinitive of <nurýti, nurỹja, nurìjo> swallow -- to swallow
  • láišką -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <láiškas> letter -- a letter
  • parašýti -- verb; infinitive of <parašýti, parãšo, parãšė> write -- to write
  • kókią -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <kóks, kokià> any, some -- any
  • maũškę -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <maũškė> beret -- shot (of liquor)
  • išmèsti -- verb; infinitive of <išmèsti, ìšmeta, ìšmetė> down -- to down

Õ čià - pàspiria kója - ir̃ vìskas.
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- but
  • čià -- adverb; <čià> here -- here
  • pàspiria -- verb; 3rd person present of <paspìrti, pàspiria, paspýrė> kick -- (they) kick
  • kója -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <kója> foot -- with foot
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • vìskas -- pronoun; nominative of <vìskas> everything -- that's all

Baĩsūs bùvo kitì naikìnimo lãgeriai, kur̃, bū́davo, àtveža kãlinį ir̃ tuojaũ nužùdo.
  • baĩsūs -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <baisùs, baisì> terrible, horrible -- atrocious
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- were
  • kitì -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <kìtas, kità> other -- other
  • naikìnimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <naikìnimas> extermination, destruction -- extermination
  • lãgeriai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <lãgeris> camp -- the camps
  • kur̃ -- adverb; <kur̃> where -- where
  • bū́davo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- used to
  • àtveža -- verb; 3rd person present of <atvèžti, àtveža, àtvežė> bring -- bring in
  • kãlinį -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kalinỹs> prisoner -- a prisoner
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • tuojaũ -- adverb; <tuojaũ> at once, immediately -- immediately
  • nužùdo -- verb; 3rd person present of <nužudýti, nužùdo, nužùdė> kill -- kill (him)

Bèt tàs pàts žùdymas faktinaĩ vỹko ir̃ Dievų̃ mìško padángėj.
  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- however
  • tàs pàts -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tàs pàts, tà patì> the same -- this same
  • žùdymas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <žùdymas> killing -- killing
  • faktinaĩ -- adverb; <faktinaĩ> in fact, practically -- in fact
  • vỹko -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <vỹkti, vỹksta, vỹko> take place -- took place
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- also
  • Dievų̃ -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <diẽvas> god -- of the Gods
  • mìško -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <mìškas> forest -- of the forest
  • padángėj -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <padángė> sky -- under the skies

Skìrtumas bùvo tiktaĩ tasaĩ, kàd čià žmõgų nukankìndavo, čiulptè iščiul̃pdavo jõ sveikãtą, jõ jėgàs, ver̃sdavo jį̃ mir̃ti ìš bãdo...
  • skìrtumas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <skìrtumas> difference -- difference
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- was
  • tiktaĩ -- particle; <tiktaĩ> only -- the only
  • tasaĩ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine definite of <tàs, tà> this, that -- ...
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • čià -- adverb; <čià> here -- here
  • žmõgų -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <žmogùs> human being, person -- a person
  • nukankìndavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <nukankìnti, nukankìna, nukankìno> torture -- (they) used to torture
  • čiulptè -- second infinitive; <čiul̃pti, čiul̃pia, čiul̃pė> sucking -- ...
  • iščiul̃pdavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative <iščiul̃pti, iščiul̃pia, ìščiulpė> suck -- used to suck
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • sveikãtą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <sveikatà> health -- health
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • jėgàs -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <jėgà> energy -- energy
  • ver̃sdavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <ver̃sti, ver̃čia, ver̃tė> force, compel -- used to force
  • jį̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • mir̃ti -- verb; infinitive of <mir̃ti, mìršta, mìrė> die -- to die
  • ìš -- preposition; <ìš> from -- from
  • bãdo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bãdas> starvation -- starvation

Kurì lãgerių rūšìs geriaũ atitiñka mū́sų ámžiaus kultū̃ros laimė́jimus, dievàž neleñgva bū́tų nusprę́sti.
  • kurì -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- which
  • lãgerių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <lãgeris> camp -- of camps
  • rūšìs -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <rūšìs> type -- type
  • geriaũ -- adverb; comparative of <geraĩ> better -- better
  • atitiñka -- verb; 3rd person present of <atitìkti, atitiñka, atitìko> correspond -- complements
  • mū́sų -- pronoun; genitive plural of <mẽs> our -- our
  • ámžiaus -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ámžius> century -- century's
  • kultū̃ros -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <kultūrà> culture -- of culture
  • laimė́jimus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <laimė́jimas> achievement, winning -- the achievements
  • dievàž -- interjection; <dievàž> god knows -- God knows
  • neleñgva -- negative particle; <ne> not + adjective; neuter of <leñgvas, lengvà> easy -- (it is) not easy
  • bū́tų -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- would be
  • nusprę́sti -- verb; infinitive of <nusprę́sti, nuspréndžia, nuspréndė> decide -- to decide

Pagaliaũ, - taĩ individualaũs skõnio reĩkalas...
  • pagaliaũ -- conjunction; <pagaliaũ> after all, at last -- after all
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- it (is)
  • individualaũs -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <individualùs, individualì> individual -- individual
  • skõnio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <skõnis> taste -- of taste
  • reĩkalas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <reĩkalas> matter -- a matter

Naujõkas, pìrmą kar̃tą sàvo gyvẽnime išvýdęs klìpatų komándą, lýg prõto nustója.
  • naujõkas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <naujõkas> newcomer -- a newcomer
  • pìrmą -- number; accusative singular masculine of <pìrmas, pirmà> first -- first
  • kar̃tą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kar̃tas> time -- for the ... time
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • gyvẽnime -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <gyvẽnimas> life -- in ... life
  • išvýdęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <išvýsti, išvýsta, išvýdo> see, witness -- witnessing
  • klìpatų -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <klìpata> cripple -- of cripples
  • komándą -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <kománda> detachment, brigade -- the detachment
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- (it is) as if
  • prõto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <prõtas> mind -- (his) mind
  • nustója -- verb; 3rd person present of <nustóti, nustója, nustójo> lose -- he is losing

Nè mirtiẽs jám baisù, - baisù šìto išniẽkinto žmogaũs vaĩzdo.
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- not
  • mirtiẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <mirtìs> death -- death
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- for him
  • baisù -- adjective; neuter of <baisùs, baisì> terrible, horrible -- (is) horrible
  • baisù -- adjective; neuter of <baisùs, baisì> terrible, horrible -- (is) horrible
  • šìto -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <šìtas, šità> this -- this
  • išniẽkinto -- verb; genitive singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <išniẽkinti, išniẽkina, išniẽkino> desecrate -- desecrated
  • žmogaũs -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <žmogùs> human being, person -- of man
  • vaĩzdo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <vaĩzdas> sight, image -- sight

Ir̃ nè tíek žmogaũs, - baisù šito išniẽkinto, subjauróto, sùdergto mirtiẽs vaĩzdo!
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- even
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- not
  • tíek -- adverb; <tíek> so much, so many -- so much
  • žmogaũs -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <žmogùs> human being, person -- (the image) of the man
  • baisù -- adjective; neuter of <baisùs, baisì> terrible, horrible -- (is) horrible
  • šito -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <šìtas, šità> this -- this
  • išniẽkinto -- verb; genitive singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <išniẽkinti, išniẽkina, išniẽkino> desecrate -- desecrated
  • subjauróto -- verb; genitive singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <subjauróti, subjaurója, subjaurójo> disfigure, defile -- disfigured
  • sùdergto -- verb; genitive singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <suder̃gti, suder̃gia, sùdergė> befoul -- befouled
  • mirtiẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <mirtìs> death -- of death
  • vaĩzdo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <vaĩzdas> sight, image -- image

Lesson Text

Mìršta žmónės kãro laukuosè baisiosè kančiosè. Bèt tenaĩ - visì lýgūs. Teñ tàvo mirtìs ir̃ kañčios šiokiõs tokiõs prasmė̃s tùri: dė̃l kuriõs nórs idė́jos kariáujama, dė̃l tėvỹnės, dė̃l láisvės... Õ čià - niẽkur niẽko! Jokiõs prasmė̃s! Niẽkas táu jokiõs pagálbos neteĩks. Niẽkas tavę̃s neatjaũs, nepaguõs, į̃ mirtiẽs pãslaptį pakeleivìngos méilės žodžiù nepalydė̃s. Seniaũ, beñt kituosè kraštuosè, kariamájam beñt paskutìnį nórą paténkindavo - dúodavo paválgyti, dū́mą nurýti, láišką parašýti, kókią maũškę išmèsti... Õ čià - pàspiria kója - ir̃ vìskas. Baĩsūs bùvo kitì naikìnimo lãgeriai, kur̃, bū́davo, àtveža kãlinį ir̃ tuojaũ nužùdo. Bèt tàs pàts žùdymas faktinaĩ vỹko ir̃ Dievų̃ mìško padángėj. Skìrtumas bùvo tiktaĩ tasaĩ, kàd čià žmõgų nukankìndavo, čiulptè iščiul̃pdavo jõ sveikãtą, jõ jėgàs, ver̃sdavo jį̃ mir̃ti ìš bãdo... Kurì lãgerių rūšìs geriaũ atitiñka mū́sų ámžiaus kultū̃ros laimė́jimus, dievàž neleñgva bū́tų nusprę́sti. Pagaliaũ, - taĩ individualaũs skõnio reĩkalas... Naujõkas, pìrmą kar̃tą sàvo gyvẽnime išvýdęs klìpatų komándą, lýg prõto nustója. Nè mirtiẽs jám baisù, - baisù šìto išniẽkinto žmogaũs vaĩzdo. Ir̃ nè tíek žmogaũs, - baisù šito išniẽkinto, subjauróto, sùdergto mirtiẽs vaĩzdo!

Translation

People die on the battlefields in horrible agony. But there, everyone is equal. Your death and suffering have some kind of meaning: you're fighting for a purpose, for your homeland, for your freedom...
But here - nothing anywhere! No meaning! No one will give you any help. No one will comfort you, console you, accompany you to the mystery of death with a parting word of love.
In earlier times, in other countries, they granted a final wish to the one about to hang: they gave him (something) to eat, (a chance) to smoke, to write a letter, to down a shot of liquor... But here they give you a kick, and that's all.
The other extermination camps, where they brought in a prisoner and immediately killed (him), were atrocious, too. This same killing took place under the skies of the Forest of the Gods; the only difference was that here they tortured a person to death. His health, his energy were sucked dry, they made him die of starvation...
Which type of camp better complements the achievements of our century's culture? God knows! (It is) not easy to decide. After all, it's a matter of individual taste...
A newcomer witnessing the detachment of cripples for the first time in his life, it is as if he is losing his mind. Death is not horrible (for him) - this sight of a desecrated man is horrible. And not only (the image of the) man, but even the desecrated, disfigured, befouled image of death is horrible.

Grammar

6 Diphthongs

There are 6 pure diphthongs and 16 mixed diphthongs in Lithuanian. The pure diphthongs consist of two vowels and are the following: ai, au, ei, ie, ui, uo. Each of these can be stressed or unstressed. As with the long vowels, if stressed they can have either the circumflex intonation (marked by tilde) on the second vowel, or the acute intonation (marked by acute accent) on the first vowel. A diphthong with acute intonation will have a heavier stress on the initial element, e.g., láisvė 'freedom', méilė 'love', píeva 'meadow'. Thus, the initial element will be held longer than the second. Just the reverse is true for a diphthong with the circumflex intonation, e.g., laũkas 'field', vaĩzdas 'view, sight', paguõsti 'to console'.

There are two types of pure diphthongs: gliding diphthongs (ie, uo) and compound diphthongs (ai, au, ei, ui). In pronouncing the gliding diphthongs, we do not feel a phonetic boundary between the first and the second element. The Lithuanian ie has no counterpart in English, It may be thought of as similar to the vowel of 'beard'. When this diphthong occurs in initial position, there is a tendency to pronounce it as though there were a j in front of it: ieškóti 'to look for'. The diphthong uo also has no counterpart in English; it can perhaps be compared to the "uo" of Italian 'buono'.

Both elements of the compound diphthongs are clearly marked. ái is similar to the 'ai' of English 'aisle'; is somewhat similar to the English 'a' in 'able'. áu is somewhat similar to the 'ou' of American-English 'out'; may be compared to the Canadian English 'ou' in 'out'. There is no such diphthong as éi in English. It can be roughly compared to the English 'ai' in 'sail'. is quite similar to the 'ei' in 'weight'. There is nothing like in English; ùi (which is relatively rare) sounds something like a very rapidly pronounced 'phooey'.

Diphthongs in which the vowels a, e, i, u are followed by l, m,n, r are known as mixed diphthongs. In the mixed diphthongs, as in the pure diphthongs, either the first or the second element may be stressed. If the second element is stressed, a tilde (~) will be written over the l, m, n or r, e.g., kar̃tas 'time', leñgvas 'easy, light'. The second circumflex element is half-long. If the first element is to be stressed, an acute acent is written over the letters a and e (the acute element is half-long), but a grave accent is used over the letters i and u (the acute element remains short), e.g., padángė 'the skies', kélti 'to lift', mìršta 'dies', pìlkas 'grey'. In international words, mixed diphthongs with short e and o are used: fèrma 'farm', bòmba 'bomb'.

The unstressed diphthongs sound like , , , , etc., but the unstressed syllable has less amplitude than the stressed: vaidmuõ 'role', kartùs 'bitter'. Some other diphthongs (eu, oi, ou) occur only in international words, e.g., Európa 'Europe', kolòidas 'colloid'.

7 Noun Declensions
7.1 The 3rd Declension

Most nouns of the third declension are of the feminine gender, but a few such as dantìs 'tooth', vagìs, 'thief', žvėrìs 'beast', debesìs 'cloud' are masculine (they have -ui in the dative singular). All nouns of the third declension have the ending -is in the nominative singular. The genitive singular helps to distinguish third declension nouns from those first declension nouns with the nominative singular ending -is, cf: nom.sg. brólis, gen.sg. brólio 'brother' (1st declension) and nom.sg. širdìs, gen.sg. širdiẽs 'heart' (3rd declension).

In the genitive plural some nouns of this paradigm have the ending -ų, e.g., debesų̃ 'clouds' after a hard consonant, whereas others have the following ending after a palatalized consonant -iu, e.g., rūšių̃ 'kinds'. This can be explained historically: the former nouns are traced back to the 5th declension (consonantal stems), the latter to the 3rd declension (i-stem). There is a strong tendency for masculine nouns of the 3rd declension to shift to the 1st declension (ia-stem), cf:

  • nom.sg. debesìs and debesỹs 'cloud';
  • gen.sg. dantiẽs and dañčio 'tooth'; debesiẽs and dẽbesio 'cloud'; žvėriẽs and žvė́rio 'beast';
  • inst.sg. dantimì and dančiù 'tooth'; debesimì and dẽbesiu 'cloud'; žvėrimì and žvė́riu 'beast', etc.

Some nouns can be declined either according to 1st or the 3rd declension, e.g., deguõnis 'oxygen', grobuõnis 'plunderer', veliónis 'the deceased'.

In colloquial Lithuanian and the dialects, the feminine nouns may have two alternative forms in the instrumental singular: one of the 3rd declension (i-stem) and another of the 2nd declension (io-stem), e.g., širdimì and šìrdžia 'heart'; ugnimì and ugnià 'fire'; žuvimì and žuvià 'fish', etc.

móteris 'woman' and obelìs 'apple tree' have two alternative forms in the genitive singular: móters, obel̃s and moteriẽs, obeliẽs.

The forms of the 3rd declension are as follows:

    Feminine   Masculine
Nom sg   žuvìs 'fish'   vagìs 'thief'
Gen sg   žuviẽs   vagiẽs
Dat sg   žùviai   vãgiui
Acc sg   žùvį   vãgį
Inst sg   žuvimì   vagimì
    žuvim̃   vagim̃
Loc sg   žuvyjè   vagyjè
    žuvỹ   vagỹ
Voc sg   žuviẽ   vagiẽ
         
Nom pl   žùvys   vãgys
Gen pl   žuvų̃   vagių̃
Dat pl   žuvìms   vagìms
    žuvìm   vagìm
Acc pl   žuvìs   vagìs
Inst pl   žuvimìs   vagimìs
    žuvim̃   vagim̃
Loc pl   žuvysè   vagysè
Voc pl   žùvys   vãgys
7.2 The 4th Declension

All nouns ending in -us (hard stem) and -ius (soft stem) belong to the fourth declension. They are all masculine. Those nouns which have the soft stem (iu-stem) have the plural declension exactly like the first declension (ia-stem). The 4th declension nouns are not numerous. They may obtain inflectional forms of the 1st (ia-stem) declension, e.g:

  • nom.pl. sū́nūs and sūnaĩ 'sons'; tur̃gūs and tur̃gaĩ 'markets';
  • dat.pl. sūnùms and sūnáms 'sons'; tur̃gums and tur̃gams 'markets'.

On the other hand, 1st declension nouns ending in -jas have the endings of the 4th declension -au in vocative singular, e.g., dė́stytojau (nom.sg. dė́stytojas) 'lecturer', vė́jau (nom.sg. vė́jas) 'wind'; and locative singular, e.g., dė́stytojuje, vė́juje (vė́jyje is also used).

The noun žmogùs 'man', 'human being' is inflected in the singular according to the 4th declension; in the plural it is inflected according to the 2nd (ė-stem) declension (see bellow).

Below are paradigms for the 4th declension nouns sūnùs 'son', ámžius 'age' and žmogùs 'man':

    Hard   Soft   Hard
Nom sg   sūnùs 'son'   ámžius 'age'   žmogùs 'man'
Gen sg   sūnaũs   ámžiaus   žmogaũs
Dat sg   sū́nui   ámžiui   žmõgui
Acc sg   sū́nų   ámžių   žmõgų
Inst sg   sūnumì   ámžiumi   žmogumì
    sūnum̃   ámžium   žmogum̃
Loc sg   sūnujè   ámžiuje   žmogujè
    sūnùj   ámžiuj   žmogùj
Voc sg   sūnaũ   ámžiau   žmogaũ
             
    Hard   Soft   Soft
Nom pl   sū́nūs   ámžiai   žmónės
Gen pl   sūnų̃   ámžių   žmonių̃
Dat pl   sūnùms   ámžiams   žmonė́ms
    sūnùm   ámžiam   žmonė́m
Acc pl   sū́nus   ámžius   žmónes
Inst pl   sūnumìs   ámžiais   žmonėmìs
    sūnum̃       žmonė̃m
Loc pl   sūnuosè   ámžiuose   žmonėsè
Voc pl   sū́nūs   ámžiai   žmónės
7.3 The 5th Declension

The number of nouns belonging to the 5th declension is not very large, and some are irregular. To this declension belong feminine nouns in -uo, -ė (gen.sg. -ers) and masculine nouns in -uo (gen.sg. -ens). They are a continuation of the ancient consonantal n, r and other stems. The consonantal stems have been retained only in the genitive singular. In all other cases, except the nominative singular, consonant stem nouns are now inflected like i-stem nouns. In certain cases some of these nouns have forms of the 1st declension.

In the instrumental singular the masculine nouns akmuõ 'stone', vanduõ 'water', piemuõ 'shepherd' have the endings of the 1st declension (ia-stem): ãkmeniu, vándeniu, píemeniu; the feminine nouns sesuõ 'sister' and duktė̃ 'daughter' have two alternative forms of instrumental singular: seserimì, dukterimì (i-stem) and sẽseria, dùkteria (io-stem).

The noun mė́nuo (its alternative form is mė́nesis) 'month' is declined according to the 1st declension.

šuõ 'dog' is irregular. In the nominative singular šuõ has an alternative form šuvà and in the genitive singular its alternatives are šuniẽs and šùnio.

The forms of the 5th declension are as folows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Feminine   Masculine
Nom sg   vanduõ 'water'   sesuõ 'sister'   duktė̃ 'daughter'   šuõ 'dog'
Gen sg   vandeñs   seser̃s   dukter̃s   šuñs
Dat sg   vándeniui   sẽseriai   dùkteriai   šùniui
Acc sg   vándenį   sẽserį   dùkterį   šùnį
Inst sg   vándeniu   seserimì   dukterimì   šunimì
        seserim̃   dukterim̃   šunim̃
Loc sg   vandenyjè   seseryjè   dukteryjè   šunyjè
    vandenỹ   seserỹ   dukterỹ   šunỹ
Voc sg   vandeniẽ   seseriẽ   dukteriẽ   šuniẽ
                 
Nom pl   vándenys   sẽserys   dùkterys   šùnys
Gen pl   vandenų̃   seserų̃   dukterų̃   šunų̃
Dat pl   vandenìms   seserìms   dukterìms   šunìms
    vandenìm   seserìm   dukterìm   šunìm
Acc pl   vándenis   sẽseris   dùkteris   šunìs
Inst pl   vandenimìs   seserimìs   dukterimìs   šunimìs
    vandenim̃   seserim̃   dukterim̃   šunim̃
Loc pl   vandenysè   seserysè   dukterysè   šunysè
Voc pl   vándenys   sẽserys   dùkterys   šùnys
8 Verb Tenses
8.1 The Frequentative Past Tense

In addition to the simple past tense (or preterit) discussed in Lesson 1 there is another past tense, the frequentative past, which denotes an action which took place several times, frequently, at repeated intervals in the past. It can be translated by such English expresions as: 'I used to...'; 'I kept...'; I 'would...'. To obtain the frequentative past tense forms, we must drop the infinitive ending -ti and add the suffix -dav- plus the preterit endings: -au, -ai, -o, -ome, -ote, -o.

The method of formation is the same for all three conjungations. The stress is always on the same syllable as in the infinitive.

A past habit can be expressed analytically by the use of the parenthetic form bū́davo 'used to be' and the present of the verb, e.g., Baĩsūs bùvo kitì naikìnimo lãgeriai, kur̃, bū́davo, àtveža kãlinį ir̃ tuojaũ nužùdo 'The other extermination camps, where they brought in a prisoner and immediately killed (him), were atrocious, too'. Repeated past events that occurred on a specific occasion cannot be expressed by the frequentative past tense, cf: Jìs žaĩsdavo dvì vãlandas 'He used to play two hours'. Vãkar jìs žaĩde dvì vãlandas 'Yesterday he played two hours'.

Here the frequentative past tense paradigms of three verbs áugti 'to grow', turė́ti 'to have' and skaitýti are given:

1st sg   áugdavau   turė́davau   skaitýdavau
2nd sg   áugdavai   turė́davai   skaitýdavai
3rd sg   áugdavo   turė́davo   skaitýdavo
             
1st pl   áugdavom(e)   turė́davom(e)   skaitýdavom(e)
2nd pl   áugdavot(e)   turė́davot(e)   skaitýdavot(e)
3rd pl   áugdavo   turė́davo   skaitýdavo
8.2 The Future Tense

The future tense is formed by dropping the -ti from the infinitive and adding the future tense suffix -s(i)- plus endings: -siu, -si, -s, -sime, -site, -s.

The stress is always on the same syllable as in the infinitive. In the 3rd person an acute is replaced by a circumflex stress: turė́ti 'to have'; turė̃s '(he) will have'.

Some verbs with a monosyllabic stem shorten the root vowel in the 3rd person, e.g., inf. pū́ti 'to rot'; 3 fut. pùs '(it) will rot'; inf. lýti 'to rain'; 3 fut. lìs '(it) will rain'.

Certain consonantal constractions or simplifications are characteristic of the future tense: s + s = s; š + s = š; z + s = s; ž + s = š, e.g., mès-ti 'to throw' and mes + siu = mèsiu; 'I will throw'; nèš-ti 'to carry' and neš + siu = nèšiu 'I will carry'; zir̃z-ti 'to whine' and zirz + siu = zir̃siu; 'I will whine'; vèž-ti 'to transport' and vež + siu = vèšiu 'I will transport'.

The future tense denotes a concrete or generalized action in the future, e.g., Greĩt ateĩs žiemà 'Winter will come soon'. The form of the future tense may also denote willingness, determination, intention, likelihood, threat, etc: Àš jái niekadà neatléisiui 'I will never forgive her'.

The future tense paradigms for the verbs áugti 'to grow', rýti 'to swallow' and vèžti 'to transport' are given below:

1st sg   áugsiu 'I will grow'   rýsiu 'I will swallow'   vèšiu 'I will transport'
2nd sg   áugsi   rýsi   vèši
3rd sg   aũgs   rìs   vèš
             
1st pl   áugsim(e)   rýsim(e)   vèšim(e)
2nd pl   áugsit(e)   rýsit(e)   vèšit(e)
3rd pl   aũgs   rìs   vèš
8.3 Conjungation of the Verb bū́ti 'to be'

The verb bū́ti 'to be' has different (suppletive) stems: es-, bu- / -. In the 3rd person present the unique stem yrà '(it) is, (they) are' is used.

Its paradigms for the present, preterit, frequentative and future tense are as follows:

    Present   Preterit   Frequentative   Future
1st sg   esù '(I) am'   buvaũ '(I) was'   bū́davau '(I) used to be'   bū́siu '(I) will be'
2nd sg   esì   buvaĩ   bū́davai   bū́si
3rd sg   yrà   bùvo   bū́davo   bùs
                 
1st pl   ẽsam(e)   bùvom(e)   bū́davom(e)   bū́sim(e)
2nd pl   ẽsat(e)   buvot(e)   bū́davot(e)   bū́sit(e)
3rd pl   yrà   bùvo   bū́davo   bùs

Also, more recent forms created by adding the formants -n- or -v- exist, e.g., 1st sg. būnù, būvù 'I am', 3rd bū̃na, bū̃va '(it) is, (they) are', etc. These forms convey the meaning of a regular process. The athematic 3rd person form ẽsti '(it) is, (they) are' has this meaning also.

9 Pronouns
9.1 The Personal Pronouns

The use of the personal pronouns is similar to that of English. 1st and 2nd person pronouns do not substitute for nouns. They refer either to masculine or feminine nouns. Only 3rd person pronouns can refer to both persons and non-persons, e.g.,

  • jìs - žmogùs 'man'; laũkas 'field'.
  • - móteris 'woman'; paslaptìs 'mystery, secret'.

One must remember, however, that the 3rd person agrees with the word it refers to in number and gender.

1st and 2nd person forms are usually used without any pronoun:

  • Atsikė́liau ankstì 'I got up early'.
  • Išvỹkstame vidùrdienį 'We are leaving at noon'.

The case of the pronoun is determined by its use in the clause in which it occurs, e.g.,

  • Edìtą pasitìksiu aeroúoste 'I will meet Edita in the airport'.
  • Prãšom jái pérduoti màno linkė́jimus 'Please give her my regards'.

The pronoun jái 'her' is feminine singular because it refers to Edità. It is in the dative case because it is the second object of the verb pérduoti 'to give'. In the clause, personal pronouns may function as subjects, objects, predicatives, adverbial modifiers of place, e.g., Jìš sėdė́jo šalià manę̃s 'He was sitting next to me' (subject and adverbial modifier of place).

The 2nd singular pronoun 'thou' is the familiar form; it is used to address animals, children, close friends, members of the immediate family, and God. The polite form jū̃s is used whenever one addresses persons who are not members of the above-mentioned groups. This usage is practically identical with the use of 'du' and 'Sie' in German. Another respectful word támsta 'you' is considered old-fashioned. The forms pàts, patì 'oneself' are not as formal as jū̃s 'you', but are used only rarely.

The forms of the personal pronouns are as folows:

    1st person   2nd person   3rd person Masculine   3rd person Feminine
Nom sg   àš 'I'   'you (thou)'   jìs 'he'   'she'
Gen sg   manę̃s   tavę̃s     jõs
    màno   tàvo        
Dat sg   mán   táu   jám   jái
Acc sg   manè   tavè   jį̃   ją̃
Inst sg   manimì   tavimì   juõ  
    manim̃   tavim̃        
Loc sg   manyjè   tavyjè   jamè   jojè
    manỹ   tavỹ        
                 
Nom pl   mẽs 'we'   jū̃s 'you'   jiẽ 'they'   jõs 'they'
Gen pl   mū́sų   jū́sų   jų̃   jų̃
Dat pl   mùms   jùms   jíems   jóms
    mùm   jùm   jíem   jóm
Acc pl   mùs   jùs   juõs   jàs
Inst pl   mumìs   jumìs   jaĩs   jomìs
Loc pl   mumysè   jumysè   juosè   josè
9.2 The Dual of the Pronouns

Special forms of the personal pronouns may be used in the dual:

  • 1st masc. mùdu 'we two'
  • 1st fem. mùdvi 'we two'
  • 2nd masc. jùdu 'you two'
  • 2nd fem. jùdvi 'you two'
  • 3rd masc. juõdu (jiẽdu) 'they two'
  • 3rd masc. jiẽdvi 'they two'

They have the same endings as (masc.), dvì (fem.) 'two'. There are some demonstrative dual forms (e.g., tuõdu, tiẽdvi 'those two'; šiuõdu, šiẽdvi 'these two', anuõdu, aniẽdvi 'those two') and interrogative dual pronouns (e.g., kuriuõdu, kuriẽdvi 'which two'), but they are used much more rarely.

The pronouns abù (abùdu), abì (abi\dvi) 'both' have only the dual meaning. As the dual number of other word classes has almost disappeard, dual pronominal forms are used with the plural forms of nouns, adjectives and verbs. However, in Modern Lithuanian the dual pronominal forms are usually replaced by plural forms.

9.3 The Possessive Pronouns

Possessive forms indicate that an object belongs to some person or persons. This meaning is usually expressed by the genitive form of the personal pronouns. The personal pronouns àš 'I', 'you' ('thou'), and the reflexive pronoun have separate possessive genitive singular forms màno 'my', tàvo 'your' and sàvo. They differ from the genitive singular manę̃s, tavę̃s, savęs used in other functions, cf: Kur̃ màno knygà? 'Where is my book?'; Paláuk manę̃s 'Wait for me'; Negavaũ tàvǫ láiško 'I did not receive your letter'; Nepažį́stu tavę̃s 'I do not know you'.

Possessive pronouns can function as attributes and predicatives:

Personal pronoun   Possessive Attributive   Possessive Predicative
àš 'I'   màno 'my'   màno 'mine'
'you, thou'   tàvo 'your, thy'   tàvo 'yours'
jìs 'he'   'his'   'his'
'she'   jõs 'her'   jõs 'hers'
mẽs 'we'   mū́sų 'our'   mū́sų 'ours'
jū̃s 'you'   jū́sų 'your'   jū́sų 'yours'
jiẽ 'they'   jų̃ 'their'   jų̃ 'theirs'
jõs 'they'   jų̃ 'their'   jų̃ 'theirs'

Examples:

  • Vãkar kalbė́jau sù tàvo draugè 'Yesterday I spoke with your (female) friend';
  • Šìtas dvìratis yrà tàvo 'This bicycle is yours'.

Besides the possessive genitive forms, the pronouns mãnas, manà 'my', tãvas, tavà 'your', sãvas, savà exist, but are rarely used, e.g., Čià sãvas krãštas 'Here is my homeland'. The substantivized forms manìškis, manìškė 'my,', tavìškis, tavìškė 'your', mūsìškis, mūsìškė, 'our', jūsìškis, jūsìškė 'your' are also used to indicate relatives or friends:

  • Atvažiãvo mūsìškiai 'Our relatives (friends) came';
  • Ar̃ tavìškis dár negrį̃žo? 'Hasn't your husband (son, close friend) come back yet?'
9.4 The Reflexive Pronoun savę̃s

The reflexive pronoun savę̃s, etc. generally refers to the subject of the sentence, whatever person the subject may be. Therefore in English it may be translated as 'myself', 'yourself', 'himself', 'ourselves', 'themselves' depending upon whether the subject is 1st, 2nd or 3rd person and whether it is singular or plural.

This pronoun does not have nominative case and plural. savę̃s is declined as folows:

Gen   savę̃s
    sàvo
Dat   sáu
Acc   savè
Inst   savimì
    savim̃
Loc   savyjè
    savỹ

Examples:

  • Jì didžiúojasi savimì 'She is proud of herself';
  • Àš pasižiūrė́jau į̃ savè véidrodyje 'I looked at myself in the mirror';
  • Jõnas ir̃ Dianà káltino savè už tą̃ klaĩdą 'Jonas and Diana blamed themselves for that mistake';
  • Mẽs pir̃kom sáu kẽletą daiktų 'We bought some things for ourselves'.

The possessive genitive sàvo refers to the subject of sentence regardless of its person or number:

  • Àš didžiúojuosi sàvo laimė́jimais 'I am proud of my achievements';
  • Tù didžiúojiesi sàvo laimė́jimais 'You are proud of your achievements';
  • Jìs didžiúojasi sàvo laimė́jimais 'He is proud of his achievements';
  • Mẽs didžiúojamės sàvo laimė́jimais 'We are proud of our achievements', etc.
10 Negation

In Lithuanian four negative particles are used: the principal particles are 'no, not' and nebè 'not (any more/longer)', and also nė̃ and neĩ 'not (a)', 'not even'. nebè differs from in that it is used to negate continuation of an action or state. It is similar in force to English 'no more, no longer' or the like. is more common than nebè. It can be used to response to a question: Ar̃ tù gyvenì Vìlniuje? - Nè 'Do you live in Vilnius? - No'.

In Lithuanian, both 'no' and 'not' are expresssed by the same negative particle . In the sense of 'no', is set off by comma: Nè, àš nemė́gstu keliaúti 'No, I do not like to travel'. and nebè usually precede that word which they negate. They are written together with verbs, adjectives and adverbs:

  • Gẽras sãpnas nesipìldo 'A good dream does not come true';
  • Negẽras sãpnas pìldosi 'A bad (not good) dream comes true';
  • Visì kalbė́jo nerimtaĩ 'Nobody spoke seriously' (lit. 'All spoke not seriously').

There is an exception in case of contrast in the clause, e.g.,

  • Pìldosi nè gẽras, õ blõgas sãpnas 'A bad dream comes true, not a good (one)';
  • Jiẽ nè kalbė́jo, bèt šaũkė víenas añt kìto 'They did not speak, but they shouted at each other'.

The negative particle is not written together with a following noun, unless the noun functions as a lexical compound, i. e. has a separate dictionary meaning:

Jìs yrà nè krẽpšininkas, õ fùtbolininkas 'He is not a basketball player, but a football player'.

The negative particle with the verbal form yrà 'is, are' forms a contraction nėrà 'is not, are not', e.g., Jiẽ nėrà màno gìminės 'They are not my relatives'.

All the verbs add to the positive form to form the negative, e.g., válgyti 'to eat' and neválgyti 'not to eat'; paténkinti 'to satisfy' and nepaténkinti 'not to satisfy'. There are, however, two exceptions: bū́ti 'to be' and eĩti 'to go'. These add only n, e.g., Àš nesù žurnalìstas 'I am not a journalist'; Mẽs dár neĩname namõ 'We do not go home yet'.

The direct object of the negated verb must be in the genitive rather than accusative case, cf: Jì prarãdo vìltį 'She lost hope'; Jì neprarãdo viltiẽs 'She did not lose hope'.

Contrary to English usage, the negative must be repeated, e.g., Rìmas niekadà niẽkur niẽko nesãko 'Ri\mas doesn't ever tell anything anywhere' (lit. 'Rimas doesn't nothing tell nowhere never'); Niẽkas táu jokiõs pagálbos neteĩks 'No one will give you any help' (lit. 'Nobody will not give you any help').

The particle nė̃ denotes emphatic negation, e.g. Tė́vas nė̃ nepàžvelgė į̃ manè 'Father did not even glance at me'. If two or more coordinated words or clauses are negated, the reduplicated negative conjunction neĩ... neĩ 'neither... nor' is used (the predicate usually has the negative prefix in this case). Its meaning is similar to the meaning of neĩ: Nedžiùgino jõs neĩ pinigaĩ, neĩ tur̃tai 'Neither the money nor the wealth gave her joy'.

Baltic Online

Lesson 3: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

Among the writers who appeared on the scene in the years 1918-1940, Viñcas Mykoláitis-Pùtinas stands out. This author and literary researcher of enormous intellect distanced himself from the usual tendency in belles-lettres of basing one's work only on the means of expression of the folk language. He searched out means of expression in the written language. The themes of his works were the deciding factor. In his works he didn't depict the village people, but rather the lives of intellectuals and educated people. In his poetry and prose, which are distinguished by their intellectual quality, there are many abstract nouns. He especially liked verbal abstracts, e.g., tobulýbė 'perfection', buitìs 'manner of life', pólėkis 'flight (of fancy)', būtìs 'being, existence', lūkesỹs 'expectation', geĩsmas 'desire', síelgrauža 'mental distress' (literally 'gnawing at the soul'). He used international words abundantly, e.g. harmònija 'harmony', mirãžas 'mirage', iliùzija 'illusion', ideãlas 'ideal,' hierárchija 'hierarchy', chaòsas 'chaos'. He used just the right adjectives with abstract nouns, e.g., álkanas liūdesỹs 'hungry grief, famished melancholy', klaikì vienãtvė 'dreadful loneliness', nerimastìnga buitìs 'anxious way of life'. His novel, In the shadow of the altars, was the first intellectual psychological novel in Lithuanian literature. The principal hero of this Stendhal type novel, Liùdas Vasãris, a seminary student and later a priest, writes poetry and cannot reconcile priest and poet in himself. Obedience to the will of his parents and the desire to serve his country have led him to the seminary. Vasãris overvalues the contribution of the priestly class to Lithuanian culture and chooses the goal of following in the footsteps of the poet-priests Mairónis, Antãnas Baranáuskas, and others. In the shadow of the altars has quite a few autobiographical features. The author of the book himself had experienced the conflict of poet and priest.

Mykoláitis-Pùtinas graduated from seminary and became a priest, but later gave up the priesthood. It is the aforementioned conflict that makes up the intellectual and emotional core of his novel. The attainment of freedom is the essence of the human being and art is the most authentic expression of this essence. Vasãris comes to understand that the priesthood has isolated his talent from the living sources of art, love for experience, natural communication with other human beings, and spontaneous expression without any moralizing. There arises the irresistible urge to experience life for the sake of creativity, so that his talent, a gift of God, might not be destroyed. He is also distinguished by the disharmony and duality of his personality. He seeks out, analyzes, and investigates scrupulously his inner contradictions, on the one hand from the point of view of his priestly duty and on the other hand from the point of view of the imperative of the poet's vocation. His indecisiveness, his compromising surrender to circumstances, resignation, silent suffering, and rebellious internal discontent reflect typical features of the Lithuanian character.

Reading and Textual Analysis

In the selection given below, from the first part of the novel, Vasãris considers three possibilities as to how he should act with his talent. He has already rejected his girl friend and taken the first vows of priesthood. Although he was firmly determined to become a good priest, he still felt that the source of his poetry was not "the virtues required of a clergyman, but the whirlpool of the world infected with the microbes of sin." He is constantly tormented by the thought of how to reconcile the free flight of poetry with the ideals of the life of a priest. These two lives are irreconcilably contrary to each other. What seems natural, understandable and unavoidable in one seems strange and forbidden in the other. He feels that the environment of the seminary is destroying his poetic talent, arousing discord and the splitting of his soul.

In the selection, one can find a fair number of international words and abstract nouns. Adjectives are used abundantly, especially those with the suffixes -ingas, -iškas and -inis; there are also comparisons, e.g., šáltas kaĩp lẽdas 'cold as ice,' nusitvė́rė kaĩp skę̃stąs šiaudẽlio 'grasped for (it) like a drowning man for a straw'.

Pirmàsis galimùmas bùvo visái mèsti tą̃ poèziją ir̃ visàs tàs svajonès.
  • pirmàsis -- definite number; nominative singular masculine of <pìrmas, pirmà> first -- the first
  • galimùmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <galimùmas> possibility -- possibility
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- was
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- completely
  • mèsti -- verb; infinitive of <mèsti, mẽta, mẽtė> abandon -- to... abandon
  • tą̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- ...
  • poèziją -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <poèzija> poetry -- poetry
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • visàs -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <vìsas, visà> all -- all
  • tàs -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- those
  • svajonès -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <svajõnė> dream -- dreams

Taĩ bū́tų tinkamiáusias ir̃ paprasčiáusias kláusimo sprendìmas.
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • bū́tų -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- would be
  • tinkamiáusias -- adjective; nominative singular masculine superlative of <tiñkamas, tinkamà> appropriate -- the most appropriate
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • paprasčiáusias -- adjective; nominative singular masculine superlative of <pàprastas, paprastà> simple -- simplest
  • kláusimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kláusimas> question -- to the problem
  • sprendìmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sprendìmas> solution -- solution

Bèt Vasãris nùjautė, kàd jìs vargù ar̃ pajė̃gs išsižadė́ti tų̃ vilčių̃, kuriõs ìš daliẽs jį̃ į̃ seminãriją àtvedė.
  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • Vasãris -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Vasãris> Vasaris -- Vasaris
  • nùjautė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <nujaũsti, nujaũčia, nùjautė> feel -- felt
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • vargù -- particle; <vargù> hardly, scarcely -- hardly
  • ar̃ -- particle; <ar̃> if, or -- ...
  • pajė̃gs -- verb; 3rd person future of <pajė̃gti, pajė̃gia, pàjėgė> have the strength -- could... have the strength
  • išsižadė́ti -- verb; infinitive of <išsižadė́ti, išsìžada, išsižadė́jo> give up -- to give up
  • tų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- those
  • vilčių̃ -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <viltìs> hope -- hopes
  • kuriõs -- pronoun; nominative plural feminine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- which
  • ìš -- preposition; <ìš> from -- to
  • daliẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <dalìs> part -- some degree
  • jį̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • seminãriją -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <seminãrija> seminary -- the seminary
  • àtvedė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <atvèsti, àtveda, àtvedė> bring -- had brought

Seminãrijos gyvẽnimas, tiesà, gerókai jàs apgrióvė, tačiaũ tuo pačiù metù jisaĩ vìs dėlto pamãtė turį̃s tãlentą.
  • seminãrijos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <seminãrija> seminary -- seminary
  • gyvẽnimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gyvẽnimas> life -- life
  • tiesà -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <tiesà> truth -- indeed
  • gerókai -- adverb; <gerókai> rather -- practically
  • jàs -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- them
  • apgrióvė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <apgriáuti, apgriáuna, apgrióvė> destroy -- had... destroyed
  • tačiaũ -- conjunction; <tačiaũ> but -- but
  • tuo pačiù -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tas pàts, ta patì> same -- the same
  • metù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <mẽtas> time -- at... time
  • jisaĩ -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • vìs dėlto -- particle; <vìs dėlto> nevertheless -- nevertheless
  • pamãtė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pamatýti, pamãto, pamãtė> see -- saw
  • turį̃s -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle active of <turė́ti, tùri, turė́jo> have -- (that) he had
  • tãlentą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <tãlentas> talent -- talent

Ir̃ dabar̃ vìsko išsižadė́ti?
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • dabar̃ -- adverb; <dabar̃> now -- now
  • vìsko -- pronoun; genitive singular of <vìskas> everything -- everything
  • išsižadė́ti -- verb; infinitive of <išsižadė́ti, išsìžada, išsižadė́jo> give up -- to give up

Nè, taĩ negãlimas dáiktas.
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- no
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • negãlimas -- negative particle; <ne> not + adjective; nominative singular masculine of <gãlimas, galimà> impossible -- (is) impossible
  • dáiktas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <dáiktas> thing -- (a) thing

Antràsis galimùmas siū́lė jám sudẽrinti kūrýbą sù kùnigišku gyvẽnimu.
  • antràsis -- definite number; nominative singular masculine of <añtras, antrà> other -- the second
  • galimùmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <galimùmas> possibility -- possibility
  • siū́lė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <siū́lyti, siū́lo, siū́lė> offer -- offered
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • sudẽrinti -- verb; infinitive of <sudẽrinti, sudẽrina, sudẽrino> reconcile -- to reconcile
  • kūrýbą -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <kūrýba> creativity -- creativity
  • -- preposition; <sù> with -- with
  • kùnigišku -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <kùnigiškas, kùnigiška> priestly -- priestly
  • gyvẽnimu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <gyvẽnimas> life -- the... life

Bèt kaĩp?
  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • kaĩp -- adverb; <kaĩp> how -- how

Lig šiõl jám taĩ nepavỹko.
  • lig šiõl -- adverb; <lig šiõl> up to now -- up to his time
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- ...
  • nepavỹko -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person preterit of <pavỹkti, pavỹksta, pavỹko> succeed -- had not succeeded

Jìs žinójo ir̃ tikė́jo, kàd Diẽvas yrà visókios tobulýbės, grõžio ir̃ kilniáusios poèzijos šaltìnis.
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • žinójo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <žinóti, žìno, žinójo> know -- knew
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • tikė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <tikė́ti, tìki, tikė́jo> believe -- believed
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • Diẽvas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Diẽvas> God -- God
  • yrà -- verb; 3rd person present of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- is
  • visókios -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <visóks, visókia> all -- all
  • tobulýbės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <tobulýbė> perfection -- of... perfection
  • grõžio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <grõžis> beauty -- beauty
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • kilniáusios -- adjective; genitive singular feminine superlative of <kilnùs, kilnì> noble -- the noblest
  • poèzijos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <poèzija> poetry -- poetry
  • šaltìnis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <šaltìnis> source -- the source

Bèt kodė̃l visì relìginiai, doróviniai, amžinõsios tiesõs, gė̃rio ir̃ grõžio motỹvai jį̃ palìkdavo šáltą kaĩp lẽdą, õ kūrýbinis lỹrinis susijáudinimas vèsdavo į̃ gyvẽnimo žabángas ir̃ pavojùs?
  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • kodė̃l -- adverb; <kodė̃l> why -- why
  • visì -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <vìsas, visà> all -- all the
  • relìginiai -- adjective; nominative plural masculine <relìginis, relìginė> religious -- religious
  • doróviniai -- adjective; nominative plural masculine <doróvinis, doróvinė> moral -- (and) moral
  • amžinõsios -- definite adjective; genitive singular feminine of <ámžinas, amžinà> eternal -- eternal
  • tiesõs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <tiesà> truth -- of... truth
  • gė̃rio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gė̃ris> goodness -- goodness
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • grõžio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <grõžis> beauty -- beauty
  • motỹvai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <motỹvas> motif -- motifs
  • jį̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • palìkdavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <palìkti, paliẽka, palìko> leave -- did... leave
  • šáltą -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <šáltas, šaltà> cold -- (as) cold
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • lẽdą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <lẽdas> ice -- ice
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- whereas
  • kūrýbinis -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <kūrýbinis, kūrýbinė> creative -- creative
  • lỹrinis -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <lỹrinis, lỹrinė> lyric -- lyric
  • susijáudinimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <susijáudinimas> emotion, excitement -- emotion
  • vèsdavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <vèsti, vẽda, vẽdė> lead -- led
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • gyvẽnimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gyvẽnimas> life -- of life
  • žabángas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <žabánga> trap, snare -- the traps
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • pavojùs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <pavõjus> danger -- dangers

Õ trečiàsis galimùmas tuõ metù jám bùvo dár tìk pradė́jęs aiškė́ti.
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- and
  • trečiàsis -- definite number; nominative singular masculine of <trẽčias, trečià> third -- the third
  • galimùmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <galimùmas> possibility -- possibility
  • tuõ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • metù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <mẽtas> time -- at ... moment
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- had
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- just
  • tìk -- particle; <tìk> only -- ...
  • pradė́jęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pradė́ti, pràdeda, pradė́jo> begin -- begun
  • aiškė́ti -- verb; infinitive of <aiškė́ti, aiškė́ja, aiškė́jo> become clear -- to become clear

Jõ patiẽs prãktika ródė jám, kàd "kunigãvimas" ir̃ "poetãvimas" yrà dù visái skirtìngi, jéigu nè príešingi, pašaukìmai.
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • patiẽs -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <pàts, patì> own -- own
  • prãktika -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <prãktika> practice -- practice
  • ródė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <ródyti, ródo, ródė> show -- had shown
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • kunigãvimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kunigãvimas> being a priest -- being a priest
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • poetãvimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <poetãvimas> poeticizing -- poeticizing
  • yrà -- verb; 3rd person present of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- are
  • -- number; nominative masculine of <dù, dvì> two -- two
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- completely
  • skirtìngi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <skirtìngas, skirtìnga> different -- different
  • jéigu -- conjunction; <jéigu> if -- if
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- not
  • príešingi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <príešingas, príešinga> opposing -- opposing
  • pašaukìmai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pašaukìmas> vocation -- vocations

Tàd kám juõs būtinaĩ jùngti?
  • tàd -- conjunction; <tàd> then, thus -- then
  • kám -- adverb; <kám> why -- why
  • juõs -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- them
  • būtinaĩ -- adverb; <būtinaĩ> necessary -- (is it)necessary
  • jùngti -- verb; infinitive of <jùngti, jùngia, jùngė> unite, join -- to unite

"Kaĩp kùnigas, àš nè poètas, õ kaĩp poètas, àš nè kùnigas."
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • kùnigas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kùnigas> priest -- a priest
  • àš -- pronoun; nominative singular of <àš> I -- I
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- (am) not
  • poètas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <poètas> poet -- a poet
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- and
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • poètas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <poètas> poet -- a poet
  • àš -- pronoun; nominative singular of <àš> I -- I
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- (am) not
  • kùnigas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kùnigas> priest -- a priest

Štaĩ fòrmulė, kurià Liùdas Vasãris savè apgaudinė́jo ìlgą laĩką.
  • štaĩ -- particle; <štaĩ> here -- this (is)
  • fòrmulė -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <fòrmulė> formula -- the formula
  • kurià -- pronoun; instrumental singular feminine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- with which
  • Liùdas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Liùdas> Liudas -- Liudas
  • Vasãris -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Vasãris> Vasaris -- Vasaris
  • savè -- pronoun; accusative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- himself
  • apgaudinė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <apgaudinė́ti, apgaudinė́ja, apgaudinė́jo> deceive -- deceived
  • ìlgą -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <ìlgas, ilgà> long -- long
  • laĩką -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <laĩkas> time -- for a... time

Šìto psichològinio sofìzmo, įvairiomìs atmainomìs gyvẽnime ganà dažnaĩ sutiñkamo, jisaĩ nusitvė́rė kaĩp skę̃stąs šiaudẽlio.
  • šìto -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <šìtas, šità> this -- this
  • psichològinio -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <psichològinis, psichològinė> psychological -- psychological
  • sofìzmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <sofìzmas> sophism -- for... sophism
  • įvairiomìs -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <įvairùs, įvairì> various, different -- various
  • atmainomìs -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <atmainà> guise -- in... guises
  • gyvẽnime -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <gyvẽnimas> life -- in life
  • ganà -- adverb; <ganà> rather -- rather
  • dažnaĩ -- adverb; <dažnaĩ> frequently, often -- frequently
  • sutiñkamo -- verb; genitive singular masculine of present participle passive of <sutìkti, sutiñka, sutìko> encounter, come across -- encountered
  • jisaĩ -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • nusitvė́rė -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <nusitvérti, nusìtveria, nusitvė́rė> grasp -- grasped
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- like
  • skę̃stąs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle active of <skę̃sti, skę̃sta, skeñdo> drown -- a drowning (man)
  • šiaudẽlio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <šiaudẽlis> straw -- (grasping) for a straw

Šità iliùzija ìlgus metùs laĩkė jį̃ pavir̃šiuj, jìs "kunigãvo" ir̃ "poetãvo", õ tuõ tárpu kùnigas ir̃ poètas vãrė jamè žūtbūtìnę tarpùsavio kõvą.
  • šità -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <šìtas, šità> this -- this
  • iliùzija -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <iliùzija> illusion -- illusion
  • ìlgus -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <ìlgas, ilgà> long -- long
  • metùs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <mẽtai> year -- for... years
  • laĩkė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <laikýti, laĩko, laĩkė> keep -- kept
  • jį̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • pavir̃šiuj -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <pavir̃šius> surface -- afloat
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • kunigãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <kunigáuti, kunigáuja, kunigãvo> be a priest -- acted as a priest
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • poetãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <poetáuti, poetáuja, poetãvo> be a poet -- acted as a poet
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- and
  • tuõ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- the same
  • tárpu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <tárpas> space, period -- at... time
  • kùnigas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kùnigas> priest -- the priest
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • poètas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <poètas> poet -- poet
  • vãrė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <varýti, vãro, vãrė> be engaged -- were engaged in
  • jamè -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- in him
  • žūtbūtìnę -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <žūtbūtìnis, žūtbūtìnė> desperate -- desperate
  • tarpùsavio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <tarpùsavis> between oneself -- ...
  • kõvą -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <kovà> battle, struggle -- a ... struggle

Jisaĩ užfiksãvo daũgelį šiõs kovõs momeñtų ir̃ mãnė, kàd kùria poèziją.
  • jisaĩ -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • užfiksãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <užfiksúoti, užfiksúoja, užfiksãvo> capture -- wrote down
  • daũgelį -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <daũgelis> many -- many
  • šiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <šìs, šì> this -- this
  • kovõs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <kovà> battle, struggle -- of ... struggle
  • momeñtų -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <momeñtas> moment -- of the moments
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • mãnė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <manýti, mãno, mãnė> think -- thought
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • kùria -- verb; 3rd person present of <kùrti, kùria, kū́rė> create -- (he) was creating
  • poèziją -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <poèzija> poetry -- poetry

Tuõ tárpu jìs rãšė sàvo žuvìmo kròniką, vienur̃ kitur̃ pamárgintą tikrù kūrýbos žíedu - liūdnù jõ tãlento liùdininku.
  • tuõ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- the same
  • tárpu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <tárpas> space, period -- at... time
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • rãšė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <rašýti, rãšo, rãšė> write -- was writing
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • žuvìmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <žuvìmas> ruin -- of... ruin
  • kròniką -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <krònika> chronicle -- the chronicle
  • vienur̃ -- adverb; <vienur̃> in one place -- here
  • kitur̃ -- adverb; <kitur̃> elsewhere -- (and) there
  • pamárgintą -- verb; accusative singular feminine of preterit participle passive of <pamárginti, pamárgina, pamárgino> mark -- marked
  • tikrù -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <tìkras, tikrà> genuine -- true
  • kūrýbos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <kūrýba> creativity -- of creativity
  • žíedu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <žíedas> blossom, flower -- by a... spark
  • liūdnù -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <liū̃dnas, liūdnà> sad -- sad
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • tãlento -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <tãlentas> talent -- of... talent
  • liùdininku -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <liùdininkas> witness -- the... witness

Lesson Text

Pirmàsis galimùmas bùvo visái mèsti tą̃ poèziją ir̃ visàs tàs svajonès. Taĩ bū́tų tinkamiáusias ir̃ paprasčiáusias kláusimo sprendìmas. Bèt Vasãris nùjautė, kàd jìs vargù ar̃ pajė̃gs išsižadė́ti tų̃ vilčių̃, kuriõs ìš daliẽs jį̃ į̃ seminãriją àtvedė. Seminãrijos gyvẽnimas, tiesà, gerókai jàs apgrióvė, tačiaũ tuo pačiù metù jisaĩ vìs dėlto pamãtė turį̃s tãlentą. Ir̃ dabar̃ vìsko išsižadė́ti? Nè, taĩ negãlimas dáiktas. Antràsis galimùmas siū́lė jám sudẽrinti kūrýbą sù kùnigišku gyvẽnimu. Bèt kaĩp? Lig šiõl jám taĩ nepavỹko. Jìs žinójo ir̃ tikė́jo, kàd Diẽvas yrà visókios tobulýbės, grõžio ir̃ kilniáusios poèzijos šaltìnis. Bèt kodė̃l visì relìginiai, doróviniai, amžinõsios tiesõs, gė̃rio ir̃ grõžio motỹvai jį̃ palìkdavo šáltą kaĩp lẽdą, õ kūrýbinis lỹrinis susijáudinimas vèsdavo į̃ gyvẽnimo žabángas ir̃ pavojùs? Õ trečiàsis galimùmas tuõ metù jám bùvo dár tìk pradė́jęs aiškė́ti. Jõ patiẽs prãktika ródė jám, kàd "kunigãvimas" ir̃ "poetãvimas" yrà dù visái skirtìngi, jéigu nè príešingi, pašaukìmai. Tàd kám juõs būtinaĩ jùngti? "Kaĩp kùnigas, àš nè poètas, õ kaĩp poètas, àš nè kùnigas." Štaĩ fòrmulė, kurià Liùdas Vasãris savè apgaudinė́jo ìlgą laĩką. Šìto psichològinio sofìzmo, įvairiomìs atmainomìs gyvẽnime ganà dažnaĩ sutiñkamo, jisaĩ nusitvė́rė kaĩp skę̃stąs šiaudẽlio. Šità iliùzija ìlgus metùs laĩkė jį̃ pavir̃šiuj, jìs "kunigãvo" ir̃ "poetãvo", õ tuõ tárpu kùnigas ir̃ poètas vãrė jamè žūtbūtìnę tarpùsavio kõvą. Jisaĩ užfiksãvo daũgelį šiõs kovõs momeñtų ir̃ mãnė, kàd kùria poèziją. Tuõ tárpu jìs rãšė sàvo žuvìmo kròniką, vienur̃ kitur̃ pamárgintą tikrù kūrýbos žíedu - liūdnù jõ tãlento liùdininku.

Translation

The first possibility was to completely abandon poetry and all those dreams. That would be the most appropriate and simplest solution to the problem. But Vasaris felt that he could hardly have the strength to give up those hopes, which to some degree had brought him to the seminary. Seminary life, indeed, had practically destroyed them, but at the same time he saw that he had talent nevertheless. And now to give up everything? No, that is an impossible thing.
The second possibility offered him (the chance) to reconcile creativity with the priestly life. But how? Up to this time he had not succeeded. He knew and believed that God is the source of all perfection, beauty and the noblest poetry. But why did all the religious and moral motifs of eternal truth, goodness and beauty leave him as cold as ice, whereas creative lyric emotion led to the traps and dangers of life?
But at that moment the third possibility just began to become clear. His own practice had shown him that being a priest and poeticizing are two completely different, if not opposing vocations. Then why is it necessary to unite them? 'As a priest I am not a poet, and as a poet I am not a priest.' This is the formula with which Liudas Vasaris deceived himself for a long time. Like a drowning man (grasping) for a straw, he grasped for this psychological sophism, rather frequently encountered in various guises in life. For long years this illusion kept him afloat; he acted as a priest and acted as a poet, and at the same time the priest and poet in him were engaged in a desperate struggle. He wrote down many of the moments of this struggle and thought that he was creating poetry. At the same time he was writing the chronicle of his ruin, here and there marked by a true spark of creativity, the sad witness of his talent.

Grammar

11 The Accent Classes of the Nouns

There are four accent classes of the nouns in Lithuanian. The principal criterion for the attribution of a noun to one or another class is its stress pattern in the dative and the accusative plural. Some nouns have a constant stress, e.g., in all cases the stress falls on one and the same syllable. But in the majority of nouns the stress alternates between the ending and the stem.

Accentuation is rather difficult even for native speakers. In colloquial Lithuanian they often shift the stress from the short ending to the stem.

The current four accent classes developed from the earlier two accent paradigms (the barytone (fixed) stress paradigm and the mobile stress paradigm). The shifting of the stress defined by de Saussure's law determined the development of the present Lithuanian accentuation system. According to this law, the stress passes from a short or circumflex (rising) syllabic nucleus to an acute (falling) one.

In dictionaries the accent class is indicated in Arabic numerals: 1; 2; 3; 4; e.g., áuksas 1 'gold'; pir̃štas 2 'finger'; béržas 3 'birch'; ausìs 4 'ear'. Knowing the peculiarities of each accent class, we can locate the stress and use the appropriate accent in all the forms of the noun. Dictionary listings of adjectives, numerals and pronouns provide information on accent class.

11.1 The First Accent Class

The first accent class comprises nouns which in the dative and accusative plural always have their stress on one and the same syllable of the stem.

In two-syllable nouns the stress is always on the first syllable and it is always an acute, e.g., kója 'leg'; žéntas 'son-in-law'. In polysyllabic nouns, one can have either the acute or the circumflex, or the syllable may be short, e.g., vãsara 'summer'; bū́sena 'state, condition'; dìdvyris 'hero'. But when the stress falls on the penultimate syllable only the acute is possible, e.g., saváitė 'week'; varnė́nas 'starling'.

The stress always remains on the same syllable in all the cases in the singular and plural if the noun belongs to the first accent class. This is the most important feature of the first accent class.

Nom sg   kója 'leg'   žìrnis 'pea'   ãdata 'needle'   lùpena 'peel'
Gen sg   kójos   žìrnio   ãdatos   lùpenos
Dat sg   kojai   žìrniui   ãdatai   lùpenai
Acc sg   kóją   žìrnį   ãdatą   lùpeną
Inst sg   kója   žìrniu   ãdata   lùpena
Loc sg   kójoj(e)   žìrny(je)   ãdatoj(e)   lùpenoj(e)
Voc sg   kója   žìrni   ãdata   lùpena
                 
Nom pl   kójos   žìrniai   ãdatos   lùpenos
Gen pl   kójų   žìrnių   ãdatų   lùpemų
Dat pl   kójom(s)   žìrniam(s)   ãdatom(s)   lùpenom(s)
Acc pl   kójas   žìrnius   ãdatas   lùpenas
Inst pl   kójom(is)   žìniais   ãdatom(is)   lùpenom(is)
Loc pl   kójose   žìrniuos(e)   ãdatose   lùpenose
Voc pl   kójos   žìrniai   ãdatos   lùpenos
11.2 The Second Accent Class

The second accent class comprises nouns which in the dative plural have their stress on the stem, while in the accusative plural they are stressed on the ending, e.g., dative plural bãtams 'shoes', acc.pl. batùs; dat.pl. pùpoms 'beans', acc.pl. pupàs.

The penultimate syllable has the circumflex or the short intonation. The circumflex or the short stress remains constant, except: in the (a) instrumental singular and (b) accusative plural. If the noun ends in -as, then in addition to the two cases above, the locative singular is also stressed on the ending, e.g., loc.sg. batè 'shoe'. If the noun has -a in nominative singular, then this -a is stressed, e.g., nom.sg. pupà 'bean'.

Nom sg   pir̃štas 'finger'   vištà 'hen'   laũmė 'witch'
Gen sg   pir̃što   vìštos   laũmės
Dat sg   pir̃štui   vìštai   laũmei
Acc sg   pir̃štą   vìštą   laũmę
Inst sg   pirštù   vištà   laumè
Loc sg   pirštè   vìštoj(e)   laũmėj(e)
Voc sg   pir̃šte   vìšta   laũme
             
Nom pl   pir̃štai   vìštos   laũmės
Gen pl   pir̃štų   vìštų   laũmių
Dat pl   pir̃štam(s)   vìštom(s)   laũmėm(s)
Acc pl   pirštùs   vištàs   laumès
Inst pl   pir̃štais   vìštom(is)   laũmėm(is)
Loc pl   pir̃štuos(e)   vìštose   laũmėse
Voc pl   pir̃štai   vìštos   laũmės
12 Pronouns
12.1 The Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns refer to:

  • a definite person or phenomenon (tàs, 'this', 'that'; šìs, šì, šìtas, šìta / šità 'this'; anàs, anà 'that'; tas pàts, ta patì 'the same');
  • a definite property of a person or phenomenon (tóks, tokià 'such a'; šióks, šiokià, šìtoks, šìtokia 'this kind of'; anóks, anókia 'that kind of');
  • a situation (taĩ 'it'; šìta(i) 'it', tas pàt(s) 'the same').

The demonstrative šìs contrasts with tàs. Both šìs and tàs contrast with anàs which denotes a third object which is farther away than objects referred to by tàs, e.g.,

  • Šis nãmas yrà màno, tàs nãmas yrà tàvo, õ anàs nãmas yrà jõ
  • 'This house is mine, that house is yours, but the one over there is his'.

Demonstrative pronouns can be used both as nouns and as adjectives, e.g.,

  • Draugaĩ kviẽčia Diãną eĩti papietáuti, õ šì sė́di ir̃ žiū̃ri prõ lángą 'Friends invite Diana to go out to dinner, but she (the latter) sits and looks out the window'.
  • Bèt Vasãris nùjautė, kàd jìs vargù ar̃ pajė̃gs išsižadė́ti tų̃ vilčių̃ 'But Vasaris felt that he could hardly have the strength to give up those hopes'.

When šìs, šì, tàs, , anàs, anà are used as adjectives (before a noun), they contribute definite status to the noun.

The pronouns šìtoks, šìtokia, tóks, tokià can also used before nouns as intensifiers, e.g., Šìtokia baisì avãrija 'such a terrible accident'.

The declension of šìs, šì is like that of the personal pronouns jìs, . The demonstrative pronouns tàs, and tòks, tokià are declined as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   tàs 'this'     tóks 'such a'   tokià
Gen sg     tõs   tókio   tokiõs
Dat sg   tám   tái   tokiám   tókiai
Acc sg   tą̃     tókį   tókią
Inst sg   tuõ     tókiu   tokià
Loc sg   tamè   tojè   tokiamè   tokiojè
    tam̃   tõj   tokiam̃   tokiõj
                 
Nom pl   tiẽ   tõs   tokiẽ   tókios
Gen pl   tų̃   tų̃   tokių̃   tokių̃
Dat pl   tíems   tóms   tokíems   tokióms
    tíem   tóm   tokíem   tokióm
Acc pl   tuõs   tàs   tókius   tókias
Inst pl   taĩs   tomìs   tokiaĩs   tokiomìs
        tõm       tokiõm
Loc pl   tuosè   tosè   tokiuosè   tokiosè
    tuõs       tokiuõs    

The declension of šìtas, šità is exactly like that of tàs, . Anóks, anókia and šìtoks, šìtokia have the same endings as tóks, tokià, but the stress pattern is different (always on the same syllable). These pronouns have influenced the declension of the adjectives.

12.2 The Interrogative and Relative Pronouns

All intrrogative and relative pronouns begin with the consonant k: kàs 'what', 'who'; kóks, kokià 'what kind of'; kurìs, kurì 'which'; katràs, katrà 'which of two'; kelì, kẽlios 'how many', kelerì, kẽlerios 'how many (used with pluralia tantum); keliñtas, kelintà 'which'.

The interrogative pronoun kàs 'who, what' is declined as follows:

Nom sg   kàs 'who, what'
Gen sg   , kienõ
Dat sg   kám
Acc sg   ką̃
Inst sg   kuõ
Loc sg   kamè

This pronoun has no plural declension and it may refer to either masculine or feminine nouns or pronouns. Kienõ 'whose', 'of whom', 'by whom' is used to denote possession or as the subject or agent of a passive verbal construction, whereas is reserved for other genitive uses, cf:

  • Kàs jį̃ sumušė? 'Who beat him up'?
  • Kienõ jìs bùvo sùmuštas? 'By whom was he beaten up'?
  • Kõ jám nepasìsekė išvéngti? 'What was he not able to avoid'?

Kóks, kokià are declined like tóks, tokià; kurìs, kurì are declined like jìs, ; katràs, katrà are declined like tàs, ; kelerì, kẽlerios are declined like kelì, kẽlios; keliñtas, kelintà are declined like regular adjectives.

Kelì and kẽlios are used only in the plural:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom   kelì 'how many'   kẽlios
Gen   kelių̃   kelių̃
Dat   kelíems, keliém   kelióms, kelióm
Acc   kelìs   keliàs
Inst   keliaĩs   keliomìs, keliõm
Loc   keliuosè, keliuõs   keliosè

When these pronouns introduce a direct question, they are interrogatives:

  • Kienõ tàs automobìlis? 'Whose car is that'?
  • Kàs gãli atsakýti į̃ šį̃ klaúsimą? 'Who can answer this question'?
  • Kurì suknẽlė táu patiñka? 'Which dress do you like?'
  • Kókias knygàs jū̃s pardavinė́jate? 'What kind of books do you sell'?

Kas, kurìs, kurì, kóks, kokià can also be used as relative pronouns. The number and the gender of the relative pronoun are determined by the word to which it refers, but the case of this pronoun is determined by its use in the clause of which it is a part, e.g.:

  • Mán patiñka tà suknẽlė, kurią̃ tù mán nupirkaĩ
  • 'I like the dress which you have bought for me'.

The relative pronoun kurią̃ is feminine and singular because it refers to suknẽlė which is feminine and singular, but it is in the accusative case because it is the object of the verb nupirkaĩ.

Kokià žiemà, tokià ir̃ vãsara 'Whatever the winter is (like) thus also is the summer'.

12.3 The Indefinite Pronouns

Kàs 'someone', 'somebody', 'something' may be used as an indefinite pronoun by itself, e.g., Jám turbū́t pasivaidẽno kàs 'He probably imagined somebody'.

Kàs, kòks and kurìs also may be used in conjunction with nórs, kažì(n) and kaž-. Kas nórs, koks nórs, kuris nórs have the meaning 'someone', 'somebody', 'anybody' 'something', 'some kind of':

  • Gál norė́tų kas nórs padirbė́ti?
  • 'Would anybody like to work for some time'?

Kažkàs, kažkóks, kažkurìs share a common semantic element meaning 'uncertain', someone not known', 'what', 'which', 'what kind of'. The same meaning is shared by the corresponding compound pronouns with the first component kažì(n), e.g., kaži(n) kàs, kaži(n) kóks, kaži(n) kurìs:

  • Tòmas išvýdo kažin kókį keĩstą dáiktą
  • 'Tomas saw some strange thing'.
13 Adjective Inflection

Adjectives agree in gender, number and case with words they modify. As attributes, adjectives can be used only with nouns, e.g., pàprastas sprendìmas 'a simple decision'.

There are three gender forms of adjectives in Lithuanian: masculine, feminine and neuter. All adjectives can have masculine forms and the respective feminine forms, e.g., nominative singular masculine liū̃dnas 'sad', kilnùs 'noble'; nominative singular feminine liūdnà, kilnì. The neuter forms can be derived by dropping the -s from the masculine nominative singular, cf.: nominative singular masculine liū̃dnas and neuter liū̃dna; nominative singular masculine kilnùs and neuter kilnù. These forms are generally used in certain impersonal constructions as part of the nominal predicate:

  • Mán liū̃dna 'I am sad' (lit. 'To me is sad');
  • Čià bùvo tamsù 'Here it was dark'.

The present tense forms of bū́ti 'to be' are mostly omitted in such sentences.

The qualitative adjectives have degrees of comparison. As in English, there are three basic degrees of comparison in Lithuanian: the positive, the comparative, and the superlative, e.g., positive liū̃dnas 'sad', sunkùs 'difficult', 'heavy'; comparative liūdnèsnis 'sadder', sunkèsnis 'more difficult', 'heavier'; superlative liūdniáusias 'the saddest', sunkiáusias 'the most difficult', 'the heaviest'. Descriptive adjectives can have definite forms, which in addition to their lexical meaning of the quality contribute definite status to the noun they determine, e.g., amžinóji tiesà 'the eternal truth'. Historically, definite forms derived from the blend of adjectival endings with the pronoun jìs 'he', 'she', e.g., amžinàsis 'eternal-he', amžinóji 'eternal-she'.

Masculine and feminine adjectives have two numbers: singular and plural.

All adjectives are traditionally classified into three declensions. The easiest way to determine which declension an adjective belongs is by checking the endings in the nominative singular and the nominative plural.

Declension   Nom.sg.masc.   Nom.pl.masc.   Nom.sg.fem.   Nom.pl.fem.   Stem
1st   -(i)as   -i           (i)a
            -(i)a   -(i)os   (i)o
2nd   -us   -ūs           (i)u
            -i   -ios   (i)o
3rd   -is   -iai           (i)a
            -ė   -ės   ė

The declension of masculine and feminine adjectives is quite different. Since early times, feminine adjectives were declined like nouns, but the masculine adjectives have adopted some of the endings of the gendered pronouns, cf.: dative singular masculine liūdnám 'sad' and tám 'that'; locative singular masculine liūdnamè and tamè; nominative plural masculine liūdnì and tiẽ; dative plural masculine liūdníems and tíems.

13.2 First Declension Adjectives

All adjectives ending in -(i)as (masculine nominative singular) and -(i)a (feminine nominative singular) belong to the first declension. The declension of these adjectives should be compared with that of the first and second declension nouns. The declension of the masculine adjectives differs in the dative and locative singular and the nominative and dative plural from that of the first declension nouns.

The forms of the 1st declension adjectives are as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   pìktas 'angry'   piktà   žãlias 'green'   žalià
Gen sg   pìkto   piktõs   žãlio   žaliõs
Dat sg   piktám   pìktai   žaliám   žãliai
Acc sg   pìktą   pìktą   žãlią   žãlią
Inst sg   piktù   piktà   žaliù   žalià
Loc sg   piktamè   piktojè   žaliamè   žaliojè
    piktam̃   piktõj   žaliam̃   žaliõj
Voc sg   pìktas   piktà   žãlias   žalià
                 
Nom pl   piktì   pìktos   žalì   žãlios
Gen pl   piktų̃   piktų̃   žalių̃   žalių̃
Dat pl   piktíems   piktóms   žalíems   žalióms
    piktíem   piktóm   žalíem   žalióm
Acc pl   piktùs   piktàs   žaliùs   žaliàs
Inst pl   piktaĩs   piktomìs   žaliaĩs   žaliomìs
        piktõm       žaliõm
Loc pl   piktuosè   piktosè   žaliuosè   žaliosè
    piktuõs       žaliuõs    
Voc pl   piktì   pìktos   žalì   žãlios
13.3 Second Declension Adjectives

Adjectives belonging to the 2nd declension are characterized by the ending -us in the masculine nominative singular and the ending -i in the feminine nominative singular.

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   gilùs 'deep'   gilì   saldùs 'sweet'   saldì
Gen sg   gilaũs   giliõs   saldaũs   saldžiõs
Dat sg   giliám   gìliai   saldžiám   sáldžiai
Acc sg   gìlų   gìlią   sáldų   sáldžią
Inst sg   giliù   gilià   sáldžiu   sáldžia
Loc sg   giliamè   giliojè   saldžiamè   saldžiojè
    giliam̃   giliõj   saldžiam̃   saldžiõj
Voc sg   gilùs   gilì   saldùs   saldì
                 
Nom pl   gìlūs   gìlios   sáldūs   sáldžios
Gen pl   gilių̃   gilių̃   saldžių̃   saldžių̃
Dat pl   gilíems   gilióms   saldíems   saldžióms
    gilíem   gilióm   saldíem   saldžióm
Acc pl   giliùs   giliàs   sáldžius   sáldžias
Inst pl   giliaĩs   giliomìs   saldžiaĩs   saldžiomìs
        giliõm       saldžiõm
Loc pl   giliuosè   giliosè   saldžiuosè   saldžiosè
    giliuõs       saldžiuõs    
Voc pl   gìlūs   gìlios   sáldūs   sáldžios

The -ti- and -di- of the feminine nominative singular are replaced by -či- and -dži- respectively in position before the vowels -a-, -o-, -u- in the second declension of adjectives, cf.: nominative singular masculine kartùs 'bitter' and instrumental singular masculine kárčiu; nominative singular masculine saldùs 'sweet' and instrumental singular masculine sáldžiu, etc. In this position, -č- and -- merely denote a soft or palatalized -č- or -- sound; the letter -i- here does not denote a vowel, but merely the softening or palatalization of the preceding consonant. The endings of the nouns of the 4th declension should be carefully compared with the masculine endings above, cf.: sūnùs 'son' and 'gilùs 'deep'. The endings of feminine nouns in -i of the second declension should be carefully compared with the feminine endings above, cf.: martì 'daughter-in-law' and saldì 'sweet'.

13.4 Third Declension Adjectives

The nominative singular of all adjectives in this declension ends in -is for the masculine and -ė for the feminine.

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   auksìnis 'golden'   auksìnė   vilnõnis 'woolen'   vilnõnė
Gen sg   auksìnio   auksìnės   vilnõnio   vilnõnės
Dat sg   auksìniam   auksìnei   vilnõniam   vilnõnei
Acc sg   auksìnį   auksìnę   vilnõnį   vilnõnę
Inst sg   auksiniù   auksinè   vilnoniù   vilnonè
Loc sg   auksìniame   auksìnėje   vilnõniame   vilnõnėje
    auksìniam   auksìnėj   vilnõniam   vilnõnėj
Voc sg   auksìni(s)   auksìne   vilnõni(s)   vilnõne
                 
Nom pl   auksìniai   auksìnės   vilnõniai   vilnõnės
Gen pl   auksìnių   auksìnių   vilnõnių   vilnõnių
Dat pl   auksìniams   auksìnėms   vilnõniams   vilnõnėms
    auksìniam   auksìnėm   vilnõniam   vilnõnėm
Acc pl   auksiniùs   auksinès   vilnoniùs   vilnonès
Inst pl   auksìniais   auksìnėmis   vilnõniais   vilnõnėmis
        auksìnėm       vilnõnėm
Loc pl   auksìniuose   auksìnėse   vilnõniuose   vilnõnėse
    auksìniuos       vilnõniuos    
Voc pl   auksìniai   auksìnės   vilnõniai   vilnõnės

Third declension adjectives are usually derived from nouns, cf.:

  • n. áuksas 'gold' and adj. auksìnis 'gold', 'golden';
  • n. vìlna 'wool' and adj. vilnõnis 'woolen';
  • n. ãkcija 'stock' and adj. ãkcinis 'joint-stock';
  • n. stãlas 'table', 'desk' and adj. stalìnis 'table', 'desk'.

Some adjectives of this declension are also derived from other adjectives and past passive participles, cf.:

  • adj. lýgus 'flat', 'even' and adj. lýginis 'even';
  • past.pass.ptc. pir̃ktas 'purchased', 'bought' and adj. pirktìnis 'purchased', 'bought'.
14 Mood
14.1 The Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive mood indicates a possible action. The simple forms of the subjunctive mood are formed by removing the infinitive ending -ti and adding the endings listed below:

1st sg   láuk-čiau 'I should wait'   turė́-čiau 'I should have'   bū́-čiau 'I should be'
2nd sg   láuk-tum   turė́-tum   bū́-tum
3rd sg   láuk-tų   turė́-tų   bū́-tų
             
1st pl   láuk-tume   turė́-tume   bū́-tume
    láuk-tumėm(e)   turė́-tumėm(e)   bū́-tumėm(e)
2nd pl   láuk-tute   turė́-tute   bū́-tute
    láuk-tumėt(e)   turė́-tumėt(e)   bū́-tumėt(e)
3rd pl   láuktų   turė́-tų   bū́-tų

The subjunctive mood has two parallel forms for the 1st and the 2nd person plural. It is commonly believed that the longer forms are more common than the shorter ones. In dialects and old writings there is an even greater variety of subjunctive forms.

The compound subjunctive forms consist of the simple forms of the auxiliary bū́ti 'to be' and active or passive participles, e.g., bū́tum žinójęs 'you would have known'; bū́tų žìnomas 'he would be known'.

As subjunctive mood forms have an infinitive stem, they preserve the stress and intonation of the infinitive.

The subjunctive mood may be used in both the main clause and the if-clause of a sentence which contains a contrary-to-fact condition, e.g.:

  • Jéi paprašýtum, paskõlinčiau 'If you would ask, I would lend';
  • Jéigu tù bū́tum protingèsnė, taĩp dabar̃ nekalbė́tum 'If you were wiser, you would not speak like this now'.

If there is no contrary-to-fact condition, then the subjunctive mood is not required, e.g., Jéi paprašýsi, paskõlinsiu 'If you ask, I shall lend'; Jéi netùri, neduók 'If you do not have, don't give'. The future tense (not the present, as in English) is used with jéi 'if', when a future time is implied.

The subjunctive mood is also used to express purpose, generally with the subordinating conjunction kàd 'that', 'in order that', e.g.,

  • Jis padėjo pìnigus añt stãlo, kád visì matýtų 'He put the money on the table in order that everyone would see (it)';
  • Àš nóriu, kà tù atvažiúotum 'I want you to come' (lit. I want that you would come).

Lithuanian does not use the object of a verb of wishing or saying as the subject of an infinitive as in English.

14.2 Imperative

There are three basic forms of imperative in Lithuanian: 2nd person singular, 1st person plural, and 2nd person plural. As a rule, the action is addressed to another person. Hence the most common forms of the imperative are 2nd person singular and 2nd person plural.

2nd sg   skaitýk 'read'   turė́k 'have'   bū́k
1st pl   skaitýkim(e)   turė́kim(e)   bū́kim(e)
2nd pl   skaitýkit(e)   turė́kit(e)   bū́kit(e)

The formation of these forms is fairly simple:

  • 2nd person singular: drop the -ti from the infinitive, add -k: skaity + k = skaitýk;
  • 1st person plural: drop the -ti from the infinitive, add -kime: skaity + kime = skaitýkim(e);
  • 2nd person plural: drop the -ti from the infinitive, add -kite: skaity + kite = skaitýkit(e).

The stress is the same as for the infinitive.

The 2nd person singular is used in addressing children, animals, close friends, members of the immediate family and God. The 2nd person plural is used to address a group of persons or animals, or to address one person politely. The 1st person plural renders the English 'let us', e.g., skaitykim 'let us read'.

Frequently the first person plural of the present tense when used without a pronoun has hortative meaning:

  • Per̃kam! 'Let's buy'!
  • Dainúojam! 'Let's sing'!
14.3 The Optative Mood

Traditionally, the imperative mood includes the forms of the optative (permisive) mood. The inclusion of the optative mood raises problems, since the optative mood is permissive, not imperative.

The optative may be formed by prefixing te- to the third person form of the verb, e.g., te-skaĩto 'may he (she) read', 'let him (her) read; te-eĩna 'may he (she) go', 'let him (her) go'. Sometimes these forms are created by a synthetic combination of tegul̃ 'let...' or tegù 'let...' with the third person of the verb, e.g., tegul̃ skaĩto 'may he (she) read', 'let him (her) read'; tegù eĩna 'may he (she) go', 'let him (her) go'.

An alternative formation is furnished by adding the endings -ai (for the verbs of the third conjungation) or -ie for other verbs to the present stem, e.g., 3 pres. skaĩt-o 'reads', opt. te-skaĩt-ai 'may he (she) read', 'let him (her) read'; 3 pres. eĩn-a 'goes', opt. te-ein-iẽ 'may he (she) go', 'let him (her) go'. These forms are recognized as archaic; they are found in older Lithuanian writings. The only verb used fairly often in Standard Lithuanian is the verb bū́ti 'to be': tebūniẽ, teesiẽ 'let it be'. They are also found in prayers:

  • Teesiẽ šveñtas tàvo var̃das 'Hallowed be Thy name';
  • Teateiniẽ tàvo karalỹstė 'Thy kingdom come';
  • Tebūniẽ tàvo valià kaĩp dangujè taĩp ir̃ žẽmėje 'Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven'.
15 Interrogative Words and Interrogative Sentences

In Lithuanian most interrogative sentences are similar in structure to declarative sentences. They can be marked by intonation alone and, sometimes, by word order:

  • Tù namiẽ? 'Are you at home'?;
  • Jìs tikraĩ gìmė Pietų̃ Ãfrikoje? 'Was he really born in South Africa'?
  • Rašýti baĩgėt? 'Did you finish writing'?

General questions either contain no interrogative marker, or may begin with the particles ar̃, ar̃gi, gál, nejaũ, nejaũgi. The affirmative answer begins with the affirmative particle taĩp 'yes', and the negative answer with 'no':

  • Ar̃ mẽs dalyváusime? 'Will we be taking part'?; Taĩp, bè jokiõs abejõnės 'Yes, without any doubt';
  • Gál jùms padė́ti? 'May I help you'? Ãčiū, nè (or nereĩkia) 'No, thank you' (or 'it is not necessary');
  • Nejaũgi jiẽ suklýdo? 'Did they really make a mistake'? Taip̃, suklýdo 'Yes, they did'.

Special questions usually require a concrete answer. They are formed with various case forms of the interrogative pronouns kàs 'who, what', kurìs 'which', kóks 'what (kind of)', kelì 'how many', keliñtas 'which' (of the ordinal number), and with the interrogative adverbs kur̃ 'where', kadà 'when', kaĩp 'how', kodė̃l 'why', kíek 'how many'. These markers are placed initially:

  • Kàs čià atsitìko? 'What has happened'? Dúrys užsìtrenkė 'The door slammed';
  • Kám tù norė́tum paskam̃binti? 'Whom would you like to call'? Sàvo draugáms Lietuvojè 'My friends in Lithuania';
  • Kur̃ jìs išvažiúoja? 'Where is he leaving for'? Į Kìniją 'For China'.
  • Kodė̃l jū̃s tóks pìktas? 'Why are you so angry'? 'Pa\mec^iau pinigi\ne*' 'I have lost my purse'.

Lithuanian also uses "tag questions" but, compared to English, they are less common. There are several ways to express 'do you', 'don't you', 'haven't you', 'will you', won't you', 'aren't you', etc., in Lithuanian. Literally the negative question ar̃ nè? means 'is it not', 'was it not', 'will it not (be)', etc. after positive statements. The word tiesà? 'true, correct'? can be used both after positive and negative statements. Ar̃ nè tiesà? 'is it not so'? is used after positive statements, but sometimes also after negative sentences or clauses:

  • Jì daininiñkė, ar̃ nè? 'She is a singer, isn't she'?
  • Mìlda niekadà nesugrį̃š, tiesà? 'Milda will never come back, will she'?
  • Žmónės yrà liñkę slė̃pti tikrúosius jausmùs, ar̃ nè tiesà? 'People have an inclination to hide their real feelings, don't they'?
  • Tù pasiteiravaĩ, kodė̃l jiẽ neatvỹko, ar̃ nè 'You asked why they had not come, didn't you'?

Baltic Online

Lesson 4: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

After the Second World War, East Prussia fell to Russia. Practically no local inhabitants remained in this land. All the Lithuanian place names of this area were replaced with Russian place names. Such a pitiless historical fate befell the land in which the first Lithuanian book, Martýnas Mãžvydas' Catechism (1547), was published, where Daniel Klein's first Lithuanian grammar (1653) appeared, where Jõnas Bretkū́nas for the first time translated the Bible, where the chef-d'oeuvre of world fame, Mẽtai 'The seasons' was written by Kristijõnas Doneláitis, where the first Lithuanian newspaper (1822) appeared, and where the first herald of the renaissance of the Lithuanian nation, the newspaper Aušrà 'Dawn' (1883-1886) was published.

Mãžvydas, Bretkū́nas, Doneláitis, etc. What do I know? Maybe I am their distant relative, said the author, Ievà Simonaitýtė, whose mother boasted that she was a descendant of the Old Prussians.

As Výtautas Kubìlius, one of the most prominent scholars of the Lithuanian literature, says, Ievà Simonaitýtė, writing her first novel The Fate of the Simoniai from the Village of Aukstujai (1935), felt it her duty as an artist (literally: 'with the artistic word') to encompass the picturesque aspect of Lithuania Minor, its historical memory, its spiritual substance. She was concerned with describing not only the obviously evident patriarchal way of life of the Prussian Lithuanians (lietùvninkai), but to look into remnants of the old beliefs and moral precepts in view of the German newcomers. She understood that the literature of a small nation would lose its roots if it did not consider the problems of national existence. Simonaitýtė poeticized the way of life of the Prussian Lithuanians considering it essential for the endurance and survival of the people. Still she felt the illusory character of such poeticization in the whirlpools of the XXth century unifying civilization and the policy of denationalization carried out by the great empires -- a cruel fate, coming to East Prussia after the raging 1709 plague destroyed seven generations of honorable Prussian Lithuanians. German colonists began to move into lands that had been thinned out by the plague. Here they act(ed) like the real masters. All the heroes of the chronicle of this family are marked with the elegy of defeat. Simonaitýtė feels that the time of this Lithuanian tribe is at an end. Only the old names recall many of their former habitats, and these old names will soon be changed. Simonaitýtė wrote The fate of the Simoniai from the village of Aukstujai, keeping before her eyes the model of the novel-family chronicle that is popular in the German Heimatdichtung literature.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Here we give a selection from the first pages of Aukstujũ Šimonių̃ likìmas. In it, the castle tower of the family of Simonis the boyar, built on the bank of the river Įsrà before the beginning of the raging plague of 1709, is described. This tower is the personified symbol of all of Lithuania Minor and its fate. Formerly it had been the tower of a strong Lithuanian castle that had protected Lithuanians from enemies. Now its protection is no longer needed, since the Lithuanians have long been in the power of foreigners. Yet the tower itself still doesn't understand how alone it is, neglected and comical, although it is still proud and retains in its memory the former Lithuanian power.

Simonaitýtė spoke the Samogitian Lithuanian dialect of the Klaĩpėda region. In this excerpt, she uses the definite form of the pronoun añs, ansaĩ 'that'; the particle mandìng, characteristic of this area, which means 'most likely, it seems to me'; the noun žizdraĩ, which means 'grains of sand, small particles of sand'; and the word ponỹstė, characteristic of old literature, which means 'kingdom, country'. Also, constructions with participles, gerunds and half-participles are abundantly used. This is one of the most characteristic features of the language of this area, e.g., piliẽs bū́ta 'there was, it seems, a castle'; ámžiams sleñkant 'the centuries passing, in the course of centuries'; gáudydami víenas kìtą 'chasing each other'; yrà užmir̃šęs 'have forgotten', etc. Definite forms are frequent in her work, although in this excerpt there are only two: griū̃vancioji pilìs 'the crumbling castle' and ansaĩ prótėvis 'that ancestor'. This excerpt reflects a somewhat different word order compared with contemporary standard Lithuanian, láisvės kokiõs 'some kind of freedom'; tvìrtus sáu, sàvo vaikáms ir̃ vaikų̃ vaikáms namùs, literally 'a solid, for himself, his children and his children's children, house'.

Šiañdien jaũ niẽkam nebereĩkia tõ bókšto sargýbos.
  • šiañdien -- adverb; <šiañdien> today -- today
  • jaũ -- particle; <jaũ> already, just -- ...
  • niẽkam -- pronoun; dative singular of <niẽkas> no one, nobody, nothing -- nobody
  • nebereĩkia -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person present of <reikė́ti, reĩkia, reikė́jo> need -- not need any more
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • bókšto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bókštas> tower -- of tower
  • sargýbos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <sargýba> guard, protection -- the protection

Šiañdien jõ plyšiúotos síenos nè tám, kàd lietùviai, čià pasislė̃pę, šáudytų sàvo strėlėmìs į̃ neàtmušamus príešus, kurių̃ pulkaĩ, nesuskaĩtomi kaĩp žizdraĩ priẽ jū́ros, púola bajõrų pìlį.
  • šiañdien -- adverb; <šiañdien> today -- today
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- its
  • plyšiúotos -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <plyšiúotas, plyšiúota> fissured, cracked -- fissured
  • síenos -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <síena> wall -- walls
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- (are) not
  • tám -- adverb; <tám> thereto -- there for
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • lietùviai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <lietùvis> Lithuanian -- Lithuanians
  • čià -- adverb; <čià> here -- here
  • pasislė̃pę -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <pasislė̃pti, pasìslepia, pasìslėpė> hidden -- hidden
  • šáudytų -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <šáudyti, šáudo, šáudė> shoot -- would shoot
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- their
  • strėlėmìs -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <strėlė̃> arrow -- arrows
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- at
  • neàtmušamus -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; accusative plural masculine of present participle passive of <atmùšti, àtmuša, àtmušė> repulse, repel -- unstoppable
  • príešus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <príešas> enemy -- enemies
  • kurių̃ -- conjunction; genitive plural masculine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- whose
  • pulkaĩ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pul̃kas> regiment -- regiments
  • nesuskaĩtomi -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle passive of <suskaitýti, suskaĩto, suskaĩtė> countless -- countless
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • žizdraĩ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <žìzdras> grain -- the grains (of sand)
  • priẽ -- preposition; <priẽ> at -- at
  • jū́ros -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <jū́ra> sea -- the seashore
  • púola -- verb; 3rd person present of <pùlti, púola, púolė> attack -- attack
  • bajõrų -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <bajõras> boyar -- the boyars'
  • pìlį -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <pilìs> castle -- castle

Taĩp, kitadõs čià tikrõs piliẽs bū́ta.
  • taĩp -- particle; <taĩp> so, therefore -- yes
  • kitadõs -- adverb; <kitadõs> once, sometime -- at one time
  • čià -- adverb; <čià> here -- here
  • tikrõs -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <tìkras, tikrà> genuine -- real
  • piliẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pilìs> castle -- a castle
  • bū́ta -- verb; neuter of preterit participle passive of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- there was

Bèt, ámžiams sleñkant, ir̃ griū̃vančioji pilìs lìko bè prasmė̃s.
  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • ámžiams -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ámžius> century -- centuries
  • sleñkant -- verb; present gerund(ive) of <sliñkti, sleñka, sliñko> pass, slip -- slipping by
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- even
  • griū̃vančioji -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present definite participle active of <griū́ti, griū̃va, griùvo> crumble -- crumbling
  • pilìs -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pilìs> castle -- the castle
  • lìko -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <lìkti, líeka, lìko> remain -- remained
  • -- preposition; <bè> before, without -- without
  • prasmė̃s -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <prasmė̃> sense, meaning -- meaning

Ir̃ víenas sumanùs Šimoniũ prótėvių pastãtė čionaĩ tvìrtus sáu, sàvo vaikáms ir̃ vaikũ vaikáms namùs, kuriuõs apliñkiniai bū̃rai rū́mais pràminė.
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- one
  • sumanùs -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sumanùs, sumanì> clever -- clever
  • Šimoniũ -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Šimónis> Simonis -- from among Simonis'
  • prótėvių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <prótėvis> ancestor -- ancestors
  • pastãtė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pastatýti, pastãto, pastãtė> build -- built
  • čionaĩ -- adverb; <čionaĩ> here -- here
  • tvìrtus -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <tvìrtas, tvirtà> solid, strong -- solid
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- for himself
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • vaikáms -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <vaĩkas> child -- for children
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • vaikũ -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <vaĩkas> child -- children's
  • vaikáms -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <vaĩkas> child -- for children
  • namùs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <namaĩ> house -- house
  • kuriuõs -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- which
  • apliñkiniai -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <apliñkinis, apliñkinė> neighboring -- neighboring
  • bū̃rai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <bū̃ras> peasant -- peasants
  • rū́mais -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural of <rū́mai> palace -- a palace
  • pràminė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pramiñti, pràmena, pràminė> call, name -- called

Visàs nereikalìngas kampúotas síenas ansaĩ prótėvis nugrióvė.
  • visàs -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <vìsas, visà> all -- all
  • nereikalìngas -- negative particle; <ne> not + adjective; accusative plural feminine of <reikalìngas, reikalìnga> necessary -- unnecessary
  • kampúotas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <kampúotas, kampúota> awkward -- awkward
  • síenas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <síena> wall -- the walls
  • ansaĩ -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <anàs, anà> that -- that
  • prótėvis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <prótėvis> ancestor -- ancestor
  • nugrióvė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <nugriáuti, nugriáuna, nugrióvė> destroy -- destroyed

Tìk bókštas pasilìko, nórs jõ taip jaũ nebereikė́jo.
  • tìk -- particle; <tìk> only -- only
  • bókštas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bókštas> tower -- the tower
  • pasilìko -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <pasilìkti, pasiliẽka, pasilìko> remain -- remained
  • nórs -- conjunction; <nórs> although -- although
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • taip jaũ -- adverb; <taip jaũ> also -- also
  • nebereikė́jo -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <reikė́ti, reĩkia, reikė́jo> need -- was unnecessary

Bèt bókštas ir̃ šiañdien dár nežìno, kàd jìs nebereikalìngas.
  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • bókštas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bókštas> tower -- the tower
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- even
  • šiañdien -- adverb; <šiañdien> today -- today
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- yet
  • nežìno -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person present of <žinóti, žìno, žinójo> know -- doesn't realize
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • nebereikalìngas -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + adjective; nominative singular masculine of <reikalìngas, reikalìnga> necessary -- is not necessary

Jìs dár, mandìng, nesuprañta dabartiẽs.
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- still
  • mandìng -- particle; <mandìng> seem -- (it) seems
  • nesuprañta -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person present of <supràsti, suprañta, suprãto> understand -- doesn't understand
  • dabartiẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <dabartìs> present -- the present

Jìs dár vis tebegyvẽna atsiminìmais ir̃ kaži kõ lýg láukia.
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • dár vis -- adverb; <dár vis> even, still -- even
  • tebegyvẽna -- verb; 3rd person present of <tebegyvénti, tebegyvẽna, tebegyvẽno> still live -- is still living
  • atsiminìmais -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural reflexive of <atsiminìmai> memories -- with memories
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • kaži kõ -- pronoun; genitive of <kaži kõ> something -- for something
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- as if
  • láukia -- verb; 3rd person present of <láukti, láukia, láukė> expect, wait -- is waiting

Nè láisvės kokiõs.
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- not
  • láisvės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <láisvė> freedom -- freedom
  • kokiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <kóks, kokià> any, some -- some kind of

Jìs visái yrà užmir̃šęs, kàd paskutìnė kadáise bùvusi kruvinà kovà baĩgėsi lietùvių nenáudai, ir̃ šiañdien jiẽ gyvẽna svetimõj ponỹstėj.
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- completely
  • yrà -- verb; 3rd person present of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- ...
  • užmir̃šęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <užmir̃šti, užmir̃šta, užmir̃šo> forget -- has forgotten
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • paskutìnė -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <paskutìnis, paskutìnė> last, final -- last
  • kadáise -- adverb; <kadáise> once, sometime -- in the past
  • bùvusi -- verb; nominative singular feminine of preterit participle active of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- (which) took place
  • kruvinà -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <krùvinas, kruvinà> bloody -- bloody
  • kovà -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <kovà> battle, struggle -- the battle
  • baĩgėsi -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <baĩgtis, baĩgiasi, baĩgėsi> end -- ended
  • lietùvių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <lietùvis> Lithuanian -- of the Lithuanians
  • nenáudai -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <nenaudà> disadvantage -- to the disadvantage
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • šiañdien -- adverb; <šiañdien> today -- now
  • jiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- they
  • gyvẽna -- verb; 3rd person present of <gyvénti, gyvẽna, gyvẽno> live -- live
  • svetimõj -- adjective; locative singular feminine of <svẽtimas, svetimà> foreign -- foreign
  • ponỹstėj -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <ponỹstė> kingdom, country -- in a country

Tiesà, jìs daũg kãro gaisrų̃ mãtęs, daũg kãro šauksmų̃ girdė́jęs, ir̃ tõ jìs neužmir̃šęs.
  • tiesà -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <tiesà> truth -- true
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • daũg -- adverb; <daũg> many, much -- many
  • kãro -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kãras> war -- of war
  • gaisrų̃ -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <gaĩsras> conflagration, fire -- conflagrations
  • mãtęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <matýti, mãto, mãtė> see -- has seen
  • daũg -- adverb; <daũg> many, much -- many
  • kãro -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kãras> war -- of war
  • šauksmų̃ -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <šaũksmas> call, cry -- calls
  • girdė́jęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <girdė́ti, gir̃di, girdė́jo> hear -- has heard
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • neužmir̃šęs -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <užmir̃šti, užmir̃šta, užmir̃šo> forget -- has not forgotten

Todė̃l jìs visadà dár pasireñgęs atmùšti kažkókį príešą, nórintį užpùlti Líetuvą.
  • todė̃l -- adverb; <todė̃l> therefore -- therefore
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • visadà -- adverb; <visadà> always -- always
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- still
  • pasireñgęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <pasireñgti, pasireñgia, pasìrengė> prepare -- is prepared
  • atmùšti -- verb; infinitive of <atmùšti, àtmuša, àtmušė> repulse, repel -- to repulse
  • kažkókį -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <kažkóks, kažkokià> some -- whatever
  • príešą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <príešas> enemy -- enemy
  • nórintį -- verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle active of <norė́ti, nóri, norė́jo> want -- (which)wants
  • užpùlti -- verb; infinitive of <užpùlti, užpúola, užpúolė> attack -- to attack
  • Líetuvą -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Lietuvà> Lithuania -- Lithuania

Juokìngas tàs sẽnis bókštas.
  • juokìngas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <juokìngas, juokìnga> comical -- is comical
  • tàs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • sẽnis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sẽnis> old man -- old man
  • bókštas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bókštas> tower -- tower

Jìs nė̃ pàts nebežìno, kàd tiẽ plyšiaĩ, kur̃ kitadõs lietùvių šaudỹklės kýšojo, šiañdien nèt labaĩ padidė́ję.
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • nė̃ -- particle; <nė̃> even -- even
  • pàts -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <pàts, patì> itself -- itself
  • nebežìno -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person present of <žinóti, žìno, žinójo> know -- doesn't know
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • tiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- those
  • plyšiaĩ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <plyšỹs> fissure, cleft -- fissures
  • kur̃ -- adverb; <kur̃> where -- where
  • kitadõs -- adverb; <kitadõs> once, sometime -- once
  • lietùvių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <lietùvis> Lithuanian -- of Lithuanians
  • šaudỹklės -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <šaudỹklė> gun -- guns
  • kýšojo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <kýšoti, kýšo, kýšojo> stick out -- stuck out
  • šiañdien -- adverb; <šiañdien> today -- today
  • nèt -- particle; <nèt> even -- even
  • labaĩ -- adverb; <labaĩ> very much -- much
  • padidė́ję -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active of <padidė́ti, padidė́ja, padidė́jo> increase -- have increased

Todė̃l jìs kar̃tais atródo lýg bedañtis senẽlis.
  • todė̃l -- adverb; <todė̃l> therefore -- therefore
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • kar̃tais -- adverb; <kar̃tais> sometimes -- sometimes
  • atródo -- verb; 3rd person present of <atródyti, atródo, atródė> look -- looks
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- like
  • bedañtis -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <bedañtis, bedañtė> toothless -- toothless
  • senẽlis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <senẽlis> old man -- an old man

Vė́jai švil̃pia ir̃ ū́bauja prõ anuõs plyšiùs, gaúdydami víenas kìtą.
  • vė́jai -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <vė́jas> wind -- the winds
  • švil̃pia -- verb; 3rd person present of <švil̃pti, švil̃pia, švil̃pė> whistle -- whistle
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • ū́bauja -- verb; 3rd person present of <ū́bauti, ū́bauja, ū́bavo> hoot -- howl
  • prõ -- preposition; <prõ> through -- through
  • anuõs -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <anàs, anà> that -- those
  • plyšiùs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <plyšỹs> fissure, cleft -- fissures
  • gaúdydami -- verb; plural masculine of half participle of <gáudyti, gáudo, gáudė> chase -- chasing
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- each
  • kìtą -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <kìtas, kità> other -- other

Õ taĩ gir̃disi lýg kàd sẽnis švepliótų.
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- but
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- it
  • gir̃disi -- verb; 3rd person present reflexive of <girdė́tis, gir̃disi, girdė́josi> be heard -- sounds
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- like
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- ...
  • sẽnis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sẽnis> old man -- an old man
  • švepliótų -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <šveplióti, švepliója, švepliójo> lisp -- would lisp

Lesson Text

Šiañdien jaũ niẽkam nebereĩkia tõ bókšto sargýbos. Šiañdien jõ plyšiúotos síenos nè tám, kàd lietùviai, čià pasislė̃pę, šáudytų sàvo strėlėmìs į̃ neàtmušamus príešus, kurių̃ pulkaĩ, nesuskaĩtomi kaĩp žizdraĩ priẽ jū́ros, púola bajõrų pìlį. Taĩp, kitadõs čià tikrõs piliẽs bū́ta. Bèt, ámžiams sleñkant, ir̃ griū̃vančioji pilìs lìko bè prasmė̃s. Ir̃ víenas sumanùs Šimoniũ prótėvių pastãtė čionaĩ tvìrtus sáu, sàvo vaikáms ir̃ vaikũ vaikáms namùs, kuriuõs apliñkiniai bū̃rai rū́mais pràminė. Visàs nereikalìngas kampúotas síenas ansaĩ prótėvis nugrióvė. Tìk bókštas pasilìko, nórs jõ taip jaũ nebereikė́jo. Bèt bókštas ir̃ šiañdien dár nežìno, kàd jìs nebereikalìngas. Jìs dár, mandìng, nesuprañta dabartiẽs. Jìs dár vis tebegyvẽna atsiminìmais ir̃ kaži kõ lýg láukia. Nè láisvės kokiõs. Jìs visái yrà užmir̃šęs, kàd paskutìnė kadáise bùvusi kruvinà kovà baĩgėsi lietùvių nenáudai, ir̃ šiañdien jiẽ gyvẽna svetimõj ponỹstėj. Tiesà, jìs daũg kãro gaisrų̃ mãtęs, daũg kãro šauksmų̃ girdė́jęs, ir̃ tõ jìs neužmir̃šęs. Todė̃l jìs visadà dár pasireñgęs atmùšti kažkókį príešą, nórintį užpùlti Líetuvą. Juokìngas tàs sẽnis bókštas. Jìs nė̃ pàts nebežìno, kàd tiẽ plyšiaĩ, kur̃ kitadõs lietùvių šaudỹklės kýšojo, šiañdien nèt labaĩ padidė́ję. Todė̃l jìs kar̃tais atródo lýg bedañtis senẽlis. Vė́jai švil̃pia ir̃ ū́bauja prõ anuõs plyšiùs, gaúdydami víenas kìtą. Õ taĩ gir̃disi lýg kàd sẽnis švepliótų.

Translation

Today nobody needs the protection of that tower any more. Today its fissured walls are not there for Lithuanians, who, hidden here, could shoot their arrows at unstoppable enemies whose regiments, countless as the grains of sand at the seashore, attack the boyars' castle. Yes, at one time there was surely a real castle here. But in the course of centuries even the crumbling castle remained without meaning. And one clever person from among Simonis' ancestors built for himself, his children and his children's children a solid house, which the neighboring peasants called a palace. This ancestor destroyed all the unnecessary awkward walls.
Only the tower remained, although that was also unnecessary. But the tower even today doesn't realize that it is no longer necessary. It seems that it still doesn't understand the present. It is still living with its memories and seems to be waiting for something. Not some kind of freedom. It has completely forgotten that the last bloody battle ended to the disadvantage of the Lithuanians and now they live in a foreign country. True, it has seen many conflagrations of war, has heard the clamor of war and has not forgotten this. Therefore it is always prepared to repulse whatever enemy wants to attack Lithuania.
That senile old man tower is comical. It doesn't know itself that those fissures where Lithuanian guns once stuck out have become much bigger today. Therefore it sometimes looks like a toothless old man. Chasing each other the winds whistle and howl through these fissures. But it sounds like a lisping old man.

Grammar

16 The Accent Classes of the Nouns
16.1 The Third Accent Class

The third accent class comprises nouns that, in the dative plural, have their stress on the ending while in the accusative plural the stress may fall on any syllable of their stem. When the stress falls on the penultimate syllable, it is always acute; when the stress falls on any other syllable of the stem before penultimate, it may be acute, circumflex, or the syllable may be short, e.g., acc.sg. délną 'palm (of the hand)'; dẽbesį 'cloud'; dóbilą 'clover'; ùždavinį 'task'.

In trisyllabic and quadrisyllabic nouns, the play of stress is ordinarily between the initial syllable and the final syllable. If the stress on the initial syllable is the acute, these nouns are labelled 3a for trisyllabic and 34a for quadrisyllabic. If the stress on the initial syllable is circumflex or the syllable is short, they are labelled 3b and 34b respectively, e.g., acc.sg. kẽpalą 3b 'loaf'; žìburį 3b; tráukinį 3a; ãpdangalą 34b 'cover'; láiškanešį 34a 'postman'; pìktadarį 'malefactor' 34b.

Examples of the third accent class are given below:

Nom sg   délnas 'palm'   aikštė̃ 'square'   debesìs 'cloud'
Gen sg   délno   aikštė̃s   debesiẽs
Dat sg   délnui   áikštei   dẽbesiui
Acc sg   délną   áikštę   dẽbesį
Inst sg   délnu   áikšte   debesimì
            debesim̃
Loc sg   delnè   aikštėjè   debesyjè
        aikštė̃j   debesỹ
Voc sg   délne   áikšte   debesiẽ
             
Nom pl   delnaĩ   áikštės   dẽbesys
Gen pl   delnų̃   aikščių̃   debesų̃
Dat pl   delnáms   aikštė́ms   debesìms
    delnám   aikštė́m   debesìm
Acc pl   délnus   áikštes   dẽbesis
Inst pl   delnaĩs   aikštėmìs   debesimìs
        aikštė̃m   debesim̃
Loc pl   delnuosè   aikštėsè   debesysè
    delnuõs        
Voc pl   delnaĩ   áikštės   dẽbesys
16.2 The Fourth Accent Class

The fourth accent class comprises nouns that, in the dative and accusative plural, have their stress on the ending. In their paradigm the stress alternates between the ending and the penultimate syllable, which is either short or has the circumflex intonation. The fourth accent class seems to be a kind of combination of the second and third accent classes. In any particular case if the stress is required on the inflectional syllable by either the rules of the second or the third accent class, then the stress will be on the inflectional syllable. In other words the stress is on the case ending unless a stem stress is demanded for that same case in both the second and third accent classes. The paradigms for the nouns of the fourth accent class are given bellow. In this paradigm the noun viršùs 'top' is mostly used as singularia tantum and the noun piẽtūs 'dinner', 'south' is pluralia tantum.

Nom sg   nãmas 'house'   pušìs 'pine'   viršùs 'top'
Gen sg   nãmo   pušiẽs   viršaũs
Dat sg   nãmui   pùšiai   vir̃šui
Acc sg   nãmą   pùšį   vir̃šų
Inst sg   namù   pušimì   viršumì
        pušim̃   viršum̃
Loc sg   namè   pušyjè   viršujè
        pušỹ   viršùj
Voc sg   nãme   pušiẽ   viršaũ
             
Nom pl   namaĩ   pùšys   piẽtūs 'dinner', 'south'
Gen pl   namų̃   pušų̃   pietų̃
Dat pl   namáms   pušìms   pietùms
    namám   pušìm   pietùm
Acc pl   namùs   pušìs   pietùs
Inst pl   namaĩs   pušimìs   pietumìs
        pušim̃   pietum̃
Loc pl   namuosè   pušysè   pietuosè
    namuõs       pietuõs
Voc pl   namaĩ   pùšys    
17 Numerals

Numerals are inflected for case, partly for gender and number. Some numerals are similar to nouns, others to adjectives. There are two main groups of numerals: cardinal and ordinal numerals. Cardinal numerals are subdivided into several groups: basic numerals, plural (pluralia tantum) numerals, collective numerals and fractions. According to their structure numerals are simple, derived, compound or composite (multiword) numerals.

17.1 Basic Numerals

The following numerals from one to nine are simple numerals:

    Masculine   Feminine
    víenas 'one'   vienà
    'two'   dvì
    trỹs 'three'   trỹs
    keturì 'four'   kẽturios
    penkì 'five'   peñkios
    šešì 'six'   šẽšios
    septynì 'seven'   septýnios
    aštuonì 'eight'   aštúonios
    devynì 'nine'   devýnios

The number víenas is declined like a regular first declension adjective and agrees in case, number and gender with the noun which it modifies, e.g., Jìs tùri tìk víeną dvìratį 'He has only one bicycle'. The number trỹs is inflected for gender only in the locative, e.g., trijuosè viẽšbučiuose 'in three hotels' vs trijosè kavìnėse 'in three cafes'.

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Masculine   Feminine    
Nom   'two'   dvì   trỹs   'three'   keturì 'four'   kẽturios
Gen   dviejũ*   dviejũ*   trijų̃   keturių̃   keturių̃    
Dat   dvíem   dvíem   trìms   keturíems   keturióms    
            trìm   keturíem   keturióm    
Acc     dvì   trìs   kẽturis   kẽturias    
Inst   dviẽm   dviẽm   trimìs   keturiaĩs   keturiomìs    
            trim̃       keturiõm    
Loc   dviejuosè   dviejosè   trijuosè   keturiuosè   keturiosè    
    dviejuõs           keturiuõs        
    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom   penkì 'five'   peñkios   septynì 'seven'   septýnios
Gen   penkių̃   penkių̃   septynių̃   septynių̃
Dat   penkíems   penkióms   septyníems   septynióms
    penkíem   penkióm   septyníem   septynióm
Acc   penkìs   penkiàs   septýnis   septýnias
Inst   penkiaĩs   penkiomìs   septyniaĩs   septyniomìs
        penkiõm       septyniõm
Loc   penkiuosè   penkiosè   septyniuosè   septyniosè
    penkiuõs       septyniuõs    

The declension of penkì and septynì differs from keturì only by virtue of the fact that they belong to different accent classes. Šešì is declined and accented like penkì, and aštuonì and devynì like septynì.

The numerals from two to nine agree with the word they modify in case and gender:

  • Svar̃stymas bùvo atidė́tas keturióms dienóms
  • 'A discussion was delayed for four days'.

Dešimtìs 'ten'is declined like a regular third declension noun of accent class 3b, however, it is used rarely. The indeclinable form dẽšimt 'ten' is used instead.

Numbers from eleven to nineteen are denoted by compound numerals. They are built by adding -lika (derived historically from the verb lìkti 'remain') to simple numerals from one to nine:

  • vienúolika 'eleven';
  • dvýlika 'twelve';
  • trýlika 'thirteen';
  • keturiólika 'fourteen';
  • penkiólika 'fifteen';
  • šešiólika 'sixteen;
  • septyniólika 'seventeen';
  • aštuoniólika 'eighteen';
  • devyniólika 'nineteen'.

They are not inflected for gender, but they are declined like a regular second declension nouns of the first accent class (cf: síela, 'soul') except that the accusative is like the nominative: vienúolika.

Tens are indicated by compound numerals, the first constituent of which coincides with the accusative form of simple feminine numerals, e.g., dvi-, tris-, keturias-, etc. and the second constituent is the numeral dešimt:

  • dvìdešimt 'twenty';
  • trìsdešimt 'thirty';
  • kẽturiasdešimt 'fourty';
  • peñkiasdešimt 'fifty';
  • šẽšiasdešimt 'sixty';
  • septýniasdešimt 'seventy';
  • aštúoniasdešimt 'eighty';
  • devýniasdešimt 'ninety'.

These numerals are declined like dešimtìs. However, uninflected forms are used more often, e.g.:

  • Bè dvìdešimt (or gen. dvidešimtiẽs) vadovė̃lių neišsiver̃sime
  • 'We cannot do without twenty text-books'.

Šim̃tas 'hundred' is declined like a regular first declension noun of the fourth accent class (cf: na~mas 'house').

Tū́kstantis 'thousand' is declined like a regular first declension noun of the first accent class (cf: brólis 'brother').

Milijõnas 'million' is declined like a regular first declension noun of the second accent class (cf: pir̃štas 'finger').

Numerals from 10 to 19, numerals indicating tens (20-90), also šim̃tas 'hundred', tū́kstantis 'thousand', milijõnas, 'million', milijárdas 'billion' require that the noun quantified be in the genitive plural. They are used as nouns, e.g.:

  • Šešiólika strėlių̃ 'sixteen arrows';
  • peñkiasdešimt pilių̃ 'fifty castles';
  • šim̃tas vaikų̃ 'a hundred children';
  • tū́kstantis príešų 'a thousand enemies';
  • milijõnai vabzdžių̃ 'millions of insects';
  • milijárdas žvaigždžių̃ 'a billion stars'.

In declining multi-word numerals, we decline all the components except for the uninflected ones, e.g., nom. dù šimtaĩ peñkiasdešimt devynì; gen. dviejų̃ šimtų̃ peñkiasdešimt devynių̃; dat. dvíem šimtáms peñkiasdešimt devyníems, etc.

17.2 Plural Numerals

Those numerals which are reserved for use with nouns which have a plural form but a singular meaning are as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
    vienerì mẽtai 'one year'   víenerios dùrys 'one door'
    vienì mẽtai 'one year'   víenos dùrys 'one door'
    dvejì piẽtūs 'two dinners'   dvẽjos skyrýbos 'two divorces'
    trejì var̃tai 'three gates';   trẽjos rõgės 'three sledges'
    ketverì akiniaĩ 'four eye glasses'   kẽtverios žìrklės 'four pairs of scissors'
    penkerì rinkìmai 'five elections'   peñkerios vestùvės 'five weddings'
    šešerì neštùvai 'six stretchers'   šẽšerios láidotuvės 'six funerals'
    septynerì kailiniaĩ 'seven fur coats'   septýnerios kélnės 'seven pairs of trousers'
    aštuonerì marškiniaĩ 'eight shirts'   aštúonerios imtỹnės 'eight wrestling matches'
    devynerì pakiñktai 'nine harnesses'   devýnerios muštỹnės 'nine fights'

The plural number vienerì, vienerios 'one' is a new form in Lithuanian. Also the plural forms of the cardinal numbers vienì, víenos are used with pluralia tantum. These numerals are formed by adding the suffixes -eji, -ejos or -eri, -erios to a simple cardinal numerals.

Numerals of this group are declined like the adjectives of the second declension (cf: žãlias, žalià 'green'):

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom   vienerì 'one'   víenerios   dvejì 'two'   dvẽjos
Gen   vienerių̃   vienerių̃   dvejų̃   dvejų̃
Dat   vieneríems   vienerióms   dvejíems   dvejóms
    vieneríem   vienerióm   dvejíem   dvejóm
Acc   víenerius   víenerias   dvejùs   dvejàs
Inst   vieneriaĩs   vieneriomìs   dvejaĩs   dvejomìs
        vieneriõm       dvejõm
Loc   vieneriuosè   vieneriosè   dvejuosè   dvejosè
    vieneriuõs       dvejuõs    

Dvejì and trejì are accented like the ajectives of the fourth accent class, whereas all the others are accented like the adjectives of the third accent class.

17.3 Collective Numerals

There are eight collective numerals: dvẽjetas 'two', trẽjetas 'three', kẽtvertas 'four', peñketas 'five', šẽšetas 'six', septýnetas 'seven', aštúonetas 'eight', devýnetas 'nine'. They are formed by adding the suffixes -etas or -tas (kẽtvertas 'four') to a basic numeral or plural numerals. Víenetas 'one' does not denote number so it cannot be regarded as a collective numeral. It is used as a noun, e.g.:

  • Lìtas yrà Lietuvõs pinigìnis víenetas
  • 'The litas is the basic unit of currency in Lithuania'.

Other collective numerals (mostly their diminutive forms) can also be used as nouns:

  • Stártinis penketùkas jaũ bùvo pasiruõšęs žaĩsti
  • 'The starting line-up of five (players) was ready to play'.

These numerals belong to accent class one and are declined like regular first declension nouns (cf: výras).

The collective numerals show that the objects under consideration are to be taken as a group:

  • Užtrùksiu tik trẽjetą dienų̃ 'I will be delayed only for three days'.
  • Šẽšetas výrų mėgìno įnèšti pianìną į̃ vìdų '(A group of) six men were trying to bring a piano inside'.
  • Ligónis nesugebė́jo žeñgti nė̃ kẽtverto žiñgsnių 'The patient was not able to take even four steps'.

The noun quantified by these collective numerals is always in the genitive plural.

18 Adjective Inflection
18.1 The Definite Adjectives

The forms of the definite adjective are mainly obtained by adding the appropriate case of the third person pronoun to the indefinite adjective:

  • naũjas + jìs 'new' + 'he' = naujàsis 'new';
  • naujà + 'new' + 'she' = naujóji 'new'.

But there are some changes in the vowels in their declension:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   žaliàsis 'green'   žalióji   saldùsis 'sweet'   saldžióji
Gen sg   žãliojo   žaliõsios   sáldžiojo   saldžiõsios
Dat sg   žaliájam   žãliajai   saldžiájam   sáldžiajai
Acc sg   žãliąjį   žãliąją   sáldųjį   sáldžiąją
Inst sg   žaliúoju   žalią́ja   saldžiúoju   saldžią́ja
Loc sg   žaliãjam(e)   žaliõjoj(e)   saldžiãjam(e)   saldžiõjoj(e)
                 
Nom sg   žalíeji   žãliosios   saldíeji   sáldžiosios
Gen sg   žalių̃jų   žalių̃jų   saldžių̃jų   saldžių̃jų
Dat sg   žalíesiem(s)   žaliósiom(s)   saldíesiem(s)   saldžiósiom(s)
Acc sg   žaliúosius   žalią́sias   saldžiúosius   saldžią́sias
Inst sg   žaliaĩsiais   žaliõsiom(is)   saldžiaĩsiais   saldžiõsiom(is)
Loc sg   žaliuõsiuos(e)   žaliõsiose   saldžiuõsiuos(e)   saldžiõsiose

Definite forms are not formed from the third declension adjectives (e.g., auksìnis 'golden'), but they can be formed from comparative and superlative adjectives: naujesnỹsis, naujesnióji 'newer'; naujáusiasis, naujáusioji 'newest'.

Some pronouns and numerals and many participles also have definite forms, e.g., tasaĩ bókštas 'that tower'; pirmóji kovà 'the first battle'; griū̃vančioji pilìs 'the crumbling castle'.

The definite form of the adjective is used to point out some particular object in a group of similar objects:

  • Añt stãlo gùli kẽletas įvairių̃ spalvų̃ pieštùkų. 'There are some pencils of different colors on the desk.'
  • Kuriõ tù norė́tum? 'Which one would you like?'
  • Padúok mán (tą̃) žãliąjį. 'Give me the green one.'

In most cases the English adjective plus one construction could be the best rendered by the definite adjective in Lithuanian.

The definite form of the adjective may also impart a generic meaning of the noun, because it denotes a permanent characteristic. Thus pilkà žąsìs merely means 'a gray goose', whereas pilkóji žąsìs is the variety the gray goose (Latin Anser anser). These forms are common in various terms where they cannot be replaced in most cases with the indefinite forms, e.g., greitàsis traukinỹs 'the fast train' and greĩtas traukinỹs 'a fast train'.

Definite forms are used to form proper names:

  • Juodóji jū́ra 'The Black sea';
  • Baltíeji rū́mai 'The White House';
  • Výtautas Didỹsis 'Vytautas the Great'.

In many cases the definite adjectives differ very little from the simple adjectives. The definite adjectives merely emphasize more the attributive characteristics of the nouns. Thus, their use can be subjective, e.g.:

  • Mán skaũda dẽšinę (dešinią́ją) ãkį
  • 'My right eye aches'.

Definite adjectives can be used as substantives of the sentence:

  • Žalíeji užtvė́rė autostrãdą 'The Greens blocked the highway'.
  • Už vagỹstę jìs patẽko į̃ šáltąją 'He was locked up in prison (lit. 'the cold one') for the theft'.
  • Dešiniéji pralaimė̃s rinkimùs 'The right-wingers will lose the election'.
18.2 Comparision of Adjectives

There are three basic degrees of comparision in Lithuanian just as in English: the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.

The positive adjectival forms do not refer to any difference in the degree of a quality.

The comparative degree is formed by dropping the endings (-(i)as, -us) of the masculine nominative singular of the adjective and adding -esnis (for masculine) or -esnė (for feminine), e.g., žalèsnis 'greener', žalèsnė; saldèsnis 'sweeter', saldèsnė. There is practically no comparative degree with the adjectives of the third declension (auksìnis 'golden', vilnõnis 'woolen').

The comparative adjectives are declined as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   gilèsnis 'deeper'   gilèsnė   didèsnis 'bigger'   didèsnė
Gen sg   gilèsnio   gilesnė̃s   didèsnio   didesnė̃s
Dat sg   gilesniám   gilèsnei   didesniám   didèsnei
Acc sg   gilèsnį   gilèsnę   didèsnį   didèsnę
Inst sg   gilesniù   gilesnè   didesniù   didesnè
Loc sg   gilesniamè   gilèsnėje   didesniamè   didèsnėje
    gilesniam̃   gilèsnėj   didesniam̃   didèsnėj
                 
Nom pl   gilesnì   gilèsnės   didesnì   didèsnės
Gen pl   gilesnių̃   gilesnių̃   didesnių̃   didesnių̃
Dat pl   gilesníems   gilesnė́ms   didesníems   didesnė́ms
    gilesníem   gilesnė́m   didesníem   didesnė́m
Acc pl   gilesniùs   gilesnès   didesniùs   didesnès
Inst pl   gilesniaĩs   gilesnėmìs   didesniaĩs   didesnėmìs
        gilesnė̃m       didesnė̃m
Loc pl   gilesniuosè   gilesnėsè   didesniuosè   didesnėsè
    gilesniuõs       didesniuõs    

There are some positive adjectives which are also declined according to this paradigm, e.g., dìdelis 'big', dìdelė; dešinỹs 'right', dešinė̃; kairỹs 'left', kairė̃. In the adjective dìdelis 'big' -elis is dropped before the addition of the comparative or supperlative endings -esnis, -iausias, e.g., didèsnis 'bigger', didžiáusias 'biggest'.

The comparative degree denotes that there is a greater degree of the quality in question in one object than in another. The concept "than" in most cases is expresed by negù, neĩ, with the following noun in the nominative case or ùž with the accusative case. Other expressions (kaĩp, nekaĩp) are rarer.

  • Tàvo mašinà naujèsnė negù màno (mašinà) 'Your car is newer than my car'.
  • Juodà dúona sveikèsnė ùž báltą (dúoną) 'Brown bread is more healthy than white bread'.
  • Mònikos výras turtingèsnis neĩ Sãros výras 'Monica's husband is richer than Sara's husband'.

The superlative degree is formed by dropping the -(i)as, -us of the masculine nominative singular of the adjective and adding -iausias, -iausia, e.g., žaliáusias, 'greenest' žaliáusia; saldžiáusias 'sweetest', saldžiáusia. If the stem ends in -d or -t these are replaced by - and -č respectively. They are declined like the adjectives of the first declension (cf: žãlias 'green'):

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   giliáusias 'deepest'   giliáusia   didžiáusias 'biggest'   didžiáusia
Gen sg   giliáusio   giliáusios   didžiáusio   didžiáusios
Dat sg   giliáusiam   giliáusiai   didžiáusiam   didžiáusiai
Acc sg   giliáusią   giliáusią   didžiáusią   didžiáusią
Inst sg   giliáusiu   giliáusia   didžiáusiu   didžiáusia
Loc sg   giliáusiam(e)   giliáusioj(e)   didžiáusiam(e)   didžiáusioj(e)
                 
Nom pl   giliáusi   giliáusios   didžiáusi   didžiáusios
Gen pl   giliáusių   giliáusių   didžiáusių   didžiáusių
Dat pl   giliáusiem(s)   giliáusiom(s)   didžiáusiem(s)   didžiáusiom(s)
Acc pl   giliaúsius   giliaúsias   didžiáusius   didžiáusias
Inst pl   giliáusiais   giliáusiom(is)   didžiáusiais   didžiáusiomis
Loc pl   giliáusiuos(e)   giliáusiose   didžiáusiuos(e)   didžiáusiose

The superlative degree denotes the highest or greatest existing degree of the quality expressed by the adjective:

  • Šiuõ metù jìs yrà svarbiáusias žmogùs ìš visų̃ 'Now he is the most important man of all (people)'.
  • Atvỹksta jauniáusia duktė̃ 'The youngest daughter is coming'.
  • Pérduok jíems màno nuoširdžiáusius linkė́jimus 'Give them my warmest greetings'.

The neuter adjective has a comparative -iau and superlative -iausia, e.g., gražù 'beautiful', gražiaũ , gražiáusia; pìkta 'angry', pikčiaũ, pikčiáusia:

  • Šiañdien šilčiaũ neĩ vãkar 'Today is warmer than yesterday'.
  • Mán apmaudžiáusia dė̃l tõ pralaimė́jimo 'I am mostly annoyed because of that defeat'.

There is a degree which is somewhat stronger than the positive and weaker than the comparative. It is formed with the suffixes -ėlesnis, -ėlesnė, e.g., mažėlèsnis 'a little smaller' mažėlèsnė. Some other transitional stages are expressed by the prefixes apy- and po- or the suffix -okas, e.g., apýsunkis 'pretty hard', apýsunkė; apýnaujis` 'pretty new' apýnaujė; póminkštis 'pretty soft', póminkštė; didókas 'rather big', didóka.

19 The Participles, Half-participles, and Gerunds

Participles in Lithuanian are similar to participles in English and other languages. They are a variety of adjectives derived from verbs. In Lithuanian they are declined like adjectives and they can denote the characteristic of an object. They can possess definite forms. But, since they are formed from verbs, they also have verbal characteristics: they can denote action and are inflected for tense and can be active and passive. The reflexive forms are also an important verbal characteristic of the participles.

Participles can be used in the following four cases: (a) as modifiers (adjectival use); (b) in compound tenses; (c) in participial phrases; (d) in indirect discourse.

The special adverbial participles (half-participles) denote an action which is simultaneous with the action of the main verb.

Four indeclinable forms of active participles are traditionally called gerunds. They are formed by adding the same suffixes to the same stems as any other active participle. The main difference is the absence of case endings.

19.1 The Present Active Participles and Half-participles

The present active participles are formed by replacing the 3rd person endings -a, -i, -o with (a) the masculine nominative singular endings -ąs, -įs, -ąs or (b) the feminine nominative singular endings -anti, -inti, -anti, e.g.:

bė́ga '(he) runs': bėgã*s (in adjectival function bė́gantis), bė́ganti 'running';    
mýli   '(he) loves': mylį̃s (in adjectival function mýlintis), mýlinti 'loving';
gýdo '(he) cures': gydą̃s (in adjectival function gýdantis), gýdanti 'curing'.    

The present active participles are declined as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   bėgą̃s 'running'   bė́ganti
    bė́gantis    
Gen sg   bė́gančio   bė́gančios
Dat sg   bė́gančiam   bė́gančiai
Acc sg   bė́gantį   bė́gančią
Inst sg   bė́gančiu   bė́gančia
Loc sg   bė́gančiam(e)   bė́gančioj(e)
         
Nom pl   bėgą̃   bė́gančios
    bė́gantys    
Gen pl   bė́gančių   bė́gančių
Dat pl   bė́gantiem(s)   bė́gančiom(s)
Acc pl   bė́gančius   bė́gančias
Inst pl   bė́gančiais   bė́gančiom(is)
Loc pl   bė́gančiuos(e)   bė́gančiose

The forms bė́gantis 'running', bė́gantys are used only in adjectival function, e.g., bė́gantis čiáupas 'running tap', bė́gantys čiáupai 'running taps'. Bėgą̃s čiáupas and bėgą̃ čiáupai would be uncommon in Modern Lithuanian.

In the nominative singular and plural the present active participles have a special form which is used in adverbial function. It is called in Lithuanian as the half-participle. Half-participles are formed by adding -damas, -dama to the infinitival stem, e.g.,

  • bė́g-ti 'to run': sg. bė́gdamas, bėgdamà;
  • mylė́-ti 'to love': sg. mylė́damas, mylė́dama.

These forms are inflected for gender and number and they agree with the subject of the sentence in gender and number, e.g.:

  • Vaĩkas bė́gdamas treñkėsi į̃ durìs
  • 'The child struck the door while running'.
19.2 The Past Active Participle

The past active participle is formed by replacing the 3rd person simple preterit endings -o and -ė with (a) the masculine nominative singular -ęs or (b) the feminine nominative singular -usi, e.g.,

  • bė́go '(he) ran': bė́gęs, bė́gusi '(the one who) ran';
  • gýdė '(he) cured': gýdęs, gýdžiusi '(the one who) cured'.

A paradigm of the declension for the past active participles is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   bė́gęs '(the one who) ran'   bė́gusi
Gen sg   bė́gusio   bė́gusios
Dat sg   bė́gusiam   bė́gusiai
Acc sg   bė́gusį   bė́gusią
Inst sg   bė́gusiu   bė́gusia
Loc sg   bė́gusiam(e)   gė́gusioj(e)
         
Nom pl   bė́gę   bė́gusios
Gen pl   bė́gusių   bė́gusių
Dat pl   bė́gusiem(s)   bė́gusiom(s)
Acc pl   bė́gusius   bė́gusias
Inst pl   bė́gusiais   bė́gusiomis
Loc pl   bė́gusiuos(e)   bė́gusiose
19.3 The Frequentative Past Active Participle

The frequentative past active participle is formed by removing the 3rd person ending of the frequentative past tense, i.e. -o and adding the same endings as those used for the past active participle (see above), e.g.:

  • bė́gdavo '(he) used to run': bė́gdavęs, bė́gdavusi;
  • gýdydavo '(he) used to cure': gýdydavęs, gýdydavusi/.

This form is used rarely in Lithuanian. Examples are given below:

  • Vãsarą jiẽ važiúodavę priẽ jū́ros 'In summer they used to go to the sea'.
  • Àš prisìmenu geraĩ žmõgų, váikščiodavusį čià kasdiẽn 'I remember well the man who used to walk here every day'.

It is declined like the past active participle.

19.4 The Future Active Participle

The future active participle is formed by adding the same endings as those used for the present active participle (i.e. -ąs, -anti) to the future stem of the 2nd person singular, e.g.:

  • 2nd sg.fut. bė́gsi 'you will run': bė́gsiąs, bė́gsianti;
  • 2nd sg.fut. mylė́si 'you will love': mylė́siąs, mylė́sianti.

Since all of the present active participle endings begin with a vowel, the -si- denotes here merely palatalized -s-.

Future active participles are not used frequently in Lithuanian:

  • Rytój jiẽ vỹksiantys namõ
  • 'Tomorrow they (maybe) will go home'.

These participles are declined like the present active participles.

19.5 The Gerunds

The gerunds are formed from the active participles by dropping the final -i of the feminine nominative singular forms, e.g.:

  • bė́ganti: bė́gant;
  • bė́gusi: bė́gus;
  • bė́gdavusi: bė́gdavus;
  • bė́gsianti: bė́gsiant.

They denote an action or situation which is accessory or incidental to the action of the main verb. Such forms are used rather than the adverbial participle or the past active participle to show that the subject of the concomitant action is not the same as that of the main verb, e.g.:

  • Bèt, ámžiams sleñkant, ir̃ griū̃vančioji pilìs lìko bè prasmė̃s 'But in the course of centuries even the crumbling castle remained without meaning'.
  • Išvýdus tókį vaĩzdą, jiems plaukaĩ pasišiáušė 'Having seen such a sight, their hair stood on end'.

The gerund can have not only an object (e.g., vaizdą 'sight'), but a subject too. Such a subject is put in the dative case (e.g., ámžiams 'centuries') and than we have what is known as a dative absolute construction.

20 Some Impersonal Constructions

Impersonal constructions can be formed with impersonal (subjectless) verbs. The impersonal verbs usually denote natural phenomena, e.g., témti 'to get dark', lynóti 'to drizzle', or person's physical or mental state, e.g., maũsti 'to ache', atródyti 'to seem'. These verbs cannot be combined with a subject expressed in nominative case. Such constructions may consist of a predicate alone or a predicate and other dependents (e.g., oblique cases, adverbials, infinitives):

  • Įdienójo 'It was broad daylight'.
  • Vaĩką pỹkina 'The child feels sick'.
  • Jám pasìsekė laimė́ti 'He succeeded in winning'.
  • Šiañdien jaũ niẽkam nebereĩkia tõ bókšto sargýbos 'Today nobody needs the protection of that tower any more'.

The logical subject of the verb nebereĩkia is in the dative case (niẽkam) and the logical object is in the genitive case (sargýbos).

Some of impersonal verbs denoting natural phenomena can take a tautological or cognate subject, e.g.:

  • Lietùs lỹja
  • (literally) 'Rain is raining'.

The neuter forms are commonly used with the verb bū́ti 'to be' in certain impersonal constructions:

  • Búvo káršta 'It was hot'.
  • Mán baĩsiai pìkta 'I feel extremely angry'.
  • Ligóniui sunkù sėdė́ti 'It is difficult for the patient to sit'.
  • Tòmui gaĩla sàvo draũgo 'Tomas is sorry for his friend'.

The present tense form of bū́ti 'to be' is usually omitted.

These forms may also be used with an infinitive of a verb occurring as a subject of certain constructions, e.g.:

  • Píeną sveĩka gérti 'It is healthy to drink milk'.
  • Nãmą sunkù statýti 'It is difficult to build a house'.

Another type of such a construction is also possible with the neuter adjective, although such a construction is to be considered an exception rather than the general rule. In such constructions the logical object of the infinitive is in the nominative case, e.g.:

  • Píenas sveĩka gérti 'Milk is healthy to drink'.
  • Nãmas sunkù statýti 'The house is difficult to built'.

Baltic Online

Lesson 5: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

Juozas Tumas (1869-1933), known as Vaizgantas, was a well-known activist of the Catholic wing of the Lithuanian revival; he advocated the ideas of Lithuanian unity on the basis of Catholicism. This Lithuanian prose author, historian, and critic of literature took part in the founding and publication of several newspapers of national and Catholic orientation of that epoch. Almost every new work of a Lithuanian author was the object of his attention as a critic and reviewer. Vaizgantas had very strict requirements of artistry and language. He was more lenient with younger authors, trying to discern their emerging talent; therefore he is sometimes called 'the diamond hunter.' Although Vaizgantas' native Eastern Aukshtaitish dialect differed most of all from all other Lithuanian dialects, he tried to set an example for other people and to speak and write in the standard Lithuanian language, which was beginning to take root. However, in his literary works he did not avoid borrowings if they seemed to him to be more expressive than the Lithuanian words. In addition he used many dialect words and loved to create neologisms.

Vaizgantas' most popular work is his psychological tale Uncles and Aunts (i.e., wives of uncles). In it the author describes the way of life of the Lithuanian village. He reveals the rich and poetic internal world of the simple village man. 'Uncles' is a term denoting not only relatives, but also a person of a certain social class of the end of the XIXth and beginning of the XXth century in Lithuania. Brothers and sisters, recognizing the seniority of the oldest son to run the farm, remained unmarried and worked without recompense on the brother's farm. Their position was intermediate between that of a family member and a hired hand. Such are the basic protagonists of the story, viz. Mykolas and Severija, because of their gracious demeanor and poetic soul called by the diminutives Mykoliukas and Severiute. In the story their drama of love is described with great artistic force. Love for Severiute is the only real ray of light in the life of Mykoliukas, but being passive by nature and lacking will and ambition, he loses his beloved girl and makes peace with his fate. Distinguished by a firmer character and more energetic strength, his neighbor Rapolas Geise is successful in attracting Severija to his side and he marries her. At Severija's wedding Mykoliukas for the last time plays the little violin he has made until its strings break. In this story scenes of nature, which accompany all the experiences of the protagonists, are extremely important.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The selection given below from Uncles and Aunts tells of the meeting between Mykoliukas and Severiute in a blooming meadow near a marsh. Catching sight of the approaching Severiute, Mykoliukas stops pouring out the longing of his love with his home-made violin. They don't need any words to express their feelings. They both come together with the nature that surrounds them and speaks for them. The eloquent silence of their love is interrupted by the sudden, unexpected appearance of Geise.

In the excerpt we encounter the dual number of several pronouns jíemdviem, júodu, abùdu sė́dinčiu and one participle abùdu sė́dinčiu. Here we also encounter some relatively rarely used future gerunds, which form complicated constructions characteristic of the older language and which in modern Lithuanian are replaced by subordinate clauses: pajùto šiañdie kitaĩp bū́siant; nelaúukiamą įlį̃siant. In one subordinate clause the indirect mood is used: kad mylį vienas antrą. The excerpt is full of adverbs, e.g., artì, stačiaĩ, kažìn_kaip, daugiaũ, etc., reflexive verbs, e.g. ė̃mės, nusìjuokė, kẽčias, nusiraškyti, etc. Of the more rare words worthy of mention are šabasìnis (festive, unhurried'; this is a suffixed derivative from the word šãbas).

Nuõ pàt kálno, lìgi tìk ją̃ išvýdo, Mykoliùkas ją̃ imtè ė̃mės į̃ savè, ar̃tino sáu Sevèriją, rýdamas er̃dvę, ir̃ kaĩ priė̃jo visái artì, nebenuléido sàvo akių̃, tìk didelė̃m didelė̃m, pilnõm bekrãščio džiaũgsmo ir̃ pasigėrė́jimo, žiūrė́jo stačiaĩ jái į̃ akelès.
  • nuõ -- preposition; <nuõ> from -- from
  • pàt -- particle; <pàt> very -- very
  • kálno -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kálnas> hill -- hill
  • lìgi tìk -- conjunction; <lìgi tik> as soon as -- as soon as
  • ją̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- her
  • išvýdo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <išvýsti, išvýsta, išvýdo> see, witness -- he caught sight of
  • Mykoliùkas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Mykoliùkas> Mykoliukas -- Mykoliukas
  • ją̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- her
  • imtè -- second infinitive; <imtè> taking -- ...
  • ė̃mės -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <im̃tis, ìmasi, ė̃mėsi> take -- took (her)
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- into
  • savè -- pronoun; accusative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- himself
  • ar̃tino -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <ar̃tinti, ar̃tina, ar̃tino> bring near -- (he) brought near
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- to himself
  • Sevèriją -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Sevèrija> Severija -- Severija
  • rýdamas -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <rýti, rỹja, rìjo> devour -- devouring
  • er̃dvę -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <erdvė̃> space -- the space
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • kaĩ -- conjunction; <kaĩ> when -- when
  • priė̃jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <prieĩti, prieĩna, priė̃jo> come, get -- (she) got
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- very
  • artì -- adverb; <artì> near -- near
  • nebenuléido -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <nuléisti, nuléidžia, nuléido> lower -- he did not lower
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • akių̃ -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <akìs> eye -- eyes
  • tìk -- particle; <tìk> only -- but
  • didelė̃m -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <dìdelis, dìdelė> great, large -- with large (eyes)
  • didelė̃m -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <dìdelis, dìdelė> great, large -- ...
  • pilnõm -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <pìlnas, pilnà> full -- full
  • bekrãščio -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <bekrãštis, bekrãštė> boundless -- limitless
  • džiaũgsmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <džiaũgsmas> joy -- of joy
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • pasigėrė́jimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular reflexive of <pasigėrė́jimas> enjoyment, pleasure -- of pleasure
  • žiūrė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <žiūrė́ti, žiū̃ri, žiūrė́jo> look -- looked
  • stačiaĩ -- adverb; <stačiaĩ> straight -- straight
  • jái -- pronoun; dative singular feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- her
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- in
  • akelès -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <akẽlės> eye -- the eyes

Nusìjuokė Mykoliùkas, sustódamas gríežęs; nè balsù, tìk kažin kaĩp sàvo vìduriu.
  • nusìjuokė -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <nusijuõkti, nusijuõkia, nusìjuokė> laugh -- laughed
  • Mykoliùkas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Mykoliùkas> Mykoliukas -- Mykoliukas
  • sustódamas -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <sustóti, sustója, sustójo> stop -- stopping
  • gríežęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <gríežti, gríežia, gríežė> play -- playing
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- not
  • balsù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <bal̃sas> voice -- with voice
  • tìk -- particle; <tìk> only -- but
  • kažin kaĩp -- adverb; <kažin kaĩp> somehow -- somehow
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • vìduriu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <vidurỹs> inside -- with insides

Ir̃ daugiaũ nebègriežė.
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • daugiaũ -- adverb; comparative of <daũg> many, much -- more
  • nebègriežė -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <gríežti, gríežia, gríežė> play -- (he) did not play

Kám begriẽš, kàd dabar̃ jõ krūtìnėje, visamè jamè bùvo tokià mùzika, kuriõs jìs nègi išreĩkš menkù sàvo griežtuvėliù...
  • kám -- adverb; <kám> why -- why
  • begriẽš -- verb; 3rd person future of <begríežti, begríežia, begríežė> play -- will he play
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- when
  • dabar̃ -- adverb; <dabar̃> now -- now
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • krūtìnėje -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <krūtìnė> breast -- in the breast
  • visamè -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <vìsas, visà> all -- all (of)
  • jamè -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- in him
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- there was
  • tokià -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <tóks, tokià> such -- such
  • mùzika -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <mùzika> music -- music
  • kuriõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- which
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • nègi -- particle; <nègi> never -- never
  • išreĩkš -- verb; 3rd person future of <išréikšti, išréiškia, išréiškė> express -- could express
  • menkù -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <meñkas, menkà> poor -- poor
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • griežtuvėliù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <griežtuvė̃lis> instrument -- with the instrument

Sėdė́jo abùdu ir̃ niẽko daugiaũ nebekalbė́jo.
  • sėdė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <sėdė́ti, sė́di, sėdė́jo> sit -- sat
  • abùdu -- pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <abùdu, abìdvi> both -- both
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • niẽko -- pronoun; genitive singular of <niẽkas> no one, nobody, nothing -- nothing
  • daugiaũ -- adverb; comparative of <daũg> many, much -- more
  • nebekalbė́jo -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <kalbė́ti, kal̃ba, kalbė́jo> speak -- did not speak

Jíem bùvo gẽra.
  • jíem -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- for them
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- (it) was
  • gẽra -- adjective; neuter of <gẽras, gerà> good, well -- nice

Taĩp gẽra, kaĩp pìlnu žíedu pražýdusiems žolýnams.
  • taĩp -- adverb; <taĩp> so, therefore -- just as
  • gẽra -- adjective; neuter of <gẽras, gerà> good, well -- (it was) nice
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • pìlnu -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <pìlnas, pilnà> full -- full
  • žíedu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <žíedas> blossom, flower -- in bloom
  • pražýdusiems -- verb; dative plural masculine of preterit participle active of <pražýsti, pražýsta, pražýdo> blossom -- blossoming
  • žolýnams -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <žolýnas> greenery -- for greenery

Jiẽ tar̃psta, kvẽpia, lapẽliai kẽčias į̃ šalìs, ìš sunkùmo lė̃psta.
  • jiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- they
  • tar̃psta -- verb; 3rd person present of <tar̃pti, tar̃psta, tar̃po> grow luxuriantly -- grow luxuriantly
  • kvẽpia -- verb; 3rd person present of <kvepė́ti, kvẽpia, kvepė́jo> smell good -- smell good
  • lapẽliai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <lapẽlis> leaf -- the leaves
  • kẽčias -- verb; 3rd person present reflexive of <kė̃stis, kẽčiasi, kė̃tėsi> spread out -- spread out
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • šalìs -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <šalìs> side -- the sides
  • ìš -- preposition; <ìš> from -- from
  • sunkùmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <sunkùmas> heaviness, weight -- heaviness
  • lė̃psta -- verb; 3rd person present of <lėpti, lėpsta, lėpo> droop -- droop

Jiẽ grãžina píevą, tráukia į̃ savè bet kuriõ gývio akìs.
  • jiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- they
  • grãžina -- verb; 3rd person present of <grãžinti, grãžina, grãžino> adorn -- adorn
  • píevą -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <píeva> meadow -- meadow
  • tráukia -- verb; 3rd person present of <tráukti, tráukia, tráukė> attract -- attract
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • savè -- pronoun; accusative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- themselves
  • bet kuriõ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <bet kurìs> any -- any
  • gývio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gývis> living being -- of living being
  • akìs -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <akìs> eye -- the eyes

Ir̃ nė víenas vabzdỹs neapleñkia jų̃ nepabučiãvęs, añt jų̃ nepasilsė́jęs.
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • nė víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <nė víenas, nė vienà> not one -- not a single
  • vabzdỹs -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <vabzdỹs> insect -- insect
  • neapleñkia -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person present of <apleñkti, apleñkia, àplenkė> pass by -- passes by
  • jų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- them
  • nepabučiãvęs -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pabučiúoti, pabučiúoja, pabučiãvo> kiss -- not kissing
  • añt -- preposition; <añt> in, on -- on
  • jų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- them
  • nepasilsė́jęs -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pasilsė́ti, pasìlsi, pasilsė́jo> rest -- not resting

Tìk víenas nedõrėlis žmogùs tuõj síekia jõ - nusiraškýti ir̃, pavar̃čius pavar̃čius, numèsti, kàd bè laĩko nuvýstų, jaũ ùžmirštas.
  • tìk -- particle; <tìk> only -- only
  • víenas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- one
  • nedõrėlis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <nedõrėlis> dishonorable -- dishonorable
  • žmogùs -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <žmogùs> human being, person -- human being
  • tuõj -- adverb; <tuõj> immediately -- immediately
  • síekia -- verb; 3rd person present of <síekti, síekia, síekė> try to get, reach -- reaches
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- for it
  • nusiraškýti -- verb; infinitive reflexive of <nusiraškýti, nusirãško, nusirãškė> tear off -- to tear (it) off
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • pavar̃čius -- verb; preterit gerund(ive) of <pavartýti, pavar̃to, pavar̃tė> turn over -- having turned (it) over
  • pavar̃čius -- verb; preterit gerund(ive) of <pavartýti, pavar̃to, pavar̃tė> turn over -- having turned (it) over
  • numèsti -- verb; infinitive of <numèsti, nùmeta, nùmetė> throw away -- to throw (it) away
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- so that
  • -- preposition; <bè> before, without -- before
  • laĩko -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <laĩkas> time -- (its) time
  • nuvýstų -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <nuvýsti, nuvýsta, nuvýto> fade -- (it) would fade
  • jaũ -- particle; <jaũ> already, just -- already
  • ùžmirštas -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <užmir̃šti, užmir̃šta, užmir̃šo> forget -- forgotten

Ką̃ jiẽ galė́jo víenas antrám pasisakýti?
  • ką̃ -- pronoun; accusative of <kàs> which, what -- what
  • jiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- they
  • galė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <galė́ti, gãli, galė́jo> can -- could
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- ...
  • antrám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <añtras, antrà> other -- to each other
  • pasisakýti -- verb; infinitive reflexive of <pasisakýti, pasisãko, pasisãkė> say, tell -- to say

Kàd mýlį víenas añtrą, kàd jíemdviem gẽra draugėjè?
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • mýlį -- verb; 3rd person present of <mylė́ti, mýli, mylė́jo> love -- (they) love
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- ...
  • añtrą -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <añtras, antrà> other -- each other
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • jíemdviem -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <juõdu, jiẽdvi> they both -- they both
  • gẽra -- adjective; neuter of <gẽras, gerà> good, well -- (feel) good
  • draugėjè -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <draugė̃> company -- together

Jùk taĩ ir̃ bè žõdžių áišku.
  • jùk -- particle; <jùk> but -- but
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- even
  • -- preposition; <bè> before, without -- without
  • žõdžių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <žõdis> word -- words
  • áišku -- adjective; neuter of <áiškus, áiški> clear -- (is) clear

Dár pilniaũ.
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- even
  • pilniaũ -- adverb; comparative of <pilnaĩ> exhaustively -- more exhaustively

Žõdžiai arbà nè vìską tepasãko, arbà per daũg pasãko ir̃ atvėsìna vìdų.
  • žõdžiai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <žõdis> word -- words
  • arbà -- conjunction; <arbà> either, or -- either...
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- do not
  • vìską -- pronoun; accusative of <vìskas> everything -- everything
  • tepasãko -- verb; 3rd person present of <tepasakýti, tepasãko, tepasãkė> say, tell -- say
  • arbà -- conjunction; <arbà> either, or -- or
  • per daũg -- adverb; <per daũg> too much -- too much
  • pasãko -- verb; 3rd person present of <pasakýti, pasãko, pasãkė> say, tell -- (they) say
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • atvėsìna -- verb; 3rd person present of <atvėsìnti, atvėsìna, atvėsìno> cool off -- cool off
  • vìdų -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vidùs> inside -- the insides

Žõdžiai - gãras: išsišnỹpščia ir̃ nebèkečia vidaũs.
  • žõdžiai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <žõdis> word -- words
  • gãras -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gãras> steam -- (are) steam
  • išsišnỹpščia -- verb; 3rd person present reflexive of <išsišnỹpšti, išsišnỹpščia, išsìšnỹpštė> hiss -- (they) are hissed out
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • nebèkečia -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person present of <kė̃sti, kẽčia, kė̃tė> reach -- don't reach
  • vidaũs -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <vidùs> inside -- the insides

Abùdu sė́dinčiu staigà pamãtė ìš raĩsto išsinė́rusį jų̃ šveñtvakarių beñdrą, dė̃l kuriõ jíemdviem šiaĩpjau bùvo neĩ šil̃ta, neĩ šálta.
  • abùdu -- pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <abùdu, abìdvi> both -- they both
  • sė́dinčiu -- verb; nominative dual masculine of present participle active of <sėdė́ti, sė́di, sėdė́jo> sit -- while were sitting
  • staigà -- adverb; <staigà> suddenly -- suddenly
  • pamãtė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pamatýti, pamãto, pamãtė> see -- saw
  • ìš -- preposition; <ìš> from -- from
  • raĩsto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <raĩstas> marsh -- the marsh
  • išsinė́rusį -- verb; accusative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <išsinérti, išsìneria, išsinė́rė> come out, arise -- arising
  • jų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- their
  • šveñtvakarių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <šveñtvakaris> holiday evening -- of the holiday evenings
  • beñdrą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <beñdras> friend, participant -- a participant
  • dė̃l -- preposition; <dė̃l> because, for -- because of
  • kuriõ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- whom
  • jíemdviem -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <jiẽdu, jiẽdvi> they both -- they both
  • šiaĩpjau -- adverb; <šiaĩpjau> in general, on the whole -- on the whole
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- were
  • neĩ -- conjunction; <neĩ> neither, nor -- neither
  • šil̃ta -- adjective; neuter of <šil̃tas, šiltà> warm -- warm
  • neĩ -- conjunction; <neĩ> neither, nor -- nor
  • šálta -- adjective; neuter of <šáltas, šaltà> cold -- cold

Pasérgėjo ir̃ pagreĩtintą jõ žiñgsnį, nè tókį šabasìnį kaĩp kitomìs póilsio dienomìs.
  • pasérgėjo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pasérgėti, pasérgi, pasérgėjo> watch, notice -- (they) watched
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- also
  • pagreĩtintą -- verb; accusative singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <pagreĩtinti, pagreĩtina, pagreĩtino> accelerate -- accelerated
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • žiñgsnį -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <žiñgsnis> step, pace -- pace
  • -- particle; <nè> no, not -- (which was) not
  • tókį -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <tóks, tokià> such -- so
  • šabasìnį -- adjective; accusative singular masculine <šabasìnis, šabasìnė> festive -- festive
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • kitomìs -- pronoun; instrumental plural feminine of <kìtas, kità> other -- on other
  • póilsio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <póilsis> rest -- of rest
  • dienomìs -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <dienà> day -- days

Pasérgėję žingsniúojant tiẽsiai į̃ juõdu, pajùto šiañdie kitaĩp bū́siant, neláukiamą įlį̃siant į̃ tą̃ órą, kurį̃ tìk ką bùvo susidãrę pãtys sáu, sáu vieníem, kuriõ pavydù bùvo, kàd kitì kvėpúotų; įlį̃s ir̃ sudrum̃s užkerė́tą jų̃ méilės srìtį.
  • pasérgėję -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active of <pasérgėti, pasérgi, pasérgėjo> watch, notice -- watching
  • žingsniúojant -- verb; present gerund(ive) of <žingsniúoti, žingsniúoja, žingsniãvo> walk, pace -- (him) walking
  • tiẽsiai -- adverb; <tiẽsiai> directly -- directly
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • juõdu -- pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <juõdu, jiẽdvi> they both -- them both
  • pajùto -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pajùsti, pajuñta, pajùto> feel -- (they) felt
  • šiañdie -- adverb; <šiañdie> today -- today
  • kitaĩp -- adverb; <kitaĩp> differently -- differently
  • bū́siant -- verb; future gerund(ive) of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- would be
  • neláukiamą -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle passive of <láukti, láukia, láukė> expect, wait -- (him) unexpected
  • įlį̃siant -- verb; future gerund(ive) of <įlį̃sti, į̃lenda, įliñdo> get in -- would get in
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- in
  • tą̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • órą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <óras> atmosphere -- atmosphere
  • kurį̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- which
  • tìk ką -- adverb; <tìk ką> just, just now -- just
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- had
  • susidãrę -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <susidarýti, susidãro, susidãrė> create -- created
  • pãtys -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <pàts, patì> themselves -- (they) themselves
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- for themselves
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- for themselves
  • vieníem -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- alone
  • kuriõ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- of which
  • pavydù -- adjective; neuter of <pavydùs, pavydì> jealous -- jealous
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- (they) were
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • kitì -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <kìtas, kità> other -- other
  • kvėpúotų -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <kvėpúoti, kvėpúoja, kvėpãvo> breathe -- would breathe (it)
  • įlį̃s -- verb; 3rd person future of <įlį̃sti, į̃lenda, įliñdo> get in -- (he) will get in
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • sudrum̃s -- verb; 3rd person future of <sudrum̃sti, sudrum̃sčia, sùdrumstė> disturb -- will disturb
  • užkerė́tą -- verb; accusative singular feminine of preterit participle passive of <užkerė́ti, ùžkeri, užkerė́jo> charmed -- charmed
  • jų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- their
  • méilės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <méilė> love -- of love
  • srìtį -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <sritìs> field, area -- the area

Lesson Text

Nuõ pàt kálno, lìgi tìk ją̃ išvýdo, Mykoliùkas ją̃ imtè ė̃mės į̃ savè, ar̃tino sáu Sevèriją, rýdamas er̃dvę, ir̃ kaĩ priė̃jo visái artì, nebenuléido sàvo akių̃, tìk didelė̃m didelė̃m, pilnõm bekrãščio džiaũgsmo ir̃ pasigėrė́jimo, žiūrė́jo stačiaĩ jái į̃ akelès. Nusìjuokė Mykoliùkas, sustódamas gríežęs; nè balsù, tìk kažin kaĩp sàvo vìduriu. Ir̃ daugiaũ nebègriežė. Kám begriẽš, kàd dabar̃ jõ krūtìnėje, visamè jamè bùvo tokià mùzika, kuriõs jìs nègi išreĩkš menkù sàvo griežtuvėliù... Sėdė́jo abùdu ir̃ niẽko daugiaũ nebekalbė́jo. Jíem bùvo gẽra. Taĩp gẽra, kaĩp pìlnu žíedu pražýdusiems žolýnams. Jiẽ tar̃psta, kvẽpia, lapẽliai kẽčias į̃ šalìs, ìš sunkùmo lė̃psta. Jiẽ grãžina píevą, tráukia į̃ savè bet kuriõ gývio akìs. Ir̃ nė víenas vabzdỹs neapleñkia jų̃ nepabučiãvęs, añt jų̃ nepasilsė́jęs. Tìk víenas nedõrėlis žmogùs tuõj síekia jõ - nusiraškýti ir̃, pavar̃čius pavar̃čius, numèsti, kàd bè laĩko nuvýstų, jaũ ùžmirštas. Ką̃ jiẽ galė́jo víenas antrám pasisakýti? Kàd mýlį víenas añtrą, kàd jíemdviem gẽra draugėjè? Jùk taĩ ir̃ bè žõdžių áišku. Dár pilniaũ. Žõdžiai arbà nè vìską tepasãko, arbà per daũg pasãko ir̃ atvėsìna vìdų. Žõdžiai - gãras: išsišnỹpščia ir̃ nebèkečia vidaũs. Abùdu sė́dinčiu staigà pamãtė ìš raĩsto išsinė́rusį jų̃ šveñtvakarių beñdrą, dė̃l kuriõ jíemdviem šiaĩpjau bùvo neĩ šil̃ta, neĩ šálta. Pasérgėjo ir̃ pagreĩtintą jõ žiñgsnį, nè tókį šabasìnį kaĩp kitomìs póilsio dienomìs. Pasérgėję žingsniúojant tiẽsiai į̃ juõdu, pajùto šiañdie kitaĩp bū́siant, neláukiamą įlį̃siant į̃ tą̃ órą, kurį̃ tìk ką bùvo susidãrę pãtys sáu, sáu vieníem, kuriõ pavydù bùvo, kàd kitì kvėpúotų; įlį̃s ir̃ sudrum̃s užkerė́tą jų̃ méilės srìtį.

Translation

From that very hill, as soon as he caught sight of her, he took her into himself, he brought Severija near to himself, eagerly devouring the space and when she got very near, he no longer lowered his gaze, but with great eyes full of limitless joy and pleasure looked her straight in the eyes.
Stopping his playing Mykoliukas laughed, not with his voice, but somehow or other with his insides. And played no more. Why would he play, when now in his breast, in all of him, there was such music, which he could never express with his insignificant little instrument.
They both sat and said nothing more. It was nice for both of them. It was just as nice as for blossoming greenery in full bloom. They grow luxuriantly, they smell good, the leaves spread out to the sides, grow limp from heaviness. They adorn the meadow and attract to themselves the eyes of any living thing. And not a single insect passes them by without kissing (them) and without resting on them. Only the human being (dishonorable as he is known to be) reaches for it immediately - to tear it off for himself and having turned it over, to throw it away so that it would fade before its time, already forgotten.
What could they say to each other? That they love each other, that they like being together? But that is clear without words. Or even more. Words either don't say everything or they say too much and make the insides cold. Words are steam. They make a noise, but they don't reach the insides.
While both of them were sitting there, they saw arising from the marsh a participant in the holiday evenings someone about whom both were indifferent. They watched his accelerated pace, which was not so festive and unhurried as on other days of rest. Watching him walking directly to them, they felt that today would be different, unexpectedly forcing its way into that atmosphere which they had just created for themselves only, the two of them alone, of which they were jealous, that other people might breathe it. It will force its way in and disturb the charmed dimension of their love.

Grammar

21 Numerals
21.1 The Ordinal Numerals

Ordinal numerals are mostly derived from the corresponding cardinal numerals by adding the suffix -tas,-ta. The formation of pìrmas 'first', añtras 'second' and trẽčias 'third' differs from that of other ordinal numerals. These numerals denote place in a series. They are declined like regular adjectives (cf: pìktas, piktà 'angry') and agree with the word they modify in case, number and gender. The following ordinal numerals are used most frequently:

    Masculine   Feminine
    pìrmas 'first'   pirmà
    añtras 'second'   antrà
    trẽčias 'third'   trečià
    ketvir̃tas 'fourth'   ketvirtà
    peñktas 'fifth'   penktà
    šẽštas 'sixth'   šeštà
    septiñtas 'seventh'   septintà
    aštuñtas 'eighth'   aštuntà
    deviñtas 'ninth'   devintà
    dešim̃tas 'tenth'   dešimtà
    vienúoliktas 'eleventh'   vienúolikta
    dvýliktas 'twelfth'   dvýlikta
    trýliktas 'thirteenth'   trýlikta
    keturióliktas 'fourteenth'   keturiólikta
    penkióliktas 'fifteenth'   penkiólikta
    šešióliktas 'sixteenth'   šešiólikta
    septynióliktas 'seventeenth'   septyniólikta
    aštuonióliktas 'eighteenth'   aštuoniólikta
    devynióliktas 'nineteenth'   devyniólikta
    dvidešim̃tas 'twentieth'   dvidešimtà
    trisdešim̃tas 'thirtieth'   trisdešimtà
    keturiasdešim̃tas 'fortieth'   keturiasdešimtà
    penkiasdešim̃tas 'fiftieth'   penkiasdešimtà
    šešiasdešim̃tas 'sixtieth'   šešiasdešimtà
    septyniasdešim̃tas 'seventieth'   septyniasdešimtà
    aštuoniasdešim̃tas 'eightieth'   aštuoniasdešimtà
    devyniasdešim̃tas 'ninetieth'   devyniasdešimtà

Ordinal numerals possess definite forms which are similar to the adjectives of the first declension (cf: naũjas 'new', naujà), e.g., pirmàsis 'the first', pirmóji; antràsis 'the second', antróji; trečiàsis 'the third', trečióji, etc.:

  • Paũlius bùvo trečiàsis vaĩkas màno brólio šeimojè
  • 'Paulius was the third child in my brother's family'.
  • Rytój Violetà šveñčia sàvo šešióliktąjį gimtãdienį
  • 'Tomorrow Violeta is celebrating her sixteenth birthday'.

Definite ordinal numerals are used to designate dates, e.g.:

  • Taĩ įvỹko tū́kstantis penkì šimtaĩ kẽturiasdešimt septintaĩsiais
  • 'That happened in one thousand five hundred and forty-seven'.

In a compound ordinal number only the final element has the form of an ordinal numeral and is declined. The other elements remain in the nominative case, e.g.:

Nom.   penkì šimtaĩ trìsdešimt ketvir̃tas tãškas 'the five hundred thirty fourth point.'
Gen.   penkì šimtaĩ trìsdešimt ketvir̃to tãško
Dat.   penkì šimtaĩ trìsdešimt ketvirtám tãškui
Acc.   penkì šimtaĩ trìsdešimt ketvir̃tą tãšką, etc.

They also have a neuter form, e.g., pìrmas 'first': pìrma; añtras 'second': añtra; peñktas 'fifth': peñkta, etc.:

Pìrma, bū́tina atsikélti aštuñtą vãlandą rýto; añtra, paskam̃binti į̃ aeroúostą; trẽčia, susikráuti lagamìną... 'First, it is necessary to get up at eight in the morning; second, to call the airport; third, to pack the suitcase...'

21.2 Fractions

In mathematics such forms as vienà antróji 'one-half', dvì trẽčiosios 'two-thirds', trỹs peñktosios 'three fifths' are used. The numerator is a feminine cardinal number and the denominator is a feminine ordinal number in the definite form. The denominator always agrees with dalìs 'part' in gender, although the word dalìs does not appear in any fraction. When the numerator is a numeral from 1 to 9 the denominator agrees with the numerator in gender, number and case, e.g., Padalìnk ìš dviejų̃ trečių̃jų 'Divide by two-thirds'. When the numerator is any other numeral (except from 1 to 9), the denominator is always in the genitive plural, e.g., Vienúolikos dvidešimtų̃jų neįmãnoma suprãstinti 'It is impossible to simplify eleven-twentieths'.

Parts of things are most often indicated by compound numerals. Their first component is the root of an ordinal numeral, and the second component is the noun dalìs 'part'. They are listed below:

trẽčdalis 'one third': trẽčdalis pasáulio 'one-third of the world'; ketvirtãdalis 'one fourth': ketvirtãdalis valandõs 'one-fourth of an hour'; penktãdalis 'one fifth': penktãdalis studeñtų 'one-fifth of the students'; šeštãdalis 'one sixth': šeštãdalis augalų̃ 'one-sixth of the plants'; septintãdalis 'one seventh': septintãdalis ligónių 'one-seventh of the patients'; aštuntãdalis 'one eighth': aštuntãdalis gãtvių 'one-eighth of the streets'; devintãdalis 'one ninth': devintãdalis Euròpos 'one-ninth of Europe'; dešimtãdalis 'one tenth': dešimtãdalis paskolõs 'one-tenth of a loan'.

All these numerals are declined like the nouns of the first declension (cf: brólis). Fractions vienà antróji 'one-half' and vienà ketvirtóji are often replaced by the feminine noun pùsė 'half' and the masculine noun ketvir̃tis 'quarter' respectively, e.g.:

  • Láukiau tavę̃s pùsę valandõs 'I was waiting for you a half an hour'.
  • Mẽs prarãdome ketvir̃tį milijõno 'We have lost a quarter of a million'.

There is a group of numerals the first component of which is the root of the noun pùsė 'half' and the second component of which is an ordinal numeral in the genitive, e.g.:

    Masc. sing.   Fem. sing.   Plural
    pusañtro 'one and a half'   pusantrõs   pusantrų̃
    pustrẽčio 'two and a half'   pustrečiõs   pustrečių̃
    pusketvir̃to 'three and a half'   pusketvirtõs   pusketvirtų̃
    puspeñkto 'four and a half'   puspenktõs   puspenktų̃
    pusšẽšto 'five and a half'   pusšeštõs   pusšeštų̃
    pusseptiñto 'six and a half'   pusseptintõs   pusseptintų̃
    pusaštuñto 'seven and a half'   pusaštuntõs   pusaštuntų̃
    pusdeviñto 'eight and a half'   pusdevintõs   pusdevintų̃
    pusdešim̃to 'nine and a half'   pusdešimtõs   pusdešimtų̃
  • Žadù nusipir̃kti pustrečiõs tònos kviečių̃ 'I intend to buy two and a half tons of wheat'.
  • Kur̃ tù buvaĩ pusantrõs saváitės? 'Where were you for a week and a half?'
22 Reflexive Verbs and Verbal Prefixes
22.1 The Reflexive Verbs

The reflexive verbs in Lithuanian can be divided into two groups: simple reflexive verbs where the reflexive particle -si or -s is added at the end and compound reflexive verbs where the reflexive particle -si is inserted between the prefix and the verb proper. To this group also belong all reflexive verbs in their negative forms. The negative particle ne is treated in such cases as a prefix, e.g., jis kartójasi 'he repeats himself', jìs nesikartója 'he does not repeat himself'. In the latter group, the conjugation of the basic verb does not change at all, only the -si- is inserted.

It is a little more difficult to learn the simple reflexive verbs. Certain changes occur both in the endings of these verbs and the reflexive particle -si:

    Present   Preterit   Preterit Frequentative
1st sg   gailiúosi 'I regret'   gailė́jausi 'I regretted'   gailė́davausi 'I used to regret'
2nd sg   gailíesi   gailė́jaisi   gailė́davaisi
3rd sg   gaĩlisi   gailė́josi   gailė́davosi
             
1st pl   gaĩlimės   gailė́jomės   gailė́davomės
2nd pl   gaĩlitės   gailė́jotės   gailė́davotės
3rd pl   gaĩlisi   gailė́josi   gailė́davosi
             
    Future   Subjunctive   Imperative
1st sg   gailė́siuosi 'I will regret'   gailė́čiausi 'I would regret'    
2nd sg   gailė́siesi   gailė́tumeisi   gailė́kis 'regret'
3rd sg   gailė́sis   gailė́tųsi    
             
1st pl   gailė́simės   gailė́tu(mė)mės   gailė́kimės
2nd pl   gailė́sitės   gailė́tumėtės   gailė́kitės
3rd pl   gailė́sis   gailė́tųsi    

In present and future the first person singular endings -u and -iu are replaced by -uo- and -iuo- respectively and the second person singular ending -i is replaced by -ie-. In the first and second plural, instead of -si, only -s is added, and the short final -e of these forms is replaced by -ė. The third person future has the shortened variant of the reflexive particle. Also there is an -i- inserted after the consonant s. In the imperative the longer suffix -ki is retained.

The stress pattern is the same as in the non-reflexive verbs.

The reflexive particle may change the verbal meaning in a variety of ways, cf:

  • Vakarè išmáudžiau vaikùs, po to išsimaudžiau pats 'In the evening I bathed the children, later I took a bath myself'.
  • Vìskas pasìkeitė jíems čia apsigyvẽnus. Butè jiẽ pàkeitė visùs senùs baldùs 'Everything changed when they moved here. They changed all the old furniture in the apartment'.
  • Jám visadà sunkù valdýti sàvo emòcijas, tačiau vãkar jìs vis dėlto pàjėgė susivalýti 'It is always difficult for him to control his emotions, but yesterday he was nevertheless able to control himself'.
  • Čià jìs šaũkia gýdytoją, čià šaũkiasi Diẽvo malónės Sometimes he calls for a doctor, sometimes he cries for the grace of God'.

A number of reflexive verbs are unrelated to any underlying verb (reflexiva tantum), e.g., el̃gtis 'to behave', juõktis 'to laugh', didžiúotis 'to be proud of', pasiìlgti 'to miss', drovė́tis 'to be shy', teiráutis 'to inquire', etc.

22.2 Verbal Prefixes

The system of word formation with verbal prefixes is highly developed in Lithuanian. Prefixes may change or modify the meaning of the verb. The addition of a prefix usually renders the verb perfective.

The most common prefixes in Lithuanian are the following: ap- (api-), at-, (ati-), į-, -, nu-, pa-, par-, per-, pra-, pri-, su-, -. Several examples of common prefixes with a few of the ordinary meanings are given below.

at- (ati-) may denote:

  • arrival, coming to a certain place, e.g., atvažiúoti 'to come', atnèšti 'to bring';
  • separation or division or removal, e.g., atkir̃sti 'to cut off', atskìrti 'to separate', 'to detach';
  • return to an original position, e.g., atáugti 'to grow back', 'to grow again', atgìmti 'to be reborn', 'to be revived';
  • the completion of an action, e.g., atpìgti 'to become cheap', to fall in price', atbùkti 'to become blunt'.

į- may denote:

  • motion into a place or an object, e.g., įskrìsti 'fly in'; įnèšti 'bring in, carry in';
  • the beginning of an action which is carried out only to a slight degree, e.g., įkir̃pti 'to cut a little bit', 'to cut into something', įtrū́kti 'get slightly broken';
  • completion of an action, e.g., įtìkinti 'to persuade', įvýkdyti 'to carry out, to complete';
  • it also may be used with verbs formed from nouns or adjectives, e.g., įámžinti 'to immortalize' (cf: ámžinas 'eternal'), įpareigóti 'to oblige', 'to bind' (cf: pareigà 'duty', 'obligation').

- may denote:

  • motion out of something, e.g., išskrìsti 'to fly out', išnèšti 'to carry out', 'to take out';
  • the action covering the entire area or whole series of objects, e.g., išbarstýti 'spill', 'to scatter', išžudýti 'to exterminate';
  • an action lasting for a certain length of time, e.g., išláukti 'to wait for a certain length of time', išbū́ti 'to stay', 'to remain for a certain length of time';
  • completion or fulfilment of an action, e.g., išlõšti 'to win', išskal̃bti 'to wash', 'to launder'.

nu- may denote:

  • motion away from something or some place, e.g., nuvažiúoti 'to go to (away)', 'to depart to', nubė́gti 'to run away';
  • motion downwards, e.g., nukrìsti 'fall down', 'fall off', nušókti 'to jump down';
  • severance from the main part of an object, e.g., nulíeti 'to pour off', nupjáuti 'to cut off';
  • completion of an action to the very end, e.g., nuskandìnti 'to drown', 'to sink'.

pa- may denote:

  • the complection of an action, e.g., pasakýti 'to say', 'to tell', pastatýti 'to build', 'to construct';
  • a short duration of an action, e.g., paskal̃bti 'to wash for a little while', panèšti 'to carry for a little bit';
  • that something is put under something else, e.g., padė́ti 'to put under', 'to lay under', palį̃sti 'to creep under';
  • the ability or capacity to perform a certain action, e.g., pastùmti 'to be able to push' panèšti 'to be able to carry'.

per- may denote:

  • motion across or through something, e.g., pérnešti 'to carry across', pérlįsti 'creep through', 'to get through';
  • separation or division, e.g., pérpjauti 'to cut into two', pérlaužti 'to break into two';
  • the repetition or the renewal of an action, e.g., pérskaičiuoti 'to count again' pérskalbti 'to wash again';
  • exceeding of the norm or going beyond a certain limit, e.g., pérmokėti 'to overpay' pérsidirbti 'to overwork'.

pra- may denote:

  • movement by or past some place, e.g., praskrìsti 'to fly by', 'to fly past', pravažiúoti 'to drive past', 'to ride past';
  • movement through something or some place, e.g., praláužti 'to break through', prapjáuti 'to cut through';
  • disappearance, loss or lack of something, e.g., pradiñgti 'to disappear', praválgyti 'to eat away (one's money);
  • the passage of a certain length of time in some activity, e.g., praláukti 'to spend a certain time waiting for', pragalvóti 'to think for a certain length of time'.

su- may denote:

  • gathering together or a coming-together, e.g., sunèšti 'to bring together', suvažiúoti 'to come together';
  • dissection or division into parts, e.g., suláužyti 'to break into parts', sutrùpinti 'to crumble';
  • the attainment of the goal or the aim, e.g., suràsti 'to find' (what one has lost)', susèkti 'to trace down, to find out'.

- may denote:

  • the direction up, e.g., užnèšti 'to carry up', to bring up', užlìpti 'to climb up', 'to mount', 'to ascend';
  • that something is put on something else, e.g., uždeñgti 'to cover', užpìlti 'to strew on', 'to fill up', 'to cover with';
  • putting something behind something else or going behind something, e.g., užstatýti 'to place behind', užtámsinti 'to shade';
  • the completion of an action, e.g., užmokė́ti 'to pay', užkùrti 'to light up', 'to set fire to'.

Many verbal prefixes modify the meaning of the verb or show a distinct direction, e.g., mèsti 'to throw', 'to hurl', ' to chuck', apmesti 'to throw with', 'to cover with', atmèsti 'to throw off', 'to cast away', įmèsti 'to throw in', 'to cast in' išmèsti 'to throw out', numèsti 'to throw down', 'to fling down', 'to drop', , 'to throw off', 'to cast off', 'to throw far away', 'to cast far away', pamèsti 'to throw under', ' to throw a little', 'to toss a little', parmèsti 'to throw down', 'to bring down', pérmesti 'to throw over', 'to throw across', pramèsti 'to throw past', 'to miss in throwing' primesti 'to throw (full, a quantity of)', 'to heap up', 'to cast (full, a quantity of)', 'to heap up', 'to fill', 'to throw about', sumèsti 'to throw into', 'to throw together' 'to pile', 'to heap', užmèsti 'to throw on', 'to throw over', 'to fling on', 'to throw behind'.

But in some few cases the prefix can change the real verbal meaning or give to the verb an opposite meaning dúoti 'to give', pardúoti 'to sell', laimė́ti 'to win', pralaimė́ti 'to lose', prìmesti 'to press on', 'to thrust on', 'to impute to', sumèsti 'to understand', count up', etc.

Some verbs may have practically the same meaning with either of two prefixes, e.g., išnỹkti, pranỹkti 'to disappear', išgýti, pagýti 'to recover', 'to get better', etc. The prefix does not give a new meaning to some verbs and therefore the verb means practically the same thing with or without the prefix, e.g., baĩgti, pabaĩgti, užbaĩgti 'to finish' grį̃žti, sugrį̃žti 'to return', etc.

The correct usage of prefixes may cause a major problem for foreign learners.

In the clause prefixes correlate with corresponding prepositions: ap- and apiẽ 'about','off'; į- and į̃ 'in', 'into', 'to'; - and ìš 'from', 'out of'; nu- and nuõ 'from', 'off', 'down'; pa- and 'in', 'about', etc.; per- and per̃ 'through', 'across', etc.; pra- and prõ 'through', 'by'; pri- and priẽ 'at', 'by', etc.; su- and 'with'; - and ùž 'behind', 'beyond', e.g.:

  • Jiẽ išvažiãvo ìš namų̃ ankstì rýtą 'They left their home early in the morning'.
  • Vidùrdienį mẽs pérsikėlėm per̃ ùpę 'At midday we crossed the river'.
  • Automobìlis nuslydo nuõ kẽlio 'The car slid off the road'.
23 The Passive and Reflexive Participles
23.1 The Passive Participles

In Lithuanian the present passive participle and the past passive participle are more common than the future passive participle which is relatively rare. The forms of the so-called 'participles of necessity' are also passive. The present and past passive participles may be used either to form the passive voice of various tenses or they may be used attributively like adjectives.

The Present Passive Participle.

The present passive participle is formed by adding the endings -mas, -ma to the third person present of the finite verbs, e.g.:

nom.sg.masc.   mýli '(he) loves + -mas = mýlimas 'beloved';
nom.sg.fem.   mýli '(she) loves + -ma = mylimà 'beloved'.

The declension of the present passive participle is given below (cf: the adjectives pìktas, piktà 'angry'):

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   mýlimas 'beloved'   mylimà
Gen sg   mýlimo   mylimõs
Dat sg   mylimám   mýlimai
Acc sg   mýlimą   mýlimą
Inst sg   mýlimu   mýlima
Loc sg   mylimamè   mylimojè
    mylimam̃   mylimõj
         
Nom pl   mylimì   mýlimos
Gen pl   mylimų̃   mylimų̃
Dat pl   mylimíems   mylimóms
    mylimíem   mylimóm
Acc pl   mýlimus   mýlimas
Inst pl   mylimaĩs   mylimomìs
        mylimõm
Loc pl   mylimuosè   mylimosè
    mylimuõs    

The definite forms of the present passive participles can frequently be used as nouns, e.g.:

  • Válgomasis bùvo pìlnas žmonių̃ 'The dining-room was full of people'.
  • Nepažįstamóji pasisiū́lė padė́ti 'The stranger offered her help'.

Other definite participles (active and passive) may also be used in nominal positions, e.g.:

  • Láukiantieji priẽ dùrų ìma nerimáuti 'The people waiting at the door start to worry'.
  • Kalbė́jusieji staigà nutìlo ir̃ suklùso 'The people who were speaking suddenly hushed and pricked up their ears'.
  • Kviestíeji neatvỹko 'The invitees did not come'.

The Past Passive Participle.

The past passive participle is formed by removing the infinitive ending -ti and adding the -tas, -ta, e.g.:

  • masc.nom.sg.: mylė́-ti 'to love' + -tas = mylė́tas 'loved, having been loved';
  • fem.nom.sg.: mylė́-ti 'to love' + -ta = mylė́ta 'loved, having been loved'.

The paradigm is as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   mylė́tas 'having been loved'   mylė́ta
Gen sg   mylė́to   mylė́tos
Dat sg   mylė́tam   mylė́tai
Acc sg   mylė́tą   mylė́tą
Inst sg   mylė́tu   mylė́ta
Loc sg   mylė́tam(e)   mylė́toj(e)
         
Nom pl   mylė́ti   mylė́tos
Gen pl   mylė́tų   mylė́tų
Dat pl   mylė́tiem(s)   mylė́tom(s)
Acc pl   mylė́tus   mylė́tas
Inst pl   mylė́tais   mylė́tomis
Loc pl   mylė́tuos(e)   mylė́tose

The Future Passive Participle.

The future passive participle is formed by adding the endings -mas, -ma to the second person singular of the future tense, e.g.:

masc.nom.sg.   bū́si 'you (sg) will be' + -mas = bū́simas;
fem.nom.sg.   bū́si 'you (sg) will be' + -ma = būsimà.

Except for the participle bū́simas, būsimà, future passive participles are rarely used. Future passive participles are declined like present passive participles:

  • Àš vìs atidėliójau tą̃ sàvo bū́simą susitikìmą
  • 'I kept putting off my forthcoming meeting'.

The Participle of Necessity.

The participle of necessity is formed by adding the endings -nas, -na to the verbal infinitive, e.g.:

masc.nom.sg.   vartóti 'to use' + -nas = vartótinas 'which should be used';
fem.nom.sg.   vartóti 'to use' + -na = vartótina 'which should be used'.

The participle of necessity denotes an action which should be performed or is worthy of being performed, e.g.:

  • Šìs atmiñtinas susitikìmas įvỹko priẽš peñkerius metùs 'This memorable meeting took place five years ago'.
  • Reĩkia ieškóti išeitiẽs ìš tokiõs apverktinõs situãcijos 'It is necessary to seek a way out of such a lamentable situation'.

The most frequent forms, however, do not bear any of the meaning of necessity and function merely as verbal adjectives.

23.2 The Reflexive Participles

The participles can also be reflexive. The reflexive active participles without prefixes are formed by adding the reflexive particle to the ending of the nominative case. The reflexive particle -s is added to the end of the simple particle in the singular and -si to the plural. In the masculine singular there is an -i- inserted between the participle and the final -s of the ending.

Present active participles:

Nom.sg.masc.   gydą̃s-is 'curing, healing'
Nom.sg.fem.   gýdanti-s
Nom.pl.masc.   gydą̃si

Past active participles:

Nom.sg.masc.   gýdęs-is
Nom.sg.fem.   gýdžiusi-s
Nom.pl.masc.   gýdę-si

These participles are used only in the masculine and feminine singular and the masculine plural, e.g.:

  • Sãko, kàd jìs šiuõ metù gydą̃sis nuõ plaũčių uždegìmo 'They say, now he is being treated for pneumonia'.
  • Nustók tikė́jęsis stebùklo 'Stop waiting for a miracle'.

If the verb is prefixed, than the reflexive particle -si- is inserted after the prefix, but before the root of the verb. Then all of the cases of the participle may be used, e.g., present active participle: nom.sg.masc. besigydą̃s, besigýdantis, gen.sg.masc. besigýdančio, dat.sg.masc. besigýdančiam, etc.; past active participle: išsigýdęs, išsigýdžiusio, išsigýdžiusiam, etc.:

  • Gãtvė bùvo pilnà besilìnksminančių žmonių̃ 'The street was full of celebrating people'.
  • Pasidžiaũgęs gerà žinià pàkviečiau pùsbrolį išgérti kavõs 'Having rejoiced at the good news, I invited my cousin to take a cup of coffee'.

The masculine and feminine forms of reflexive passive participles are created only from prefixed verbs, e.g.: išsìperkamas, 'being redeemed', išsiperkamà, išsìpirktas, '(having been) redeemed' išsipirktà:

  • Atsìnešto maĩsto jíems neužtẽko nė̃ dvíem dienóms
  • Food brought with them was not enough even for two days'.

The neuter forms of reflexive passive participles can be formed both from prefixed and non-prefixed verbs, e.g., kal̃bamasi, pasìkalbama '(being) spoken of, about '; kalbė́tasi, pasikalbḗta '(having been) spoken of, about'':

  • Jų̃ kalbė́tasi apiẽ tolèsnio bendradarbiãvimo perspektyvàs
  • 'They spoke among themselves about perspectives for further collaboration'.

The reflexive half-participles and gerunds are formed in the same way as the active participles.

24 The Compound Tenses of the Active Voice

Compound tenses are formed with the finite forms of the auxiliary bū́ti 'to be' and the present or past active or passive participle. Compound tenses containing active participles belong to the active voice, and those containing passive participles belong to the passive voice.

Compound forms with a present active participle form compound continuative tenses and moods, and those with a present passive participle form compound imperfect tenses and moods. Compound forms containing past active or passive participle are used as compound active or passive perfect tenses and moods.

24.1 Continuative Tenses

The past, the past frequentative and the future tense of the verb bū́ti 'to be' may be used with the appropriate form of the present active participle (prefixed with be-) to express an action which is not, or could not be completed. These forms are somewhat similar in meaning to the various progressive tenses of English. There are no present tense continuative forms in modern Lithuanian. The compound past continuative is most frequently used. A sample paradigm with the past tense is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   àš buvaũ beperką̃s 'I was buying'   àš buvaũ bèperkanti
2nd sg   tù buvaĩ beperką̃s 'you were buying'   tù buvaĩ bèperkanti
3rd sg   jìs bùvo beperką̃s 'he was buying'   jì bùvo bèperkanti
         
1st pl   mẽs bùvom(e) beperką̃ 'we were buying'   mẽs bùvom(e) bèperkančios
2nd pl   jū̃s bùvot(e) beperką̃ 'you were buying'   jū̃s bùvot(e) bèperkančios
3rd pl   jiẽ bùvo beperką̃ 'they were buying'   jõs bùvo bèperkančios

The number and gender of the participle are always the same as the number and gender of the subject. The participle is always in the nominative case to agree with the subject of the verb which is also in the nominative case, e.g.:

  • Buvaũ jaũ bèperkanti tą̃ kerãminę vãzą, bèt paskutìnę minùtę pastebė́jau, kàd jì įtrū́kusi 'I was already buying that ceramic vase but at the last minute I saw that it had slightly broken.
  • Rytõj tókiu pàt laikù jìs jaũ bùs bekeliáująs namõ 'Tomorrow at the same time he will be already travelling home'.
24.2 Perfect Tenses

Compound perfect tenses are formed with the auxiliary verb bū́ti 'to be' and the past active participle. Bū́ti is used in one of its finite forms. Compound perfect forms occur in the present, past, past frequentative and future of the indicative mood and also in the subjunctive and imperative.

As in English the present perfect tense denotes the present state which is the result of a past action. It may not, however, denote a past action continuing into the present as does the English perfect tense, cf:

  • Šiojè į́monėje jì dìrba jaũ penkiólika mẽtų
  • 'She has been working in this company for fifteen years'.

In this case the English perfect tense is translated with a Lithuanian present tense.

The present perfect tense is formed with the present conjugation of the verb bū́ti and the form of the past active participle agrees in gender and number with the subject:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   àš esù pir̃kęs 'I have bought'   àš esù pir̃kusi
2nd sg   tù esì pir̃kęs 'you have bought'   tù esì pir̃kusi
3rd sg   jìs yrà pir̃kęs 'he has bought'   jì yrà pir̃kusi
         
1st pl   mẽs ẽsam(e) pir̃kę 'we have bought'   mẽs ẽsam(e) pir̃kusios
2nd pl   jū̃s ẽsat(e) pir̃kę 'you have bought'   jū̃s ẽsat(e) pir̃kusios
3rd pl   jiẽ yrà pir̃kę 'they have bought'   jõs yrà pir̃kusios
  • Kẽletą kar̃tų ir̃ àš esù pažeĩdusi eĩsmo taisyklès 'I too have violated traffic regulations several times'.
  • Jiẽ niekadà nėrà bùvę tokiamè gūdžiamè miškè 'They have never been in such a gloomy forest'.

The pluperfect tense is formed with the preterit of the verb bū́ti plus the past active participle. The gender and number of the participle depend upon the gender and number of the subject. A sample paradigm is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   àš buvaũ pir̃kęs 'I had bought'   àš buvaũ pir̃kusi
2nd sg   tù buvaĩ pir̃kęs 'you had bought'   t̀u buvaĩ pir̃kusi
3rd sg   jìs bùvo pir̃kęs 'he had bought'   jì bùvo pir̃kusi
         
1st pl   mẽs bùvom(e) pir̃kę 'we had bought'   mẽs bùvom(e) pir̃kusios
2nd pl   jū̃s bùvot(e) pir̃kę 'you had bought'   jū̃s bùvot(e) pir̃kusios
3rd pl   jiẽ bùvo pir̃kę 'they had bought'   jõs bùvo pir̃kusios

This tense denotes a state which had been attained in the past. It may have been completed either during the time when another action took place or prior to the time another action took place:

  • Kaĩ mẽs atvažiãvom, seser̃s šeimà jaũ bùvo išvỹkusi atostogáuti 'When we came my sister's family had already left for vacation'.
  • Ingridà sugebė́jo iškèpti vìštą, kõl svečiai atė̃jo 'Ingrida was able to fry a chicken before the guests came'.

The frequentative perfect tense is a compound tense formed with the frequentative past of the verb bū́ti plus the past active participle:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   àš bū́davau pir̃kęs   àš bū́davau pir̃kusi
2nd sg   tù bū́davai pir̃kęs   tù bū́davai pir̃kusi
3rd sg   jìs bū́davo pir̃kęs   jì bū́davo pir̃kusi
         
1st pl   mẽs bū́davom(e) pir̃kę   mẽs bū́davom(e) pir̃kusios
2nd pl   jū̃s bū́davot(e) pir̃kę   jū̃s bū́davot(e) pir̃kusios
3rd pl   jiẽ bū́davo pir̃kę   jõs bū́davo pir̃kusios

This tense denotes a state which was attained at different times in the past:

  • Mẽs jaũ bū́davom papietãvę, kai į̃ válgomąjį įžeñgdavo jì
  • 'We had already finished having dinner when(ever) she entered the dinning-room'.

The future perfect tense is formed with the future tense of the verb bū́ti plus the appropriate form of the past active participle. The gender and number of the participle depend upon the gender and the number of the subject. A sample conjugation is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   àš bū́siu pir̃kęs 'I will have bought'   àš bū́siu pir̃kusi
2nd sg   tù bū́si pir̃kęs 'you will have bought'   tù bū́si pir̃kusi
3rd sg   jìs bùs pir̃kęs 'he will have bought'   jì bùs pir̃kusi
         
1st pl   mẽs bū́sim(e) pir̃kę 'we will have bought'   mẽs bū́sim(e) pir̃kusios
2nd pl   jū̃s bū́sit(e) pir̃kę 'you will have bought'   jū̃s bū́sit(e) pir̃kusios
3rd pl   jiẽ bùs pir̃kę 'they will have bought'   jõs bùs pir̃kusios

The future perfect tense may express an action which will have taken place before another future action takes place. It may also express a condition or state which will last some time in the future as the result of a future action. Sometimes it expresses the probability that an event has taken place, e.g.:

  • Jéi tù mán skam̃binsi deviñtą vãlandą rýto, àš jaũ bū́siu išė̃jusi į̃ dárbą 'If you call me at nine in the morning, I will have gone to work'.
  • Kai ateĩs ruduõ, mẽs nãmą jaũ bū́sim pastãtę 'When autumn comes we will have built the house'.
  • Turbū́t Rasà bùs nuė̃jusi miegóti 'Rasa probably must have gone (somewhere) to sleep'.

In English we must use the present tense after 'when', even if a future time is implied. Since this rule does not apply to Lithuanian the future tense must be used when a future time is specified.

The compound tenses of the active voice also occur in the subjunctive and imperative, e.g., bū́tų beperką̃s; bū́k beperką̃; bū́tų pir̃kęs; bū́k pir̃kęs, e.g.:

  • Simonà bū́tų pir̃kusi, jéi bū́tų turė́jusi pinigų̃
  • 'Simona would have bought (something), if she had had some money'.
25 Use of the Nominative, Genitive and Dative

All case forms, with the exception of the nominative, dative and locative, may occur either alone or with prepositions. They usually depend on the verbs.

25.1 Nominative

The nominative does not depend on any other word in a clause. Its closest "partner" is a verb. It functions mostly as a subject or predicative complement, e.g.:

  • Sáulė yrà mil̃žiniška žvaigždė̃
  • 'The sun is a large star'.

The nominative case is also used in certain time expressions, e.g.:

  • Jaũ kelì mẽtai vãsaros bū̃na šáltos 'It is already a few years that summers have been cold'.
  • Kàs minùtė viduñ įžeñgdavo naũjas klieñtas 'Every minute a new client would come in'.

The accusative, however, is more common under these circumstances in modern Lithuanian.

25.2 Genitive

When not governed by a preposition nouns in the genitive are mostly used as objects or as modifiers. Certain verbs require the direct object in the genitive case rather than in the accusative, e.g., ieškóti, 'to look for', 'to seek'; norė́ti 'to wish', 'to want'; láukti 'to wait for'; mókytis 'to study', etc.:

  • Jìs visuomèt nóri didžiáusio ką́snio 'He always wants the biggest piece'.
  • Daũgelis amerikiẽčių íeško sàvo šaknų̃ Euròpoje 'Many Americans look for their roots in Europe'.
  • Láukiame ìš tavę̃s gerų̃ žinių̃ 'We are waiting for good news from you'.

The genitive is used as the direct object of a negated verb, e.g.:

  • Jì nevairúoja automobìlio (cf: Jì vairúoja automobìlį)
  • 'She does not drive a car' (cf: She drives a car').

The object of an infinitive which is in turn the object of a negated verb may be in the genitive case, e.g.:

  • Jì nenóri atidúoti jíems didžiáusio ką́snio
  • 'She does not want to let them have the biggest piece'.

The word ką́snis 'piece' is in the genitive case although it is the direct object of atidúoti, not nóri 'wants'.

In order to express an indefinite amount or quantity the genitive may be used where either the nominative or accusative would otherwise be required, e.g.:

  • Sutikaũ ir̃ blogų̃ žmonių̃ 'I have also met some bad people'.
  • Vakarè atvažiãvo draugų̃ 'In the evening some friends came'.
  • Kiekvíenas tùrime ýdų 'Everybody has some faults'.

The genitive may be used as a nominal object of an infinitive which follows a verb of motion. In this case it has the meaning of purpose, e.g.:

  • Grįžaũ daiktų̃ pasiim̃ti 'I came back to take (my) things'.
  • Mẽs važiúojam pir̃kti šaldytùvo 'We are going (somewhere) to buy a refrigerator''.

The verbs pasiim̃ti 'to take' and pir̃kti are transitive verbs and must take a direct object in the accusative case under most other circumstances.

The genitive is used with certain nouns and adverbs of quantity, e.g., kilogrãmas jáutienos 'a kilo of beef'; puodẽlis kavos 'a cup of coffee', daũg mẽdžių 'many trees'; mažaĩ ežerų̃ 'few lakes'.

When the genitive case is used to show possession the noun in the genitive cases is usually placed before the object possessed, e.g., brólio nãmas 'brother's house'; móters pir̃štai 'the woman's fingers'.

Many prepositions require the genitive case. The most common prepositions used with genitive are as follows:

    Añt 'on':   Nesėdė́k añt láiptų - péršalsi
        'Do not sit on the stairs, you will get a cold'.
    'without':   Dalìs žmonių̃ negãli išgyvénti bè valstýbės paramõs
        'Some people can't survive without support from the government'.
    Dė̃l 'through', 'because of', 'due to':   Skrỹdis bùvo atidė́tas dė̃l rū̃ko
        'The flight has been cancelled due to fog'.
    Ìš 'out of', away from':   Ìš kam̃bario sklìdo triùkšmas
        'The noise came from the room'.
    Nuõ 'from', away from':   Nuõ sáulės slė̃pėmės põ dìdeliu medžiù
        'We were hidden from the sun under the big tree'.
    Ikì (ligì) 'to', 'up to', 'until':   Ikì vãkaro dažýti síenų nespė́sim baĩgti
        'We will not able to finish painting the walls until the evening'.
    Priẽ 'by', 'at', 'at the side of',   Kviẽsk visùs sė́sti priẽ stãlo
    'in the presence of':   'Ask all (the guests) to sit down at the table'.
25.3 Dative

The primary function of the dative is that of the indirect object, e.g.:

  • Pagaliaũ jìs mán pasãkė teisýbę 'At last he told (to) me the truth'.
  • Šią̃ knỹgą paskýriau sàvo senẽliams 'I dedicated this book to my grandparents'.

In many cases, Lithuanian uses the indirect object where in English one uses expressions such as: 'for', 'for the sake of', etc.:

  • Draugaĩ Tòmui nupir̃ko šùnį
  • 'Friends bought a dog for Thomas'.

The dative may also denote the subject of an impersonal clause, e.g.:

  • Mán trū́ksta išmintiẽs 'I lack wisdom'.
  • Jíem bùvo gẽra 'It was nice for both of them'.

The dative case may be used as the object of an infinitive to express purpose. In English we would have a direct object in a corresponding construction, e.g.:

  • Keliõnei nusipirkaũ naũją lagamìna 'I have bought a new suitcase for the journey'.
  • Kománda reñgėsi revánšui 'The team was preparing for the return game'.

It quite often indicates time, e.g.:

  • Sugrįžaũ tìk kelióms dienóms 'I came back only for a few days'.
  • Akìmirkai mẽs prarãdome žãdą 'For a moment we were deprived of speech'.

Baltic Online

Lesson 6: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

The foundations for the flourishing of Lithuanian culture of the 18th century were laid in the previous two centuries. In the 16th and 17th centuries, a collective tradition for the production of religious and linguistic works had been created, and in Daniel Klein's grammar, norms for the written language had been codified. The distinguished literary historian Jùrgis Lebedỹs has emphasized that, without Jõnas Bretkū́nas, the greatest producer of religious literature at the end of the 16th century and the translator of the Bible, Kristijõnas Doneláitis (1714-1780) would never have become famous.

Kristijõnas Doneláitis as a poet was nurtured by the cultural milieu of 18th century East Prussia. At the age of 29 he was appointed pastor of the small East Prussian parish Tolminkiemis, where he lived until his death. He loved the simple and unhurried life. He had not only poetic talent, but also golden hands: he made optical and meteorological instruments and even built for himself a piano that he played, and he maintained a garden. A great part of his life was spent talking with the peasants of his parish and experiencing their woes and cares. Half the members of his parish were Germans who, supported by the government, tried to push Lithuanian peasants out of the more fertile lands. Thus, as a pastor, it frequently fell to his lot to quell national and social conflicts, encouraging the peasants to argue their cases in court.

It is thought that six fables belong to the initial phase of his literary activity. Some are borrowed from Aesop and others are original. However the most important work, which made him famous, is the poem Mẽtai 'The Seasons'. Most likely Doneláitis wrote this in the course of ten years without any preconceived plan for the work. The poem was constantly being supplemented and corrected, but remained unfinished to the end. The famous East Prussian Lithuanian cultural activist Liùdvikas Rėzà published it 38 years after its author's death. He was the first to call this work Mẽtai 'The Seasons'. This is made up of four parts: The amusements of spring, Summer work, The pleasures of fall and Winter cares. In these the author describes the East Prussian Lithuanian village, the way of life of its peasant inhabitants, and their work, all of which was well known to him. The impressive views of nature during the seasons described by the poet help to hold together the various parts of the work. The lives of the Lithuanian peasants in the poem are closely bound up with the cycles of nature. The most important things for the peasant are work, sleep and food. Doneláitis relied little on any kind of literary canons, but in the division of the poem's characters into positive (polite) and negative (good-for-nothing) persons we can see some elements of classical writing. The use of extravagant expressions and the tendency to hyperbolize are connected with the baroque tradition. In the work there are quite a few didactic precepts and pieces of advice, because its author is not only a poet but a preacher as well. In The Seasons, the author through the mouths of his characters comes out against the foreign German culture and emphasizes the value of his own language and culture. His national feeling is distinguished by conservatism.

The poetry of antiquity (Hesiod, Vergil) had a profound influence on him. His entire poem is in rhymed hexameter. Although the antique hexameter is based on the difference between short and long syllables, he applied it to the Lithuanian language, which has free stress, and he replaced the old hexameter with tonic hexameter. In his verses he alternates tonic dactyls and trochees, but the penultimate foot of a line is always dactylic. Characteristic of each line is a caesura in the third foot or two caesuras in the second and fourth feet. The caesura is for the most part masculine.

The episode given here is from the second part of The Seasons. Summer work tells about one of the most colorful good-for-nothing peasants of this poem, Plaučiū́nas. After a bit of unpaid collective work, he has his fill of food and drink at the place of his neighbor Kãsparas and wanders home, arriving only at dawn and without his new scythe and whetstone. He misses his tools only after the quail calls him to make hay. Unable to find his tools anywhere, Pliaučiū́nas beats his wife and children, saddles up his one-eared nag and rides off to Karaliáučius to buy a scythe. But there he forgets all about the scythe and at Mìkas' place pays for his drinks with his old nag and wanders home on foot after two weeks. Crawling and snorting, he cuts his neglected meadow with a sickle. This excerpt was translated by William Schmalstieg.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The text of the selection is given according to the rules of contemporary Lithuanian orthography and punctuation: as much as possible, an attempt has been made to maintain the authentic Donelaitis stress (he did not supply all the words with stress and some are stressed in several ways). In this selection as in the entire poem, abundant use is made of the half-participles, which are distinguished by their picturesque quality, e.g., klydinė́dams 'wandering around', miegódams 'sleeping', vaitódams 'groaning', pamatýdams 'seeing', žioplinė́dams 'gaping', šokinė́dams 'dancing', šnỹpšdams 'snorting', rėplinė́dams 'crawling'. Also characteristic of the author's language is the ending - s as a shortening of - as, i.e., the loss of mobile - a-, e.g., Plaučiū́ns, pavitóts 'having been given food and drink', miegódams 'sleeping', vaitódams 'groaning', etc. Infinitives are also shortened: šienáut(i) 'to make hay', pjáut(i) 'to cut, to reap', conjunctions ìk(i) 'until.' The locative ending -yje is shortened not to -y, but to yj, e.g.., naktỹj 'in the night'.

In the text given here Slavisms are encountered, e.g., pavitóts 'having been given food and drink', glū̃pas 'stupid, silly', nesvíetiškai 'not of this world, inhuman, beyond ordinary measure', dỹvas 'wonder', nedė́lė 'week', potám 'then'. Most common are the conjunctions kàd 'that, when', bèt 'but', ir̃ 'and', bei 'and'. Frequent in this excerpt are adverbs (paskiaũs 'afterwards, then', prastaĩ 'poorly', taĩp 'also', namõn 'home', daũg 'many, much', konè 'almost', etc.) and prepositions (pàs 'at', añt 'on', 'with', per̃ 'through', ìš 'from, out of', į̃ 'into', 'under, after', etc). In addition the adverb ir̃gi 'and even', characteristic of the literature of Lithuania Minor, is also used.

The excerpt is taken from the book Kristijonas Donelaitis. Metai ir pasakėčios. Vilnius: Baltų lankų leidyba, 2000, translated by William Schmalstieg.

Tàs nenáudėlis Plaučiū́ns, pàs Kãsparą pérnai
Talkojè pavitóts, taĩp baĩsiai bùvo prir̀ijęs,
Kàd jìs nãktyj, añt tamsių̃ laukų̃ klydinė́dams,
Bùdę naũją sù dalgiù šukė́tu prapùldė
Ir̃gi namõn išaũšus jaũ vos võs parsibãstė.
  • tàs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • nenáudėlis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <nenáudėlis, nenáudėlė> good-for-nothing -- good-for-nothing
  • Plaučiū́ns -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Plaučiū́ns> Plauciunas -- Plauciunas
  • pàs -- preposition; <pàs> at, to -- at
  • Kãsparą -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Kãsparas> Kasparas -- Kasparas' (place)
  • pérnai -- adverb; <pérnai> last year -- last year
  • talkojè -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <talkà> collective labor -- in the collective labor
  • pavitóts -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <pavitóti, pavitója, pavitójo> entertain, give food and drink -- having been given food and drink
  • taĩp -- adverb; <taĩp> so, therefore -- so
  • baĩsiai -- adverb; <baĩsiai> awfully -- much
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bū́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- had
  • prir̀ijęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <prirýti, prirỹja, prirìjo> drink -- drunk
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • nãktyj -- noun, feminine; locative singular <naktìs> night -- at night
  • añt -- preposition; <añt> in, on -- around
  • tamsių̃ -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <tamsùs, tamsì> dark -- dark
  • laukų̃ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <laũkas> field -- the fields
  • klydinė́dams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <klydinė́ti, klydinė́ja, klydinė́jo> wander -- wandering
  • bùdę -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <bùdė> whetstone -- the whetstone
  • naũją -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <naũjas, naujà> new -- new
  • -- preposition; <sù> with -- with
  • dalgiù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <dal̃gis> scythe -- the scythe
  • šukė́tu -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <šukė́tas, šukė́ta> chipped -- chipped
  • prapùldė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <prapùldyti, prapùldo, prapùldė> lose -- lost
  • ir̃gi -- adverb; <ir̃gi> and even -- and even
  • namõn -- adverb; <namõn> home -- home
  • išaũšus -- verb; preterit gerund(ive) of <išaũšti, išaũšta, išaũšo> break of dawn -- at the break of dawn
  • jaũ -- adverb; <jaũ> already, just -- just
  • vos võs -- adverb; <vos võs> barely -- barely
  • parsibãstė -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <parsibastýti, parsibãsto, parsibãstė> wander -- (he) wandered

Taĩp jisaĩ paskuĩ, per̃ diẽną vìsą miegódams,
Pàmestų rỹkų laukè ieškót neminė́jo,
Ìk põ mẽto vė̃l šienáut jaũ pùtpela šaũkė.
  • taĩp -- adverb; <taĩp> so, therefore -- so that
  • jisaĩ -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • paskuĩ -- adverb; <paskuĩ> afterwards -- afterwards
  • per̃ -- preposition; <per̃> through -- through
  • diẽną -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <dienà> day -- the day
  • vìsą -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <vìsas, visà> all -- whole
  • miegódams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <miegóti, miẽga, miegójo> sleep -- sleeping
  • pàmestų -- verb; genitive plural masculine of preterit participle passive of <pamèsti, pàmeta, pàmetė> loose -- lost
  • rỹkų -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <rỹkas> tool -- the tools
  • laukè -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <laũkas> field -- in the field
  • ieškót -- verb; infinitive of <ieškóti, íeško, ieškójo> look for -- to look for
  • neminė́jo -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person preterit of <minė́ti, mìni, minė́jo> remember -- (he) didn't remember
  • ìk -- conjunction; <ìk> until -- until
  • -- preposition; <põ> after, over, on -- after
  • mẽto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <mẽtai> year -- a year
  • vė̃l -- adverb; <vė̃l> again -- again
  • šienáut -- verb; infinitive of <šienáuti, šienáuja, šienãvo> make hay -- to make hay
  • jaũ -- adverb; <jaũ> already, just -- already
  • pùtpela -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pùtpela> quail -- the quail
  • šaũkė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <šaũkti, šaũkia, šaũkė> call -- called (him)

Štaĩ Plaučiū́ns sàvo dal̃gio beĩ bùdės pasigẽdo
Ir̃ vaitódams vìs ir̃ šeñ, ir̃ teñ bėginė́jo;
Ìk paskiaũs, ìš pãpykio beržìnį pagãvęs,
Pãčią sù glūpaĩs vaikaĩs konè nùmušė smir̃das.
  • štaĩ -- particle; <štaĩ> here -- so now
  • Plaučiū́ns -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Plaučiū́ns> Plauciunas -- Plauciunas
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • dal̃gio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <dal̃gis> scythe -- scythe
  • beĩ -- conjunction; <beĩ> and -- and
  • bùdės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <bùdė> whetstone -- whetstone
  • pasigẽdo -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <pasigèsti, pasigeñda, pasigẽdo> miss -- missed
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • vaitódams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <vaitóti, vaitója,vaitójo> moan, groan -- groaning
  • vìs -- adverb; <vìs> still -- ...
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- ...
  • šeñ -- adverb; <šeñ> hither -- hither
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • teñ -- adverb; <teñ> there, thither -- thither
  • bėginė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <bėginė́ti, bėginė́ja, bėginė́jo> run about -- ran
  • ìk -- conjunction; <ìk> until -- until
  • paskiaũs -- adverb; <paskiaũs> then, after that -- finally
  • ìš -- preposition; <ìš> from -- from
  • pãpykio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <pãpykis> anger -- anger
  • beržìnį -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <beržìnis> birch stick -- a birch stick
  • pagãvęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pagáuti, pagáuna, pagãvo> grab up -- grabbing up
  • pãčią -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <patì> wife -- (his) wife
  • -- preposition; <sù> with -- and
  • glūpaĩs -- adjective; instrumental plural masculine of <glū̃pas> stupid -- stupid
  • vaikaĩs -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural of <vaĩkas> child -- (their) children
  • konè -- adverb; <konè> almost -- almost
  • nùmušė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <numùšti, nùmuša, nùmušė> kill -- killed
  • smir̃das -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <smir̃das> stinking fellow -- the stinking fellow

Taĩp potám jisaĩ, nesvíetiškai prisidū̃kęs
Ir̃ vienaũsį kuĩnpalaikį prastaĩ pažebójęs,
Į̃ Karaliáučių dal̃gį pir̃kt tiesióg nukeliãvo.
  • taĩp -- adverb; <taĩp> so, therefore -- so
  • potám -- adverb; <potám> then, after that -- then
  • jisaĩ -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • nesvíetiškai -- adverb; <nesviẽtiškai> inhuman, not of this world -- unholy
  • prisidū̃kęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <prisidū̃kti, prisidū́ksta, prisidū́ko> rage, raise a row -- in a fit of rage
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- ...
  • vienaũsį -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <vienaũsis, vienaũsė> one-eared -- one-eared
  • kuĩnpalaikį -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kuĩnpalaikis> old nag -- the old nag
  • prastaĩ -- adverb; <prastaĩ> badly -- somehow
  • pažebójęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pažebóti, pažebója, pažebójo> bridle -- having bridled
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- for
  • Karaliáučių -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Karaliáučius> Karaliaucius -- Karaliaucius
  • dal̃gį -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <dal̃gis> scythe -- a scythe
  • pir̃kt -- verb; infinitive of <pir̃kti, per̃ka, pir̃ko> buy -- to buy
  • tiesióg -- adverb; <tiesióg> directly -- directly
  • nukeliãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <nukeliáuti, nukeliáuja, nukeliãvo> travel -- set off

Õ veĩ teñ, dỹvų visókių daũg pamatýdams
Ir̃ žioplinė́dams vìs beĩ bū̃riškai šokinė́dams,
Bùdę sù naujù dalgiù nusipir̃kt užsimir̃šo;
Bèt ir̃ kuĩnpalaikį taip jaũ pàs Mìką pragė́ręs,
Pė́sčias põ dviejų̃ nedė́lių võs parsibãstė,
Ir̃ sàvo píevą prìdergtą (tìkt gė́da sakýti)
Šnỹpšdams ir̃ rėplinė́dams vìs sù piáutuvu kir̃to.
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- but
  • veĩ -- particle; <veĩ> look -- ...
  • teñ -- adverb; <teñ> there, thither -- there
  • dỹvų -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <dỹvas> miracle, wonder -- wonders
  • visókių -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <visóks, visókia> all -- marvelous
  • daũg -- adverb; <daũg> many, much -- many
  • pamatýdams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <pamatýti, pamãto, pamãtė> see -- seeing
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- ...
  • žioplinė́dams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <žioplinė́ti, žioplinė́ja, žioplinė́jo> gape -- gaping
  • vìs -- adverb; <vìs> still -- still
  • beĩ -- conjunction; <beĩ> and -- and
  • bū̃riškai -- adverb; <bū̃riškai> like a peasant -- like a peasant
  • šokinė́dams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <šokinė́ti, šokinė́ja, šokinė́jo> dance, skip -- dancing
  • bùdę -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <bùdė> whetstone -- a whetstone
  • -- preposition; <sù> with -- and
  • naujù -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <naũjas, naujà> new -- new
  • dalgiù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <dal̃gis> scythe -- a scythe
  • nusipir̃kt -- verb; infinitive reflexive of <nusipir̃kti, nusìperka, nusipir̃ko> buy -- to buy
  • užsimir̃šo -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <užsimir̃šti, užsimir̃šta, užsimir̃šo> forget -- (he) forgot
  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- ...
  • kuĩnpalaikį -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kuĩnpalaikis> old nag -- the old nag
  • taip jaũ -- adverb; <taip jaũ> also -- ...
  • pàs -- preposition; <pàs> at, to -- at
  • Mìką -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Mìkas> Mikas -- Mikas' (place)
  • pragė́ręs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pragérti, pràgeria, pragė́rė> drink up -- having drunk up
  • pė́sčias -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <pė́sčias, pėsčià> on foot -- on foot
  • -- preposition; <põ> after, over, on -- after
  • dviejų̃ -- number; genitive feminine of <dù, dvì> two -- two
  • nedė́lių -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <nedė́lia> week -- weeks
  • võs -- particle; <võs> barely, hardly -- ...
  • parsibãstė -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <parsibastýti, parsibãsto, parsibãstė> wander -- (he) wandered (home)
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • píevą -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <píeva> meadow -- field
  • prìdergtą -- verb; accusative singular feminine of preterit participle passive of <pridérgti, pridérgia, pridérgė> befoul -- befouled
  • tìkt -- particle; <tìkt> only -- only
  • gė́da -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gė́da> shameful -- (it is) shameful
  • sakýti -- verb; infinitive of <sakýti, sãko, sãkė> say -- to say (it)
  • šnỹpšdams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <šnỹpšti, šnỹpščia, šnỹpštė> snort -- snorting
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • rėplinė́dams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <rėplinė́ti, rėplinė́ja, rėplinė́jo> crawl -- crawling
  • vìs -- adverb; <vìs> still -- over and over
  • -- preposition; <sù> with -- with
  • piáutuvu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <piáutuvas> sickle -- a sickle
  • kir̃to -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <kir̃sti, ker̃ta, kir̃to> cut -- harvested

Lesson Text

Tàs nenáudėlis Plaučiū́ns, pàs Kãsparą pérnai
Talkojè pavitóts, taĩp baĩsiai bùvo prir̀ijęs,
Kàd jìs nãktyj, añt tamsių̃ laukų̃ klydinė́dams,
Bùdę naũją sù dalgiù šukė́tu prapùldė
Ir̃gi namõn išaũšus jaũ vos võs parsibãstė.
Taĩp jisaĩ paskuĩ, per̃ diẽną vìsą miegódams,
Pàmestų rỹkų laukè ieškót neminė́jo,
Ìk põ mẽto vė̃l šienáut jaũ pùtpela šaũkė.
Štaĩ Plaučiū́ns sàvo dal̃gio beĩ bùdės pasigẽdo
Ir̃ vaitódams vìs ir̃ šeñ, ir̃ teñ bėginė́jo;
Ìk paskiaũs, ìš pãpykio beržìnį pagãvęs,
Pãčią sù glūpaĩs vaikaĩs konè nùmušė smir̃das.
Taĩp potám jisaĩ, nesvíetiškai prisidū̃kęs
Ir̃ vienaũsį kuĩnpalaikį prastaĩ pažebójęs,
Į̃ Karaliáučių dal̃gį pir̃kt tiesióg nukeliãvo.
Õ veĩ teñ, dỹvų visókių daũg pamatýdams
Ir̃ žioplinė́dams vìs beĩ bū̃riškai šokinė́dams,
Bùdę sù naujù dalgiù nusipir̃kt užsimir̃šo;
Bèt ir̃ kuĩnpalaikį taip jaũ pàs Mìką pragė́ręs,
Pė́sčias põ dviejų̃ nedė́lių võs parsibãstė,
Ir̃ sàvo píevą prìdergtą (tìkt gė́da sakýti)
Šnỹpšdams ir̃ rėplinė́dams vìs sù piáutuvu kir̃to.

Translation

That good-for-nothing Plauciunas, (having participated) last year in the collective labor and having been given food and drink at Kasparas' place, had drunk so much that, wandering around the dark fields at night, he lost his new whetstone and chipped scythe. He wandered home just barely at the break of dawn so that afterwards, sleeping through the whole day, he didn't remember to look in the field for his lost tools, until after a year the quail called him to make hay again. So now Plauciunas missed his scythe and whetstone and, groaning, ran hither and thither until finally, from anger, grabbing up a birch stick, the stinking fellow almost killed his wife and their stupid children. So then in a fit of unholy rage, having somehow bridled the old one-eared nag, he set off directly for Karaliaucius to buy a scythe. But seeing many marvelous wonders there, still gaping and dancing like a peasant, he forgot to buy a whetstone and a new scythe. But having drunk up the old nag [i.e., having spent all the money he got from selling the nag] at Mikas' place, he wandered home on foot after two weeks and harvested his befouled field (it's only shameful to say it) with a sickle, crawling and snorting over and over.

Grammar

26 Adverbs

Adverbs express qualitative, quantitive, spatial or temporal characteristics of actions, states, properties, sometimes of things. They can also denote the circumstances under which actions and states occur. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs and clauses, e.g.:

  • Kolegà rūgščiaĩ pàžvelgė į̃ manè 'My colleague glanced at me acidly'.
  • Keliõnė bùvo neįprastaĩ sunkì 'The trip was unusually difficult'.
  • Dažniáusiai visì darbaĩ užgriū̃va tuõ pačiù metù 'Most often all the jobs occur at the same time'.

Some qualitative adverbs can be used as predicatives, e.g.:

  • Mán labaĩ blogaĩ
  • 'I feel extremely bad'.

It should be noted that some words function either as adverbs or as prepositions, e.g.:

  • Atsistók šalià 'Stand close'.
  • Atsistók šalià manę̃s 'Stand next to me'.

Most adverbs are formed from other parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns, participles) by means of suffixes or prefixes.

The suffix -(i)ai is particulary common and productive in Lithuanian. Adverbs with the suffix -(i)ai are formed from adjectives and participles with an adjectival meaning:

    Adj/Part.   Adv
    káršt-as 'hot'   karšt-aĩ 'hotly'
    laimìng-as 'happy'   laimìng-ai 'happily'
    aštr-ùs 'sharp'   aštr-iaĩ 'sharply'
    mandag-ùs 'polite'   mandag-iaĩ 'politely'
    nevỹkus-i 'unsuccessful'   nevỹkus-iai 'unsuccessfully'
    dẽram-as 'proper'   deramaĩ 'properly'
    neláukt-as 'unexpected'   nelauktaĩ 'unexpectedly'

Before the suffix -iai, the consonants t and d are replaced by č and :

    Adj   Adv
    skaud-ùs 'painful'   skaũdž-iai 'painfully
    prìderant-i 'becoming, appropriate'   prìderanč-iai 'appropriately'

Adverbs formed by adding the suffix -yn denote a change into the condition denoted by the root adjective, e.g.:

    Adj   Adv
    šált-as 'cold'   šaltỹn '(turning, becoming) cold'
    áukšt-as 'high, tall'   aukštỹn 'up', upwards'

A number of adverbs are adverbialized case forms of nouns, e.g.:

Case   Adv
Nominative   ganà 'enough', nežinià '(it) is not known'
Dative   ilgám 'for long', trumpám 'for a short while'
Accusative   trupùtį 'a little'
Instrumental   gretà 'side by side, next to somebody', tỹčia 'on purpose', draugè 'together', kar̃tais 'sometimes'
Locative   tarpùsavy 'between themselves'

The instrumental endings -(i)ui, -mis and -ais have developed into adverbial suffixes, e.g.:

  • véltui 'in vain'; pakeliuĩ 'on the way, the same way';
  • paskubomìs 'in a hurry'; apgraibomìs 'gropingly';
  • rẽtsykiais 'now and then'; dáiktais 'in places'.

The postpositional locative forms (the illative and the allative) are also used as adverbs, e.g.: šaliñ 'away, off', viršuñ 'up', vakaróp 'towards evening', velnióp 'to hell'. The adverbs namiẽ 'at home', artì 'near (by)', tolì 'far (away)' retain the archaic locative case form.

Numerous prepositional phrases have acquired adverbial meaning: iš kar̃to 'at once', bè gãlo 'extremely, on end' (lit. without end'), põ senóvei 'as of old, still', į̃ valiàs 'sufficiently'. Some of them lost case endings and developed into prefixed adverbs, e.g.: iškar̃t (cf: ìš kar̃to) 'at once', pernãkt (cf: per̃ nãktį) 'overnight', etc.

The following adverbs are adverbialized case forms of numerals, e.g., dvíese 'two by two', 'in twos'; trisè 'in a group of three'; vienaĩp 'in one way, in one manner'; antraĩp 'in another way, in a contrary manner'; trečiaĩp 'in a third way, in a third manner'.

The adverbs kur̃ 'where', kaĩp 'how', kíek 'how much, how many', kadà 'when', čià 'here', teñ 'there', visadà 'always', kitaĩp 'otherwise', etc. are related to pronouns. Their suffixes -(i)ur̃, -d(à) and -(i)ai~p can be used to form other adverbs, e.g., niekadà 'never', svetur̃ 'in a strange land (place)', vienur̃ 'in one place', savaip̃ 'in one's way', etc.

Some adverbs have developed from word groups, e.g., aną̃kart 'that time', kasdiẽn 'every day', šiẽmet 'this year'.

Words formed from verbs with the suffix -te, -tinai are traditionally considered to be non-finite verbal forms. They are called būdinỹs 'second infinitive'. However, in the newest Lithuanian grammars these forms are classed as adverbs, e.g.,

    skrìs-ti 'to fly'   skris-tè 'flying'
    skrìs-ti 'to fly'   skris-tinaĩ 'flying'

They are used with the verbs of the same root for emphasis. The suffix -tinaĩ is rare; is used instead, e.g.:

  • Čià žmõgų nukankìndavo, čiulptè iščiul̃pdavo jõ sveikãtą, jõ jėgàs. 'Here (they) used to torture a person, sucking (lit. sucking used to suck) dry his health, his energy'.
  • Astà skristè įskrìdo prõ durìs 'Asta came running fast (lit. flying flew) into the room'.

Adverbs deriving from adjectives which denote a variable property can form degrees of comparison. The comparative degree is formed by adding the suffix -iau while the superlative degree is derived by means of the suffix -iausiai or -iausia, e.g.:

    Pos.   Comp.   Sup.
    kãršt-aĩ 'hotly'   karšč-iaũ ' more hotly'   karšč-iáusiai 'the most hotly'
    graž-iaĩ 'nicely'   gražiaũ 'more nicely'   gražiáusia(i) 'the most nicely'

The comparative and superlative forms of adverbs coincide with those of the respective neuter adjectives, cf: gražù '(it is) nice', gražiaũ 'nicer', gražiáusia 'the nicest'.

Adverbs can be divided into a few semantic types (adverbs of manner, place, time, cause, etc.), e.g.:

  • Išklausýk manè ramiaĩ 'Listen to me calmly'.
  • Apliñkui bùvo tùščia 'It was empty all around'.
  • Rudenióp oraĩ atšą̃la 'The weather gets colder towards autumn'.
27 Verbal Aspects and Transitivity
27.1 Verbal Aspects

Verbal aspect is that characteristic of the verb which shows whether the action has been completed or is still in progress. Two aspectual meanings are distinguished: perfective and imperfective. In Lithuanian the use of verbal aspect depends on three things, viz. the structure of the verb, its lexical meaning and tense.

The perfective meaning is mainly characteristic of prefixed verbs. Most prefixed verbs denote a completed action, especially in the preterit and future tenses, e.g.,

taĩsė '(he) was repairing': pataĩsė '(he) repaired, (he) has repaired'; výkdė '(he) was accomplishing': įvýkdė '(he) accomplished', (he) has accomplished'; pùvo '(it) was rotting': supùvo '(it) rotted, (it) has rotted'; nẽšė 'he was carrying': àtnešė 'he carried, he has carried'.

The following example illustrates the difference between the imperfective and the resultative perfective:

  • Tė̃vas ilgaĩ taĩsė kavõs aparãtą, bèt nesutaĩsė
  • 'Father was (in the process of) repairing the coffee machine for a long time, but he did not manage to repair (it)'.

The prefix pa- is the most common prefix to give verbs perfective meaning. However, the addition of the iterative suffix -inėti makes such verbs imperfective again or perhaps neutral in regard to aspect:

  • àtnešė: atnešinė́jo 'he carried' (repeatedly);
  • nurãšė: nurašinė́jo 'he kept copying'.

As far as the lexical meaning of the verb is concerned, the punctual verbs and the verbs which denote a very short (momentary) action can only be perfective, e.g., ràsti 'to find', šáuti 'to shoot', šū́ktelėti 'to utter a cry', žvìlgterėti 'to casts a glance'.

The duration of the action is also important because we can only imagine a finished action in the past or the future. A finished action in the present would be in the past at the moment of utterance. Perfective verbs can then only be used with present tense endings in secondary functions. They may denote:

A general action which is not connected with any special time, e.g., Šiáurėje Lietuvà susisiẽkia sù Lãtvija 'In the North Lithuania borders on Latvia'. The possibility of performing an action, e.g., Màno tė́vas jaũ vė̃l paeĩna 'My father is able to walk again'. The historical present, e.g., Põ trẽčiojo Žečpospolìtos padalìjimo (1795) Rùsija prisijùngia didèsniąją Lietuvõs dãlį 'After the third partition of the Commonwealth (1795) Russia annexes (i.e. annexed) the greater part of Lithuania'. The future, e.g., Tuõj pàt važiúoju ir̃ parsìvežu jį̃ namõ 'I am going right now and bringing him home'.

The aspectual meaning of a verb may depend on the tense form and context. The present tense form of a verb is imperfective and the preterit and future tense forms are either perfective or imperfective according to context, e.g.:

  • Žmogùs mìršta (imperfective) 'A man is dying'.
  • Pérnai mìrė sesuõ (perfective) 'Sister died last year'.
  • Vaikaĩ mir̃s jū́sų akysè (imperfective) 'Children will be dying right before your eyes' (lit. 'in your eyes').

The imperfective aspect is most characteristic of unprefixed verbs. Among prefixed verbs, imperfective are those verbs which (a) are not used without prefixes or (b) the prefix of which changes or modifies their basic meaning, e.g.:

(a)   suprañta '(he) understands', pãsakoja '(he) relates', pajė̃gia '(he) is able', prieštaráuja '(he) objects', uždarbiáuja '(he) earns a living';
(b)   jaũčia '(he) feels': užjaũčia '(he) sympathizes (with)'; àpkalba '(he) slanders': kal̃ba '(he) speaks'; apgáuna '(he) deceives': gáuna '(he) gets'; sùtaria '(he) gets on (with someone): tãria '(he) says'; ìšlipa '(he) climbs off, out of': lìpa '(he) climbs'.

The suffixed verbs are usually imperfective (except -el(ė)ti, -er(ė)ti), cf: tráukti 'to pull': tráukyti 'to pull' (repeatedly); sùkti 'to twist': sukióti 'to twist' (repeatedly)'; rė̃kti 'to shout': rė́kauti 'to shout' (repeatedly); mèsti 'to throw': mė́tyti 'to throw, to fling' (repeatedly).

Some prefixed forms are neutral with respect to aspect. Their aspect depends on the context, e.g.:

  • Jìs tìk žvìlgterėjo mán į̃ véidą ir̃ iškar̃t manè prisìminė 'He only glanced up at my face and remembered me at once'.
  • Tù prisìminei manè visùs tuõs ìlgus issiskyrìmo metùs 'You remembered me after all those long years of separation'.

One should always remember that the various tenses of the verb can have different aspect.

It is important to distinguish carefully between the perfect tenses and the perfective aspect. A perfect tense denotes the state or condition which is the result of a past action, whereas the perfective aspect denotes a completed action. Thus the various perfect tenses may have verbs in either the perfective or imperfective aspect, e.g.:

  • Mẽs nè kar̃tą ẽsam skrìdę šiõs óro lìnijos lėktùvais (imperfective) 'We have flown with the planes of this airline many times'.
  • Kaĩ draudìmas skrìsti į̃ Bòstoną bùvo àtšauktas, mẽs jaũ bùvome isskrìdę į̃ Filadel̃fiją (perfective) 'By the time the ban on flights to Boston was cancelled we had already flown to Philadelphia'.

Although any combination of tense and aspect is theoretically possible, it is to be expected that the perfect tenses are more likely to be used with verbs of perfective aspect. This is because a condition which has been attained is more likely to be coupled with a completed action than with a noncompleted action.

27.2 Transitivity

Transitive verbs are used with the direct object in the accusative case. Intransitive verbs cannot take a direct object, cf.:

  • Visàs nereikalìngas kampúotas síenas ansaĩ prótėvis nugrióvė 'This ancestor destroyed all the unnecessary awkward walls'.
  • Vãkar jìs ìšsiuntė sàvo atsistatýdinimo prãšymą 'Yesterday he sent the application for his resignation'.
  • Vaikaĩ dažnaĩ bìjo tamsõs 'Children often are afraid of darkness'.
  • Kaĩ kuriẽ žmónes visuomèt džiaũgiasi kitų̃ žmonių̃ nesėkmėmìs 'Some people always rejoice at the misfortune of other people'.

There are some verbs that can be used as transitives or intransitives, e.g.:

  • Àš dár geraĩ girdžiù 'I still hear well'.
  • Àš pìrmą kar̃tą girdžiù šią̃ daĩną 'I am hearing this song for the first time'.
  • Pyrãgas jaũ kẽpa 'The cake is already baking.'
  • Renatà visuomèt kẽpa pyrãgą sàvo gimtãdieniui 'Renata always bakes a cake for her birthday'.

Many transitive verbs have intransitive counterparts. They can differ from each other in apophonic vowel alternation (a), the transitive verbs may take the causative suffixes -(d)inti, -(d)yti (b) or prefixes (c), the transitive counterpart is not reflexive (d):

(a)   Obel̃s Šakà nulū́žo 'The branch of the apple tree broke off'.
    Vė́jas nuláužė obel̃s šãką 'The wind broke off the branch of the apple tree'.
(b)   Skruóstai dẽgė ìš gė́dos 'The cheeks burned with shame'.
    Egzòtiški príeskoniai dẽgino bùrną 'The exotic spices burned the mouth'.
(c)   Dár vãkar àš drą̃siai ėjaũ tuõ keliù 'Yesterday I still went bravely on that road'.
    Mẽs apė̃jome vìsą mìšką, bèt niẽko nerãdomè 'We went all over the forest but we found nothing'.
(d)   Prikélk manè aštuñtą vãlandą rýto 'Wake me up at eight in the morning'.
    Laĩkas kéltis 'It is time to get up'.
28 Compound Tenses of the Passive Voice and Passivization.
28.1 The Compound Tenses of the Passive Voice

As was mentioned in lesson 5, the passive voice is formed with the auxiliary verb bū́ti 'to be'. There are as many tenses in the passive voice as there are tenses in the conjugation of the verb bū́ti. Since both the present passive and the past passive participle can be used to form the passive voice, there are actually always two tenses possible: one with the present passive participle (imperfect passive), the other with the past passive participle (perfect passive). The former is sometimes called the actional passive, and the latter the statal passive. One can render the tenses where the present passive participle is used into English as a regular passive, but with the word 'being' because the action is still being done (present tense), was being done (past tense), used to be being done (frequentative past), or will be being done (future). A sample paradigm of the imperfect passive tense is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
    ('I am being invited')    
1st sg   àš esù kviẽčiamas   àš esù kviečiamà
2nd sg   tù esì kviec̃^iamas   tù esì kviečiamà
3rd sg   jìs yrà kviẽčiamas   jì yrà kviečiamà
         
1st pl   mẽs ẽsam(e) kviečiamì   mẽs ẽsam(e) kviẽčiamos
2nd pl   jū̃s ẽsat(e) kviečiamì   jū̃s ẽsat(e) kviẽčiamos
3rd pl   jiẽ yrà kviečiamì   jõs yrà kviẽčiamos
         
    ('I was being invited')    
1st sg   àš buvaũ kviẽčiamas   àš buvaũ kviečiamà
2nd sg   tù buvaĩ kviẽčiamas   tù buvaĩ kviečiamà
3rd sg   jìs bùvo kviẽčiamas   jì bùvo kviečiamà
         
1st pl   mẽs bùvom(e) kviečiamì   mẽs bùvom(e) kviẽčiamos
2nd pl   jū̃s bùvot(e) kviečiamì   jū̃s bùvot(e) kviẽčiamos
3rd pl   jiẽ bùvo kviečiamì   jõs bùvo kviẽčiamos
         
    ('I used to be (being) invited')    
1st sg   àš bū́davau kviẽčiamas   àš bū́davau kviečiamà
2nd sg   tù bū́davai kviẽčiamas   tù bū́davai kviečiamà
3rd sg   jìs bū́davo kviẽčiamas   jì bū́davo kviečiamà
         
1st pl   mẽs bū́davom(e) kviečiamì   mẽs bū́davom(e) kviẽčiamos
2nd pl   jū̃s bū́davot(e) kviečiamì   jū̃s bū́davot(e) kviẽčiamos
3rd pl   jiẽ bū́davo kviečiamì   jõs bū́davo kviẽčiamos
         
    ('I will be (being) invited')    
1st sg   àš bū́siu kviẽčiamas   àš bū́siu kviečiamà
2nd sg   tù bū́si kviẽčiamas   tù bū́si kviečiamà
3rd sg   jìs bùs kviẽčiamas   jì bùs kviečiamà
         
1st pl   mẽs bū́sim(e) kviečiamì   mẽs bū́sim(e) kviẽčiamos
2nd pl   jū̃s bū́sit(e) kviečiamì   jū̃s bū́sit(e) kviẽčiamos
3rd pl   jiẽ bùs kviečiamì   jõs bùs kviẽčiamos

Examples:

  • Mẽs ẽsam kviečiamì į̃ sàvo kolègos naujõs knỹgos pristãtymą 'We are being invited to the presentation of the new book of my colleague'.
  • Ketùri žmónės bùvo sužeistì per̃ avãriją Kū̃čių nãktį 'Four people were injured in an accident on Christmas Eve'.

The passive tenses with the past passive participles express the action as already complete, or completed, in any tense. Their paradigm is as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
    ('I am invited, I have been invited')    
1st sg   àš esù kviẽstas   àš esù kviestà
2nd sg   tù esì kviẽstas   tù esì kviestà
3rd sg   jìs yrà kviẽstas   jì yrà kviestà
         
1st pl   mẽs esam(e) kviestì   mẽs ẽsam(e) kviẽstos
2nd pl   jū̃s esat(e) kviestì   jū̃s ẽsat(e) kviẽstos
3rd pl   jiẽ yrà kviestì   jõs yrà kviẽstos
         
    ('I was invited, I had been invited')    
1st sg   àš buvaũ kviẽstas   àš buvaũ kviestà
2nd sg   tù buvaĩ kviẽstas   tù buvaĩ kviestà
3rd sg   jìs bùvo kviẽstas   jì bùvo kviestà
         
1st pl   mẽs bùvom(e) kviestì   mẽs bùvom(e) kviẽstos
2nd pl   jū̃s bùvot(e) kviestì   jū̃s bùvot(e) kviẽstos
3rd pl   jiẽ bùvo kviestì   jõs bùvo kviẽstos
         
    ('I used to be invited, I would be invited')    
1st sg   àš bū́davau kviẽstas   àš bū́davau kviestà
2nd sg   tù bū́davai kviẽstas   tù bū́davai kviestà
3rd sg   jìs bū́davo kviẽstas   jì bū́davo kviestà
         
1st pl   mẽs bū́davom(e) kviestì   mẽs bū́davom(e) kviẽstos
2nd pl   jū̃s bū́davot(e) kviestì   jū̃s bū́davot(e) kviẽstos
3rd pl   jiẽ bū́davo kviestì   jõs bū́davo kviẽstos
         
    ('I will be invited, I will have been invited')    
1st sg   àš bū́siu kviẽstas   àš bū́siu kviestà
2nd sg   tù bū́si kviẽstas   tù bū́si kviestà
3rd sg   jìs bùs kviẽstas   jì bùs kviestà
         
1st pl   mẽs bū́sim(e) kviestì   mẽs bū́sim(e) kviẽstos
2nd pl   jū̃s bū́sit(e) kviestì   jū̃s bū́sit(e) kviẽstos
3rd pl   jiẽ bùs kviestì   jõs bùs kviẽstos

Examples:

  • Mū́sų idė́jos nebùvo sùprastos 'Our ideas were not understood'.
  • Rytõj àš bū́siu prezideñto pasvéikintas sù pérgale 'Tomorrow I will be congratulated by the president on the victory'.

To form the subjunctive of the passive voice, the subjunctive forms of the verb bū́ti 'to be' are combined with the appropriate passive participle:

    Masculine   Feminine
    ('I would be (being) invited')    
1st sg   àš bū́čiau kviẽčiamas   àš bū́čiau kviečiamà
2nd sg   tù bū́tum kviẽčiamas   tù bū́tum kviečiamà
3rd sg   jìs bū́tų kviẽčiamas   jì bū́tų kviečiamà
         
1st pl   mẽs bū́tume kviečiamì   mẽs bū́tume kviẽčiamos
2nd pl   jū̃s bū́tumėt(e) kviečiamì   jū̃s bū́tumėt(e) kviẽčiamos
3rd pl   jiẽ bū́tų kviečiamì   jõs bū́tų kviẽčiamos
         
    ('I would be invited, I would have been invited')    
1st sg   àš bū́čiau pàkviestas   àš bū́čiau pakviestà
2nd sg   tù bū́tum pàkviestas   tù bū́tum pakviestà
3rd sg   jìs bū́tų pàkviestas   jì bū́tų pakviestà
         
1st pl   mẽs bū́tume pakviestì   mẽs bū́tume pàkviestos
2nd pl   jū̃s bū́tumėt(e) pakviestì   jū̃s bū́tumėt(e) pàkviestos
3rd pl   jiẽ bū́tų pakviestì   jõs bū́tų pakviestos

Examples:

  • Tù taĩp pàt bū́tum kviẽčiamas į̃ tàs vestuvès, jéi bū́tum jų̃ gimináitis 'You also would be (being) invited to that wedding if you had been their relative'.
  • Vaĩkas bū́tų apžiūrė́tas tuõj pàt, jéigu gýdytojas neturė́tų sunkių̃ ligónių 'The child would be examined immediately if the physician didn't have (more) serious patients'.

The passive imperative is formed with the imperative forms of the verb bū́ti 'to be' and the appropriate passive participle:

    Masculine   Feminine
    ('be respected')    
2nd sg   tù bū́k ger̃biamas   tù bū́k gerbiamà
1st pl   mẽs bū́kim(e) gerbiamì   mẽs bū́kim(e) ger̃biamos
2nd pl   jū̃s bū́kit(e) gerbiamì   jū̃s bū́kit(e) ger̃biamos
         
    ('be satisfied')    
2nd sg   tù bū́k paténkintas   tù bū́k paténkinta
1st pl   mẽs bū́kim(e) paténkinti   mẽs bū́kim(e) paténkintos
2nd pl   jū̃s bū́kit(e) paténkinti   jū̃s bū́kit(e) paténkintos

One can form the passive forms with the compound tenses of bū́ti, e.g., àš esù bùvęs apkalbė́tas 'I have been slandered'; tù bū́tum bùvęs ìškviestas 'you would have been (being) called out'; mẽs ẽsam bùvę skriaudžiamì 'we have been harmed', etc.

Examples:

  • Irenà nè kar̃tą yrà bùvusi apkalbė́ta sàvo artimiáusių draugų̃ 'Irena more than once has been slandered by her closest friends'.
  • Mẽs bū́tume bùvę apgautì, jei tu nebū́tum mū́sų laikù įspė́jęs 'We would have been deceived if you had not warned us in time'.

The passive infinitive is formed with the infinitive of the verb bū́ti 'to be' and the appropriate passive participle in the dative case, e.g.:

  • Mán nepatìko bū́ti išnaudójamam 'I did not like to be exploited'.
  • Bū́ti apgautám sùkčių -- mãžas malonùmas 'To be deceived by swindlers is a small pleasure'.
28.2 Passivization

The active voice is represented in Lithuanian by all the simple finite verb forms, infinitive, active participles and the compound tenses with the active participles. The passive voice is represented by passive participles and the compound tenses with the present and past passive participles.

In the passive construction, the semantic subject is expressed by the genitive or it is omitted. Passive participles agree with the subject in number and case, cf:

  • Kaimýnai par̃davė šį̃ nãmą 'The neighbors sold this house'
  • Kaimýnai yrà pardãvę šį̃ nãmą 'The neighbors have sold this house'.
  • Šìs nãmas yrà kaimýnų pardúotas 'This house is sold by the neighbors'.

The accusative object of an active transitive verb is changed to the nominative s