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New Testament Greek Online

Series Introduction

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Greek has been important in the intellectual life of western civilization, but not to the extent of Latin, except for ecclesiastical matters where it is obviously of major importance for determining the meaning of New Testament texts. In years past, Latin was introduced in the first year of High School, followed by Greek in the third year. The prominence of Greek for intellectual matters is evident in designations of subjects central to university study, such as philosophy 'love of wisdom', philology 'love of words or more generally study', theology 'study related to God', psychology 'study related to the soul or psyche', and so on.

The Greek in the New Testament is the so-called koine 'common language'. Based originally on the Greek of Athens, it was circulated throughout Alexander the Great's empire. Languages acquired by many non-native speakers are generally simplified, as was the koine. Morphological categories were lost, such as the dual and the optative, though forms of them may occur in written texts. Sentences were greatly simplified, as noted below. Yet many forms remain, especially for verbs.

A difficulty with Greek that may put off learners is the maintenance of an older form of the alphabet than that used for Latin, English, and many other languages. Moreover, accentuation varies in Greek words, and in early Greek was musical. While today accented syllables are pronounced with stress rather than tones, the older accents are still written [with η added for illustration]: ή for the οκσεῖα 'acute' accent or high pitch, ῆ for the περισπώμενον accent or high-low pitch, and ὴ for the βαρεῖα 'grave' or falling pitch.

Furthermore, the sentence structure and number of forms require a great deal of attention. The words of sentences are often placed for their emphasis, rather than in accordance with a pattern like that of the English Subject-Verb-Object order. But we may note that the sentences of New Testament Greek texts are simpler to analyze than are those of Classical Greek. The writers were strongly influenced by Hebrew and Aramaic, in which the verb is placed first in the sentence and is often accompanied by particles, in Greek δέ and καί, which may also stand before the verb. This sentence structure has had an effect on the translations into more modern languages, as in the King James version: the first four verses of our first text, Luke 2, begin with And, as do verses 6 through 10.

Even with the simpler syntax, knowledge of the inflections is highly important. Interpretation is also assisted by the use of articles which, like nouns, adjectives, pronouns and verbs, are inflected. It is essential, then, to learn the basic inflections of these parts of speech.

1. The Greek alphabet and pronunciation.

The Greek alphabet was taken over from the Semitic as used in the Phoenician area, which in turn was based on an Egyptian alphabet. These were also used for the numerals, so that the order of the symbols was maintained, if changed at times in sound value. This is true also of the Latin alphabet, which was based ultimately on the Greek alphabet; the 3rd symbol, which represented [g] as in its name gamma, had the sound of [k] in Latin, as in words like car or the proper name Cato. The symbols themselves, especially the small cursives, may also differ in form from those of Latin and English, but on the whole the differences may readily be recognized. The alphabet is as follows:

α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σς τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

Note that there are two forms of the small letter sigma: the latter (ς) is used where the letter appears last in the word; everywhere else, the former is used. The [h] sound before a vowel is signalled by a rough breathing sign [with ο added for illustration]: ὁ; and when there is no initial [h] sound before vowels, the smooth breathing sign is ὀ. The rough breathing may also be used with initial rho: ῥ.

The names of the letters are as follows, in English and then in Greek:

alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, eta, theta, iota, kappa, lambda, mu, nu, xi, omicron, pi, rho, sigma, tau, upsilon, phi, chi, psi, omega
ἄλφα, βῆτα, γάμμα, δέλτα, ἔψιλόν, ζῆτα, ῆτα, θῆτα, ἰῶτα, κάππα, λάμβδα, μῦ, νῦ, ξεῖ, ὄμικρόν, πεῖ, ῥῶ, σῖγμα, ταῦ, ὔψιλόν, φεῖ, χεῖ, ψεῖ, ὦμέγα

Latin and thereupon English has maintained this order with modifications that are apparent from the different sounds of the letters and the different names. The letter ζ was pronounced like the consonant in adze. The letter ξ was pronounced like the consonant in ax. The letter ψ was pronounced like the final consonants in tops. The letters θ φ χ were originally pronounced like the aspirated initial consonants in English tan, pan, can as opposed to the unaspirated consonants in stan, span, scan; but they are usually pronounced today like the initial consonants in than, fan and the consonant in German ach.

The vowels are pronounced as follows: α like the vowel of bot, ε like that of bet, η like that of bait, ι like that of beet, ο like that of boat, υ like that of bit, ω like that of bought. The five vowels other than η ω may be long or short. Unlike English, there are few silent letters. Sentences, then, are read with every letter pronounced, as in the following quotations from Luke 1:46 and 1:68 --

Μεγαλύνει   ἥ   ψυχή   μου   τὸν   κύριον.
'Praise   (the)   soul   my   the   Lord'
'My soul doth praise the Lord.'
                     
Εὐλογητὸς   Κύριος   ὁ   θεὸς   τοῦ   Ἰσραήλ.
'Blessed   Lord   the   God   of-the   Israel'
'Blessed be the Lord God of Israel.'
2. The vocabulary.

English and Greek belong to the Indo-European language family; their earlier versions separated from each other some four thousand years ago. Words of the same origin are often disguised because of changes that have taken place in both languages. For example, an initial [s] sound before vowels in Greek evolved into [h], as in (cf. English six) Latin sex, Greek heks, written ἕξ (cf. hexagon). The word corresponding to seven is written ἑπτά (cf. heptagon). Moreover the Indo-European consonants represented as bh, dh, gh evolved to ph, th, kh -- φ, θ, χ, as in φράτηρ 'brother'. New sounds have also been introduced in Greek with their own letter in the alphabet, such as η for the vowel corresponding to the [a] in hate, and ξ for the combination [ks] as in six.

The greatest difference, however, may have resulted from a massive change of consonants in Germanic (hence English) well before our era. The change was formulated by the great German scholar, Jakob Grimm, and is known as Grimm's law, which is listed even in smaller dictionaries of English. At this time, p, t, k evolved into sounds that today are represented by f, th, h. Among examples are: father, compare Greek πατήρ, three, compare Greek τρεῖς, hundred, compare Greek ἑκατόν, literally 'one hundred'. And the sounds represented by bh, dh, gh in Indo-European were changed to the sounds that today are represented by b, d, g. These sounds were also changed in Greek, as noted above. Among examples are English brother, compare Greek φράτηρ, door, compare Greek θύρα, goose, compare Greek χήν. At the same time, b, d, g were changed to p, t, k. Among English examples are ten, compare Greek δέκα, kin, compare Greek γένος. (Indo-European had almost no words with b.)

It is interesting to compare such cognate words, but the changes that both languages have undergone often conceal the relationships, as for the numerals for four and five. Some of the others are transparently related, in spite of changes: one, Greek εἷς; two, Greek δύο; three, Greek τρεῖς; four, Greek τέτταρες; five, Greek πέντε; six, Greek ἕξ; seven, Greek ἑπτά; eight, Greek ὀκτώ; nine, Greek ἐννέα; ten, Greek δέκα. Since dictionaries may provide the Greek cognates of English entries, control over the Greek vocabulary can be gained by noting them. Etymological dictionaries are of greater assistance.

As noted above, by far the greatest number of similar words are found in academic and ecclesiastical language, where English simply took over the Greek terms through long influence on western culture from these spheres. Words were pronounced in accordance with the English spellings, rather than with their pronunciation in Greek. Some examples are cited here.

The academic terms are in accordance with the influence of Aristotle, who conducted his teaching in the Athenian grove known as the Academy, which was named after the hero Akademos. We have already noted terms ending in -logy, to which others might be added like biology and neurology. The last part attained a status of its own, so that further words like sociology, with its initial part from Latin, could be introduced. Moreover, the last part has a somewhat different function in the word doxology, 'giving words of praise'. Other ecclesiastical terms are clergy, clerical, Eucharist and liturgy. In the political sphere the words democrat and democracy are based on the components for people and power, as also in aristocrat and aristocracy for the best or superior people and power, autocracy for self or absolute power, theocracy for ecclesiastical power. Examination of the etymology or 'true meaning' of such words will assist in gaining control of the Greek vocabulary.

3. The sentence structure of Greek.

As is clear from the earlier quotations, the sentence order of Greek may differ considerably from that of English. In an earlier form of Greek, the verb was placed last in the sentence, but in Luke 1:46 its position is quite different. The different position is possible because of Greek inflections. Greek can move elements around for stylistic purposes -- as in Luke 1:46, giving emphasis to the verb.

In examining a Greek text, one should first identify the verb. Its forms are identifiable through their inflections, with the additional help that nouns are often marked by preceding articles. In Luke 1:46, the ending -ει indicates that the subject is in the nominative case. And the -ου endings indicate that μου and τοῦ Ἰσραήλ are genitives. It is useful, then, to memorize the basic inflections of verbs as well as those of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.

As illustrated by these brief passages, the key to reading Greek is provided by knowledge of its inflections. While these are numerous, memorization of the basic inflections of the article, of nouns and of verbs is generally adequate.

4. The forms of Greek.
4.1 Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, the article.

Thee parts of speech are inflected for four cases, besides a case of address called the vocative. The cases are as follows:

Case forms may also be determined by prepositions.

In English, only the nominative, genitive/possessive and accusative/objective have been maintained, and that only in pronouns: I is nominative, my is genitive, me is accusative. Nouns simply have a nominative and a possessive, as in dog, dog's. Adjectives are not inflected.

Greek nouns are also inflected for --

Paradigms are given in the various lessons. For illustration here, forms of the article are shown in all three genders, as well as the feminine noun for 'country' of the α-declension and the masculine noun for 'word' and the neuter for 'gift' of the ο-declension:

    Fem.   Masc.   Nt.   Fem.   Masc   Nt
Sg. Nom.   ἡ   ὁ   τό   χώρα   λόγος   δῶρον
Sg. Gen.   τῆς   τοῦ   τοῦ   χώρᾱς   λόγου   δώρου
Sg. Dat.   τῇ   τῷ   τῷ   χώρᾳ   λόγῳ   δώρῳ
Sg. Acc.   τήν   τόν   τό   χώρᾱν   λόγον   δῶρον
Pl. Nom.   αἱ   οἱ   τά   χῶραι   λόγοι   δῶρα
Pl. Gen.   τῶν   τῶν   τῶν   χωρῶν   λόγων   δώρων
Pl. Dat.   ταῖς   τοῖς   τοῖς   χώραις   λόγοις   δώροις
Pl. Acc   τάς   τούς   τά   χώρας   λόγους   δῶρα
4.2 Verbs.

Like nouns, verbs have many inflections (though not all of the possible combinations below are realized):

In addition there are imperative forms, infinitives, participles, a gerund, and a supine. The imperative forms are rare in written texts.

The present infinitive active may be illustrated by λέγειν 'to say, speak'; the aorist is λέξαι. The present infinitive middle is λέγεσθαι; the aorist is λέξασθαι. The passive infinitive is λέγεσθαι; the aorist is λεγθῆναι. The present participle active is λέγων, λέγουσα, λέγον. The present participle middle and passive is λεγόμενος, λεγομένη, λεγόμενον.

It should be obvious that the verb system of Greek is complex. The basic forms of irregular verbs are generally listed in dictionaries.

4.3 The other parts of speech.

In addition to these parts of speech, Greek includes adverbs, conjunctions, interjections and prepositions. Since their functions are comparable to those of their English counterparts, they will not be discussed here.

5. Examples of texts.

We assume that users of New Testament Greek Online may want to memorize selected passages. Accordingly, each lesson includes one memory verse. Of all such passages, the Lord's Prayer may be the most highly preferred. Its sentence structure is simple, so that each verse is easily memorized. We provide it here both as a sample of New Testament Greek and for memorization. The Greek given here is that of Matthew 6:9-13; the Greek in Luke 11:2-5 is somewhat different, although the King James version provides virtually the same English translation for the two. The familiar conclusion, "For thine is the Kingdom, and the power, and the glory forever and ever" is taken to be a later addition, and is not provided in the Nestle edition nor in the Westcott and Hort edition of the Greek text.

Πάτερ   ἡμῶν   ὁ   ἐν   τοῖς   οὐρανοῖς·
O-father   of-us   he   in   the   heavens
'Our Father which art in heaven,'

 

ἁγιασθήτω   τὸ   ὄνομά   σου,
hallowed-be   the   name   of-you
'Hallowed be thy name.'

 

 

ἐλθέτω   ἡ   βασιλεία   σου,
come   the   kingdon   of-you
'Thy kingdom come,'

 

 

γενηθήτω   τὸ   θέλημά   σου,
be-done   the   will   of-you
'Thy will be done'

 

 

ὡς   ἐν   οὐρανῷ   καὶ   ἐπὶ   γῆς·
as   in   heaven   also   on   earth
'in earth, as it is in heaven.'

 

 

τὸν   ἄρτον   ἡμῶν   τὸν   ἐπιούσιον   δὸς   ἡμῖν   σήμερον·
the   bread   of-us   the   daily   give   to-us   today
'Give us this day our daily bread.'

 

 

καὶ   ἄφες   ἡμῖν   τὰ   ὀφειλήματα   ἡμῶν,
and   forgive   to-us   the   sins   of-us
'And forgive us our debts'

 

 

ὡς   καὶ   ἡμεῖς   ἀφήκαμεν   τοῖς   ὀφειλέταις   ἡμῶν·
as   also   we   forgive   the   sinners   of-us
'as we forgive our debtors.'

 

 

καὶ   μὴ   εἰσενέγκῃς   ἡμᾶς   εἰς   πειρασμόν,
and   not   lead   us   into   temptation
'And lead us not into temptation'

 

 

ἀλλὰ   ῥῦσαι   ἡμᾶς   ἀπὸ   τοῦ   πονηροῦ
but   bring   us   away-from   the   evil
'but deliver us from evil.'

 

Related Language Courses at UT

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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 1

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Like the other gospels, the third was written anonymously. In the Classical world, identification was not considerd to be as important as it is today. But in the second century, Christians began ascribing each gospel, as well as the book of Acts, to a specific author. In view of their close relationships, both the third gospel and the book of Acts were ascribed to St. Luke. Efforts to support this identification were based on passages in each. The third gospel begins with four remarkable verses that are parallel to the opening of historical works of the Classical world, such as the history of Herodotus. These verses include a dedication to Theophilus, literally "a man who loves God." On the basis of such evidence the gospel was assumed to have been written by an educated Gentile to another Gentile. Luke is assumed to be a Gentile on the basis of references in Colossians 4:10, 11, 14. Moreover, on the basis of the word "we" in Acts 16:10-14, Luke joined Paul at Troas during his second missionary journey, and accompanied him to Philippi, staying there apparently for seven years. Then he joined Paul again on his last return to Jerusalem (Acts 20:6-21:18), and from there, eventually, to Rome (Acts 28:2, 12-16), where he supposedly remained with Paul until the latter's death. The time of writing is unclear. From references in the early church fathers, it is assumed that Luke wrote it sometime after the death of St. Paul in the late sixties.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Luke 2:1-14 (incl. memory verse)

The fourteen beginning verses of the gospel according to St. Luke, chapter 2, need little commentary. The sentence structures are for the most part transparent. The passage is well known in its English translation. This can easily be matched with the Greek original.

2:1 - Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐξῆλθεν δόγμα παρὰ Καίσαρος Αὐγούστου ἀπογράφεσθαι πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην.
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- it happened
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • ταῖς -- article; dative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- those
  • ἡμέραις -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <ἡμέρα> day -- days
  • ἐξῆλθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἐξέρχομαι> come out -- (there) came
  • δόγμα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <δόγμα> opinion, decree -- a decree
  • παρὰ -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- from
  • Καίσαρος -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Καῖσαρ> Caesar -- Caesar
  • Αὐγούστου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Αὐγούστος> Augustus -- Augustus
  • ἀπογράφεσθαι -- verb; infinitive passive of <ἀπογράφω> register -- be registered
  • πᾶσαν -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • οἰκουμένην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <οἰκουμένη> the inhabited world, the Roman world -- world

2:2 - αὐτὴ ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου.
  • αὐτὴ -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- this
  • ἀπογραφὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <ἀπογραφή> census -- census
  • πρώτη -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <πρῶτος> first -- first
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- took place
  • ἡγεμονεύοντος -- verb; genitive singular masculine of present participle of <ἡγεμονεύω> govern -- governed
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Συρίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Συρία> Syria -- Syria
  • Κυρηνίου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Κυρηνίος> Cyrenius -- (when) Cyrenius

2:3 - καὶ ἐπορεύοντο πάντες ἀπογράφεσθαι, ἕκαστος εἰς τήν ἑαυτοῦ πόλιν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐπορεύοντο -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect passive of <πορεύω> go, make go -- were compelled to go
  • πάντες -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • ἀπογράφεσθαι -- verb; infinitive passive of <ἀπογράφω> register -- to be registered
  • ἕκαστος -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ἕκαστος> each, every -- every one
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τήν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἑαυτοῦ -- reflexive pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἑαυτοῦ> oneself -- his own
  • πόλιν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <πόλις> city -- city

2:4 - Ἀνέβη δὲ καὶ Ἰωσὴφ ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἐκ πόλεως Ναζαρὲθ εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν εἰς πόλιν Δαυὶδ ἥτις καλεῖται Βηθλέεμ, διὰ τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἴκου καὶ πατριᾶς Δαυίδ,
  • ἀνέβη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- went up
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • Ἰωσὴφ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰωσήφ> Joseph -- Joseph
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Γαλιλαίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Γαλιλαία> Galilee -- Galilee
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- out of
  • πόλεως -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <πόλις> city -- (the) city
  • Ναζαρὲθ -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Ναζαρέθ> Nazareth -- Nazareth
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰουδαίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ἰουδαία> Judea -- Judea
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • πόλιν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <πόλις> city -- city
  • Δαυὶδ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Δαυίδ> David -- (of) David
  • ἥτις -- relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <ὅστις> whoever, whatever -- which
  • καλεῖται -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <καλέω> call, summon -- is called
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • διὰ -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- (through) because
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • εἶναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- (being) was
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (him) he
  • ἐξ -- preposition; <ἐξ> from, out of -- from
  • οἴκου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <οἶκος> house -- (the) house
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πατριᾶς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <πατριά> lineage -- lineage
  • Δαυίδ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Δαυίδ> David -- of David

2:5 - ἀπογράψασθαι σὺν Μαριὰμ τῇ ἐμνηστευμένῃ αὐτῷ, οὔσῃ ἐγκύῳ.
  • ἀπογράψασθαι -- verb; infinitive future passive of <ἀπογράφω> register -- to be registered
  • σὺν -- preposition; <σύν> with -- with
  • Μαριὰμ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <Μιριάμ> (indeclinable; from Hebrew) Mary -- Mary
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἐμνηστευμένῃ -- verb; dative singular feminine of perfect participle passive of <μνηστεύω> woo, espouse -- espoused
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • οὔσῃ -- verb; dative singular feminine of present participle of <εἰμί> I am -- (she) being
  • ἐγκύῳ -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <ἐγκύων> pregnant -- pregnant

2:6 - Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτούς ἐκεῖ ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν,
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- it happened
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • εἶναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- being
  • αὐτούς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • ἐκεῖ -- adverb; <ἐκεῖ> there -- there
  • ἐπλήσθησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <πίμπλημι> fill -- were fulfilled
  • αἱ -- article; nominative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἡμέραι -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <ἡμέρα> day -- days
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • τεκεῖν -- verb; infinitive aorist of <τίκτω> give birth -- to give birth
  • αὐτήν -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (for) her

2:7 - καὶ ἔτεκεν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς τὸν πρωτότοκον, καὶ ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν καὶ ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ, διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔτεκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <τίκτω> give birth -- gave birth to
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • υἱὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <υἱός> son -- son
  • αὐτῆς -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- her
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • πρωτότοκον -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <πρωτότοκος> first-born -- first-born
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐσπαργάνωσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <σπαργανόω> wrap in swaddling clothes -- wrapped ... in swaddling clothes
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀνέκλινεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <ἀνακλίνω> lay down -- laid
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • φάτνῃ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <φάτνη> manger -- manger
  • διότι -- conjunction; <διότι> because -- because
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • ἦν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- there was
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- for them
  • τόπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <τόπος> place -- room
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • καταλύματι -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <κατάλυμα> inn -- inn

2:8 - Καὶ ποιμένες ἦσαν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τῇ αὐτῇ ἀγραυλοῦντες καὶ φυλάσσοντες φυλακὰς τῆς νυκτὸς ἐπὶ τὴν ποίμην αὐτῶν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ποιμένες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ποιμήν> shepherd -- shepherds
  • ἦσαν -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- (there) were
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • χώρᾳ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <χώρα> land, country -- place
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • αὐτῇ -- pronoun; dative singular feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- that
  • ἀγραυλοῦντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <ἀγραυλούνω> dwell in the fields -- dwelling in the fields
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • φυλάσσοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <φυλάσσω> keep watch -- keeping watch
  • φυλακὰς -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <φυλακή> watch -- ...
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- that
  • νυκτὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <νύξ> night -- night
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- over
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- their
  • ποίμην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ποίμην> flock -- flock
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their

2:9 - καὶ ἄγγελος κυρίου ἐπέστη αὐτοῖς καὶ δόξα κυρίου περιέλαμψεν αὐτούς, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἄγγελος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄγγελος> angel -- the angel
  • κυρίου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <κύριος> lord -- of the Lord
  • ἐπέστη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἐφίστημι> stand up, appear -- appeared
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to them
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • δόξα -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <δόξα> glory -- the glory
  • κυρίου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <κύριος> lord -- of the Lord
  • περιέλαμψεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <περιλάμπω> shine around -- shone around
  • αὐτούς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐφοβήθησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <φοβέω> terrify -- they feared
  • φόβον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <φόβος> fear -- (fear)
  • μέγαν -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <μέγας> great -- (a...great) = greatly

2:10 - καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ ἄγγελος, μὴ φοβεῖσθε·
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to them
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἄγγελος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄγγελος> angel -- angel
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • φοβεῖσθε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative middle of <φοβέω> terrify -- do...fear

ἰδοὺ γὰρ εὐαγγελίζομαι ὑμῖν χαρὰν μεγάλην, ἥτις ἔσται παντὶ τῷ λαῷ·
  • ἰδοὺ -- adverb; <ἰδού> behold -- behold
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • εὐαγγελίζομαι -- deponent verb; 1st person singular present middle of <εὐαγγελίζομαι> bring good news -- I bring good news
  • ὑμῖν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • χαρὰν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <χαρά> joy -- (of) ... joy
  • μεγάλην -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <μέγας> great -- great
  • ἥτις -- relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <ὅστις> whoever, whatever -- which
  • ἔσται -- verb; 3rd person singular future of <εἰμί> I am -- shall be
  • παντὶ -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- to all
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • λαῷ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <λαός> people -- people

2:11 - ὅτι ἐτέχθη ὑμῖν σήμερον σωτὴρ, ὅς ἐστιν χριστὸς κύριος, ἐν πόλει Δαυίδ.
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • ἐτέχθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <τίκτω> give birth -- was born
  • ὑμῖν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • σήμερον -- adverb; <σήμερον> today -- today
  • σωτὴρ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <σωτήρ> Savior -- a Savior
  • ὅς -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ὅς> who, which -- who
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • χριστὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <χριστός> Christ -- Christ
  • κύριος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <κύριος> lord -- the Lord
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • πόλει -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <πόλις> city -- the city
  • Δαυίδ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Δαυίδ> David -- of David

2:12 - καὶ τοῦτο ὑμῖν σημεῖον, εὑρήσετε βρέφος ἐσπαργανωμένον καὶ κείμενον ἐν φάτνῃ
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τοῦτο -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <οὗτος> this -- this
  • ὑμῖν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • σημεῖον -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <σημεῖον> sign, miracle -- (shall be a) sign
  • εὑρήσετε -- verb; 2nd person plural future of <εὑρίσκω> find -- you shall find
  • βρέφος -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <βρέφος> new-born baby -- baby
  • ἐσπαργανωμένον -- verb; accusative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <σπαργανόω> wrap in swaddling clothes -- wrapped in swaddling clothes
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • κείμενον -- verb; accusative singular neuter of present participle middle of <κεῖμαι> lie -- lying
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • φάτνῃ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <φάτνη> manger -- a manger

2:13 - καὶ ἐξαίφνης ἐγένετο σὺν τῷ ἀγγέλῳ πλῆθος στρατιᾶς οὐρανίου αἰνούντων τὸν θεὸν καὶ λεγόντων,
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐξαίφνης -- adverb; <ἐξαίφνης> suddenly -- suddenly
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- there was
  • σὺν -- preposition; <σύν> with -- with
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀγγέλῳ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <ἄγγελος> angel -- angel
  • πλῆθος -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <πλῆθος> multitude -- a great number
  • στρατιᾶς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <στρατία> host -- of a ... host
  • οὐρανίου -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <οὐράνιος> heavenly -- heavenly
  • αἰνούντων -- verb; genitive plural feminine of <αἰνέω> praise -- praising
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λεγόντων -- verb; genitive plural feminine of present participle of <λέγω> say -- saying

2:14 (memory verse) -

        δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις θεῷ
        καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς εἰρήνη ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκίας.
  • δόξα -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <δόξα> glory -- glory
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • ὑψίστοις -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <ὕψιστος> highest -- in the highest = in heaven above
  • θεῷ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <θεός> god -- to God
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • γῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- earth
  • εἰρήνη -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <εἰρήνη> peace -- peace
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- to
  • ἀνθρώποις -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- human beings
  • εὐδοκίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <εὐδοκία> satisfaction -- of good will

Lesson Text

2:1 - Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐξῆλθεν δόγμα παρὰ Καίσαρος Αὐγούστου ἀπογράφεσθαι πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην. 2:2 - αὐτὴ ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου. 2:3 - καὶ ἐπορεύοντο πάντες ἀπογράφεσθαι, ἕκαστος εἰς τήν ἑαυτοῦ πόλιν. 2:4 - Ἀνέβη δὲ καὶ Ἰωσὴφ ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἐκ πόλεως Ναζαρὲθ εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν εἰς πόλιν Δαυὶδ ἥτις καλεῖται Βηθλέεμ, διὰ τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἴκου καὶ πατριᾶς Δαυίδ, 2:5 - ἀπογράψασθαι σὺν Μαριὰμ τῇ ἐμνηστευμένῃ αὐτῷ, οὔσῃ ἐγκύῳ. 2:6 - Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτούς ἐκεῖ ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, 2:7 - καὶ ἔτεκεν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς τὸν πρωτότοκον, καὶ ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν καὶ ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ, διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι. 2:8 - Καὶ ποιμένες ἦσαν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τῇ αὐτῇ ἀγραυλοῦντες καὶ φυλάσσοντες φυλακὰς τῆς νυκτὸς ἐπὶ τὴν ποίμην αὐτῶν. 2:9 - καὶ ἄγγελος κυρίου ἐπέστη αὐτοῖς καὶ δόξα κυρίου περιέλαμψεν αὐτούς, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν. 2:10 - καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ ἄγγελος, μὴ φοβεῖσθε· ἰδοὺ γὰρ εὐαγγελίζομαι ὑμῖν χαρὰν μεγάλην, ἥτις ἔσται παντὶ τῷ λαῷ· 2:11 - ὅτι ἐτέχθη ὑμῖν σήμερον σωτὴρ, ὅς ἐστιν χριστὸς κύριος, ἐν πόλει Δαυίδ. 2:12 - καὶ τοῦτο ὑμῖν σημεῖον, εὑρήσετε βρέφος ἐσπαργανωμένον καὶ κείμενον ἐν φάτνῃ 2:13 - καὶ ἐξαίφνης ἐγένετο σὺν τῷ ἀγγέλῳ πλῆθος στρατιᾶς οὐρανίου αἰνούντων τὸν θεὸν καὶ λεγόντων, 2:14 (memory verse) -

        δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις θεῷ
        καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς εἰρήνη ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκίας.

Translation

From the King James version:
2:1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. 2 (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) 3 And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. 4 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) 5 to be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. 6 And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. 7 And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.
8 And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. 9 And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. 10 And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. 11 For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. 12 And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. 13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying,
2:14 (memory verse) --
Glory to God in the highest,
and on earth peace, good will toward men.

Grammar

1 The alphabet and sound system.
1.1 The alphabet.

The alphabet is the same for New Testament Greek as for Classical Greek. The names are generally well known, such as the first two from our word alphabet, the third from gamma rays, the fourth from the delta of a river, and so on.

The same pronunciation is used for the language, in spite of the difference in time. As a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great (356-323), Greek came to be used throughout the world adjoining the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, extending farther east and also in the south to Egypt and in the west to Italy. It was the common (κοινη) language much as English is today. In such a wide expanse, there were differences of pronunciation and usage, just as there are in English today. These may be of interest for scholarly purposes, but they do not affect the reading and understanding of the Biblical texts.

The letters in small and capital forms, with their names and guides to pronunciation, are as follows:

Alpha α, Α father
Beta β, Β bother
Gamma γ, Γ gather
Delta δ, Δ delta
Epsilon ε, Ε debt
Zeta ζ, Ζ zen
Eta η, Η rate (rat)
Theta θ, Θ thin (tin) i.e. with aspiration
Iota ι, Ι sin
Kappa κ, Κ cope (scope) i.e. no aspiration
Lamba λ, Λ lap
Mu μ, Μ map
Nu ν, Ν nap
Ksi ξ, Ξ tax
Omikron ο, Ο rope
Pi π, Π poke (spoke) i.e., no aspiration
Rho ρ, Ρ rope
Sigma σς, Σ soap (note: lower-case form has 2 variants)
Tau τ, Τ top (stop) i.e. no aspiration
Upsilon υ, Υ soon (German Suehne) i.e. front rounded
Phi φ, Φ four (pour) i.e. with aspiration
Chi χ, Χ core (German ich or ach) i.e. velar fricative
Psi ψ, Ψ tops
Omega ω, Ω boat (bought)

In addition, words beginning with vowels may have an initial h sound. This is called a breathing. If beginning with h, the breathing is called rough, represented by the diacritic immediately preceding or over the vowel (e.g., ὁ); if without an h sound, the breathing is smooth, represented by the diacritic ᾿ immediately preceding or over the vowel (e.g., ὀ).

Moreover, vowels may have an iota subscript, that is, an [i] sound after the vowel, written as a diacritic beneath the vowel (e.g., ῳ); while indicated in texts, this is generally left without pronunciation.

1.2 The sound system.

The system is as follows:

    Labials   Dentals   Palato-velars
Voiceless:   π   τ   κ
Voiced:   β   δ   γ
Aspirated, voiceless:   φ   θ   χ
Fricative:       ς    
Nasals:   μ   ν   γ (spelled γ before γ or κ)
             
Vowels:   ι             υ
    ε     ο  
        α    
    ῑ             ῡ
    η     ω  
        ᾱ    
Diphthongs:   ει αι οι υι   ευ αυ ηυ ου

Classical Greek had a musical accent. There are three such accents. Vowels marked with oxia (e.g., ά) had high pitch; those with varia (e.g., ὰ) had a low or falling pitch; those marked with perispomeni (e.g., ᾶ) had rising and falling pitch.

The accent had changed, however, from one of pitch to one of stress. Yet the stress fell on the same syllables as in Classical Greek. The different type of stress is assumed to have had an effect on the quality of vowels. We may disregard such effects, and pronounce the words as in Classical Greek.

2 The basis word order of sentences in New Testament Greek.

In contrast with Classical Greek, in which the verb often stood at the end of the clause, verbs are placed initially in many sentences of New Testament Greek, or after the subject. In almost all of the sentences in this text, they stand initially. Their position may be due to influence from Aramaic, which is the other language of probably all authors of the New Testament as well as of Jesus. Like Hebrew, it is a verb-initial language. The first words of our text may provide an example:

Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείνοις
"And it happened in those days..."

Another syntactic influence from Aramaic is the frequent use of an initial word for 'and' in the sentence, as in 2.8:

Καὶ ποιμένες ἦσαν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ
"And shepherds were in that area"

Languages in which the verb is initial in the clause often place a connective before it. The Hebrew Bible does so, with an equivalent to Greek καί; this practice not only influenced New Testament Greek, but also later translations like the King James version for English and the translations in other languages.

3 Modifications of the basic sentence pattern.

The sentences in the New Testament are relatively short and transparent, as in this text. There are few subordinate clauses; phrases with participles and infinitives may replace them. One such construction is the genitive absolute, in which a participle and a noun in the genitive correspond to a subordinate clause, as in 2:2 --

ἡγεμενεύοντος τῆς Συριάς Κυρηνίου
governing                   Syria     Cyrenius
"when Cyrenius was governing Syria"

Another such construction is the use of an infinitive with a noun in the accusative as subject, as in 2.4:

διὰ τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἶκου καὶ πατριᾶς Δαυίδ
through the be(ing) him from house and lineage David
"because he was from the house and lineage of David"

But in general, many examples of the use of participles and infinitives are comparable to that in English.

4 Nominal inflection.

Nouns, adjective and the article are inflected for three genders, four cases, and two numbers. The dual is no longer used. The three genders are the masculine, feminine and neuter. The four cases are the nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative. The principal uses of the cases are readily noted. The nominative is the case of the subject and of nouns after the copula in the predicative nominative. The genitive is the case of possession. The dative is the case of the indirect object, but is used less than in Classical Greek; nouns with prepositions may replace it. The accusative is the case of the direct object.

Because of the common use of the article, its forms might well be memorized.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   ὁ   ἡ   τό
Gen sg   τοῦ   τῆς   τοῦ
Dat sg   τῷ   τῇ   τῷ
Acc sg   τόν   τήν   τό
             
Nom pl   οἱ   αἱ   τά
Gen pl   τῶν   τῶν   τῶν
Dat pl   τοῖς   ταῖς   τοῖς
Acc pl   τούς   τάς   τά

Examples of the ο-declension, masculine and neuter, and the α-declension, feminine, are given here.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   ὁ λόγος 'word'   ἡ ἡμέρα 'day'   τὸ δῶρον 'gift'
Gen sg   τοῦ λόγου   τῆς ἡμέρας   τοῦ δώρον
Dat sg   τῷ λόγῳ   τῇ ἡμέρᾳ   τῷ δώρῳ
Acc sg   τόν λόγον   τὴν ἡμέραν   τὸ δῶρου
             
Nom pl   οἱ λόγοι   αἱ ἡμέραι   τὰ δῶρα
Gen pl   τῶν λόγων   τῶν ἡμερῶν   τῶν δώρων
Dat pl   τοῖς λόγοις   ταῖς ἡμέραις   τοῖς δώροις
Acc pl   τοὺς λόγους   τὰς ἡμέρας   τὰ δῶρα
5 Verb inflection.

Greek verbs are inflected for three voices, active, middle and passive, for four moods, indicative, subjunctive, optative and imperative, three systems or tenses, present, aorist and perfect, three numbers, singular, dual, plural. The augment 'ε' (epsilon) is used with past tense forms, imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect, but only in the indicative. The perfect stem is often reduplicated. In addition there are infinitives and participles.

In view of its regularity, the verb πιστεύω 'believe' may be used to illustrate the various forms. Here the present and the imperfect indicative active are given. Before vowels, 'ν' (nu) is added to some forms ending in a vowel.

    Present   Imperfect
1 sg   πιστεύω   ἐπίστευον
2 sg   πιστεύεις   ἐπίστευες
3 sg   πιστεύει   ἐπίστευε(ν)
         
1 pl   πιστεύομεν   ἐπιστεύομεν
2 pl   πιστεύετε   ἐπιστεύετε
3 pl   πιστεύουσι(ν)   ἐπίστευον

New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 2

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The first gospel clearly had a Jewish author, as may be noted from his stress on the genealogy of Jesus given in his first chapter and from his many references to Old Testament prophecies, such as the quotation in verse 6 of this text as well as others in this chapter and later. By tradition the author was Matthew (a.k.a. Levi), the tax collector whom Jesus called to be a disciple in Chapter 9, verse 9 of the book. But modern scholars consider the identification unlikely because nowhere throughout the book does the disciple provide evidence that he was its author. Rather it is assumed that the author was a Jew who wrote the book for Christians outside Israel. Because there are passages that seem to be based on Mark's account, such as the baptism of Jesus by John, it is assumed that the Gospel according to Matthew was written after that of Mark, possibly in the eighties.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Matthew 2:1-12, and Mark 10:14b (memory verse)

The Gospel according to Matthew has been especially valued, as indicated by its position as the first gospel, and also because of its remarkable passages. Among these are realistic accounts of the life of Jesus, such as his baptism by John in Chapter 3 and his temptation by the devil in Chapter 4. These are followed by passages that have been central to Christian worship ever since--the Sermon on the Mount, which includes the Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer. And his exhortation in Chapter 10 to his disciples when he sent them out as well as his instructions in Chapters 18 and 19 are readily applicable to the life of his followers at the time and later. The selection here, which also illustrates the author's literary capabilities, is a central part of the annual celebration of his birth at Christmas.

2:1 - Τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα λέγοντες,
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now (when)
  • Ἰησοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • γεννηθέντος -- deponent verb; genitive singular masculine of aorist passive participle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- was born
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰουδαίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Ἰουδαία> Judea -- Judea
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • ἡμέραις -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <ἡμέρα> day -- (the) days
  • Ἡρῴδου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ἡρῴδης> Herod -- of Herod
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλέως -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- king
  • ἰδοὺ -- adverb; <ἰδού> behold -- behold
  • μάγοι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <μάγος> wise man -- wise men
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • ἀνατολῶν -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <ἀνατολή> east -- (the) East
  • παρεγένοντο -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist middle of <παραγίγνομαι> come -- came
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • Ἱεροσόλυμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <Ἱεροσόλυμα> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • λέγοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <λέγω> say -- saying

2:2 - ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ τεχθεὶς βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων;
  • ποῦ -- adverb; <ποῦ> where -- where
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • τεχθεὶς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of passive participle of <τίκτω> give birth -- (who was) born
  • βασιλεὺς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- king
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • Ἰουδαίων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Ἰουδαῖος> Jew -- Jews

εἴδομεν γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ, καὶ ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ.
  • εἴδομεν -- verb; 1st person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- we have seen
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἀστέρα -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀνατολῇ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἀνατολή> east -- east
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἤλθομεν -- verb; 1st person plural aorist of <ἔρχομαι> come -- we have come
  • προσκυνῆσαι -- verb; aorist infinitive of <προσκυνέω> worship -- to worship
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

2:3 - ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἡρῴδης ἐταράχθη, καὶ πᾶσα Ἱεροσόλυμα κατ' αὐτοῦ.
  • ἀκούσας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- having heard
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • βασιλεὺς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- King
  • Ἡρῴδης -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἡρῴδης> Herod -- Herod
  • ἐταράχθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ταράσσω> trouble -- was troubled
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πᾶσα -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • Ἱεροσόλυμα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <Ἱεροσόλυμα> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • κατ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- with
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

2:4 - καὶ συναγαγὼν πάντας τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ γραμματεῖς τοῦ λαοῦ ἐπυνθάνετο παρ' αὐτῶν ποῦ ὁ χριστὸς γεννᾶται.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συναγαγὼν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <συνάγω> bring together -- having brought together
  • πάντας -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀρχιερεῖς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ἀρχιερεύς> chief priest -- chief priests
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • γραμματεῖς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <γραμματεύς> scribe -- scribes
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • λαοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <λαός> people -- people
  • ἐπυνθάνετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <πυνθάνομαι> inquire -- he inquired
  • παρ' -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- of
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • ποῦ -- adverb; <ποῦ> where -- where
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • χριστὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <χριστός> Christ -- Christ
  • γεννᾶται -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive passive of <γεννάω> beget, bring forth -- would be born

2:5 - οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ
  • οἱ -- article used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- they
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • εἶπαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him

ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας. οὕτως γὰρ γέγραπται διὰ τοῦ προφήτου,
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰουδαίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Ἰουδαία> Judea -- of Judea
  • οὕτως -- adverb; <οὕτως> so, thus -- so
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- it is written
  • διὰ -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- by
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • προφήτου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <προφήτης> prophet -- prophet

2:6 - καὶ σὺ Βηθλέεμ, γῆ Ἰούδα,
        οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; vocative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • γῆ -- noun, feminine; vocative singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- (in the) land
  • Ἰούδα -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Ἰούδα> Juda -- of Juda
  • οὐδαμῶς -- adverb; <οὐδαμῶς> by no means -- by no means
  • ἐλαχίστη -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of superlative of <μικρός> small -- the smallest
  • εἶ -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- you are
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- among
  • τοῖς -- article; dative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἡγεμόσιν -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ἡγεμών> leader -- leaders
  • Ἰούδα -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Ἰούδα> Juda -- of Juda

ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος,
        ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- out of
  • σοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <σύ> you -- you
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ἐξελεύσεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular future of <ἐξέρχομαι> come out -- will come
  • ἡγούμενος -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <ἡγέομαι> lead, regard, rule -- a ruler
  • ὅστις -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ὅστις> whoever, whatever -- who
  • ποιμανεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular future of <ποιμαίνω> to be shepherd, rule over -- will rule over
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • λαόν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λαός> people -- people
  • μου -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- my
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰσραήλ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Ἰσραήλ> Israel -- Israel

2:7 - Τότε Ἡρῴδης λάθρα καλέσας τοὺς μάγους ἠκρίβωσεν παρ' αὐτῶν τὸν χρόνον τοῦ φαινομένου ἀστέρος.
  • τότε -- adverb; <τότε> then -- then
  • Ἡρῴδης -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἡρῴδης> Herod -- Herod
  • λάθρα -- adverb; <λάθρα> secretly -- secretly
  • καλέσας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <καλέω> call, summon -- having summoned
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μάγους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <μάγος> wise man -- wise men
  • ἠκρίβωσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀκριβόω> investigate thoroughly -- inquired thoroughly
  • παρ' -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- of
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • χρόνον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <χρόνος> time -- time
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • φαινομένου -- deponent verb; genitive singular masculine of present participle of <φαίνομαι> see -- seen
  • ἀστέρος -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star

2:8 - καὶ πέμψας αὐτοὺς εἰς Βηθλέεμ εἶπεν
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πέμψας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <πέμπω> send -- sending
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- he said

πορευθέντες ἐξετάσατε ἀκριβῶς περὶ τοῦ παιδίου.
  • πορευθέντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle passive of <πορεύω> go, make go -- having gone
  • ἐξετάσατε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative aorist of <ἐξετάζω> inquire -- inquire
  • ἀκριβῶς -- adverb; <ἀκριβῶς> sharply, diligently -- diligently
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- concerning
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • παιδίου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <παιδίον> young child -- young child

ἐπὰν δὲ εὕρητε, ἀπαγγείλατέ μοι, ὅπως κάγὼ ἐλθὼν προσκυνήσω αὐτῷ.
  • ἐπὰν -- conjunction; <ἐπάν> whenever -- whenever
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • εὕρητε -- verb; 2nd person plural aorist subjunctive of <εὑρίσκω> find -- find out
  • ἀπαγγείλατέ -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative aorist of <ἀπαγγέλλω> report -- report
  • μοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- to me
  • ὅπως -- adverb; <ὅπως> so that -- so that
  • κάγὼ -- conjunction; <καί> and + pronoun; nominative singular of <ἐγώ> I -- I too
  • ἐλθὼν -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- going
  • προσκυνήσω -- verb; 1st person singular future of <προσκυνέω> worship -- may worship
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

2:9 - οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπορεύθησαν.
  • οἱ -- article used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- they
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ἀκούσαντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- having heard
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλέως -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- king
  • ἐπορεύθησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <πορεύω> go, make go -- departed

καὶ ἰδοὺ ὁ ἀστήρ, ὃν εἶδον ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ, προῆγεν αὐτοὺς ἕως ἐλθὼν ἐστάθη ἐπάνω οὗ ἦν τὸ παιδίον.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἰδοὺ -- adverb; <ἰδού> behold -- behold
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀστήρ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star
  • ὃν -- relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ὅς> who, which -- which
  • εἶδον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- they saw
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀνατολῇ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἀνατολή> east -- east
  • προῆγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <προάγω> proceed, go before -- went before
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • ἕως -- conjunction; <ἕως> until -- until
  • ἐλθὼν -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- moving
  • ἐστάθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἵστημι> put, place, stand -- it stood
  • ἐπάνω -- adverb; <ἐπάνω> above -- above
  • οὗ -- relative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <ὅς> who, which -- where
  • ἦν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- was
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • παιδίον -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <παιδίον> young child -- young child

2:10 - ἰδόντες δὲ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην σφόδρα.
  • ἰδόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ὁράω> see -- seeing
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀστέρα -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star
  • ἐχάρησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <χαίρω> rejoice -- they rejoiced (with)
  • χαρὰν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <χαρά> joy -- joy
  • μεγάλην -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <μέγας> great -- great
  • σφόδρα -- adverb; <σφόδρα> very -- very

2:11 - καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εἶδον τὸ παιδίον μετὰ Μαρίας τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐλθόντες -- deponent verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- going
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • οἰκίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <οἰκία> house -- building
  • εἶδον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- they saw
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • παιδίον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <παιδίον> young child -- young child
  • μετὰ -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- with
  • Μαρίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Μαρία> Mary -- Mary
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μητρὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <μήτηρ> mother -- mother
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his

καὶ πεσόντες προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἀνοίξαντες τοὺς θησαυροὺς αὐτῶν προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δῶρα, χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πεσόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <πίπτω> fall -- falling down
  • προσεκύνησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <προσκυνέω> worship -- worshipped
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀνοίξαντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἀνοίγνυμι> open -- having opened
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θησαυροὺς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <θησαυρός> treasure -- treasures
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their
  • προσήνεγκαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <προσφέρω> offer, present -- they presented
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • δῶρα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <δῶρον> gift -- gifts
  • χρυσὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <χρυσός> gold -- gold
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λίβανον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λίβανος> frankincense, frankincense tree -- frankincense
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • σμύρναν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <σμύρνα> myrrh -- myrrh

2:12 - καὶ χρηματισθέντες κατ' ὄναρ μὴ ἀνακάμψαι πρὸς Ἡρῴδην, δι' ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • χρηματισθέντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle passive of <χρηματίζω> negotiate, warn -- having been warned
  • κατ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- in
  • ὄναρ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ὄναρ> dream -- (a) dream
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ἀνακάμψαι -- verb; aorist infinitive of <ἀνακάμπτω> return -- (to) return
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • Ἡρῴδην -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Ἡρῴδης> Herod -- Herod
  • δι' -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- by
  • ἄλλης -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <ἄλλος> other -- (an) other
  • ὁδοῦ -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ὁδός> way, road -- way
  • ἀνεχώρησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ἀνακάμπτω> return -- returned
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • χώραν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <χώρα> land, country -- land
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their

Mark 10:14b (memory verse) -

        Ἄφετε τὰ παιδία ἔρχεσθαι πρός με,
        μὴ κωλύετε αὐτά·
        τῶν γὰρ τοιούτων ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ.
  • ἄφετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <ἀφίημι> send forth, throw down, permit, forgive -- suffer
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • παιδία -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <παιδίον> young child -- little children
  • ἔρχεσθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- (to) come
  • πρός -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • με -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- me
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • κωλύετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <κωλύω> hinder, prevent -- (do) . . .hinder
  • αὐτά -- pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • τοιούτων -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <τοιοῦτος> such -- of such
  • ἐστὶν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • ἡ -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλεία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- god

Lesson Text

2:1 - Τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα λέγοντες, 2:2 - ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ τεχθεὶς βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; εἴδομεν γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ, καὶ ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ. 2:3 - ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἡρῴδης ἐταράχθη, καὶ πᾶσα Ἱεροσόλυμα κατ' αὐτοῦ. 2:4 - καὶ συναγαγὼν πάντας τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ γραμματεῖς τοῦ λαοῦ ἐπυνθάνετο παρ' αὐτῶν ποῦ ὁ χριστὸς γεννᾶται. 2:5 - οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας. οὕτως γὰρ γέγραπται διὰ τοῦ προφήτου, 2:6 - καὶ σὺ Βηθλέεμ, γῆ Ἰούδα,
        οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος,
        ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ 2:7 - Τότε Ἡρῴδης λάθρα καλέσας τοὺς μάγους ἠκρίβωσεν παρ' αὐτῶν τὸν χρόνον τοῦ φαινομένου ἀστέρος. 2:8 - καὶ πέμψας αὐτοὺς εἰς Βηθλέεμ εἶπεν πορευθέντες ἐξετάσατε ἀκριβῶς περὶ τοῦ παιδίου. ἐπὰν δὲ εὕρητε, ἀπαγγείλατέ μοι, ὅπως κάγὼ ἐλθὼν προσκυνήσω αὐτῷ. 2:9 - οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπορεύθησαν. καὶ ἰδοὺ ὁ ἀστήρ, ὃν εἶδον ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ, προῆγεν αὐτοὺς ἕως ἐλθὼν ἐστάθη ἐπάνω οὗ ἦν τὸ παιδίον. 2:10 - ἰδόντες δὲ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην σφόδρα. 2:11 - καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εἶδον τὸ παιδίον μετὰ Μαρίας τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ. καὶ πεσόντες προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἀνοίξαντες τοὺς θησαυροὺς αὐτῶν προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δῶρα, χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν. 2:12 - καὶ χρηματισθέντες κατ' ὄναρ μὴ ἀνακάμψαι πρὸς Ἡρῴδην, δι' ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν. Mark 10:14b (memory verse) -

        Ἄφετε τὰ παιδία ἔρχεσθαι πρός με,
        μὴ κωλύετε αὐτά·
        τῶν γὰρ τοιούτων ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ.

Translation

From the King James version:
2:1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, 2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.
3 When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 4 And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born. 5 And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet,
6 And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda,
art not the least among the princes of Juda:
for out of thee shall come a Governor,
that shall rule my people Israel.
7 Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared. 8 And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also.
9 When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was. 10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. 11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense and myrrh. 12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.
Mark 10:14b (memory verse) --
Suffer the little children to come unto me,
and forbid them not:
for of such is the kingdom of God.

Grammar

6 Conjunctions and Particles.

As these texts exemplify, Greek makes great use of conjunctions and particles. These may have basic meanings, but many of them simply suggest relationships between syntactic units, so that they vary in use and may even not need to be translated.

The most common conjunction is καί, with a basic meaning of 'and' but also 'even' and at times 'but'. Another common conjunction is γάρ, with a basic meaning of 'for' but also 'now', or it may be added simply to strengthen questions.

Particles typically stand right after the first content word in sentences. Among the particles, δέ is very common, as in our texts; it has a basic adversative meaning and may often be translated 'but' or 'on the other hand', but is often redundant. In a different meaning it is attached to names of places that are in the accusative, and then means 'to'. In addition it may be added to pronouns to strengthen their meaning. The particle τε is also very common, and has the meaning 'and'; it is often used after both nouns that are conjoined. The particle μέν often stands in clauses that are followed by other clauses including δέ, where it means something like 'on the one hand'; it may also be combined with other particles, as in μὲν ἄρα, where it means 'and'. The particle δή indicates emphasis, as on the word preceding it. In short, particles often supply meaning much as intonation does in English. The meaning of the content words in sentences may be a guide to interpretation of the particles included in them.

7 Participles.

Participles are often used to function as verbs of modifying clauses. These modifying clauses may correspond to relative clauses, as does τεχθαὶς in 2:2. The relationship to a principal clauses may require a further interpretation, as does that of the participle ἀκούσας in 2:3 or that of συναγαγὼν in 2:4. On the other hand, they may be treated as participles in English, for example πέμψας in 2:8. They may also be nominal; an example is ἡγούμενος in 2:6. The interpretations will generally be clear from the contexts in which they are found.

8 Nouns in consonantal declension.

Nouns in the consonantal declension often have the final consonant elided before the nominative ending, so that their stem form must be determined from the genitive or other oblique cases. Examples are given here of nouns with stems ending in -δ- and -ρ-.

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   ὁ παῖς 'child'   ἡ θυγάτηρ 'daughter'
Gen sg   τοῦ παιδός   τῆς θυγατέρος
Dat sg   τῷ παιδί   τῇ θυγατέρι
Acc sg   τὸν παῖδα   τῆν θυγατέρα
         
Nom pl   οἱ παῖδες   αἱ θυγατέρες
Gen pl   τῶν παίδων   τῶν θυγατέρων
Dat pl   τοῖς παῖσι   ταῖς θυγατέρσι
Acc pl   τοὺς παῖδας   τὰς θυγατέρας
9 Personal pronouns.

The first and second personal pronouns have enclitic forms in the oblique cases of the singular, which are given here after the regular forms; they have no accent. The third person forms, for 'he, she, it', are supplied by the intensive pronoun meaning 'self'; the genitive singular forms would have the meanings 'of him, of her, of it', the dative singular forms would have the meanings 'to him, to her, to it', and so on.

    1st Person   2nd Person   3rd Person
            Masc.   Fem.   Neut.
Nom sg   ἐγώ   σύ   αὐτός   αὐτή   αὐτό
Gen sg   ἐμοῦ, μου   σοῦ, σου   αὐτοῦ   αὐτῆς   αὐτοῦ
Dat sg   ἐμοί, μοι   σοί, σοι   αὐτῷ   αὐτῇ   αὐτῷ
Acc sg   ἐμέ, με   σέ, σε   αὐτόν   αὐτήν   αὐτό
                     
Nom pl   ἡμεῖς   ὑμεῖς   αὐτοῖ   αὐταῖ   αὐτά
Gen pl   ἡμῶν   ὑμῶν   αὐτῶν   αὐτῶν   αὐτῶν
Dat pl   ἡμῖν   ὑμῖν   αὐτοῖς   αὐταῖς   αὐτοῖς
Acc pl   ἡμᾶς   ὑμᾶς   αὐτούς   αὐτάς   αὐτά
10 The Present System of verbs.

The present system includes five categories of forms: the present indicative, the imperfect, the subjunctive, the optative, and the imperative. In addition there is an infinitive and also a participle. The first two categories have been given in Lesson 1; the others are given here using the verb [infinitive] πιστεύειν.

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   πιστεύω   πιστεύοιμι    
2 sg   πιστεύῃς   πιστεύοις   πίστευε
3 sg   πιστεύῃ   πιστεύοι   πιστευέτω
             
1 pl   πιστεύωμεν   πιστεύοιμεν    
2 pl   πιστεύητε   πιστεύοιτε   πιστεύετε
3 pl   πιστεύωσι(ν)   πιστεύοιεν   πιστευόντων

The participial forms, nominative and genitive singular, are as follows.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   πιστεύων   πιστεύουσα   πιστεῦον
Gen sg   πιστεύοντος   πιστευούσης   πιστεύοντος

New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 3

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Like the other gospels, the fourth is anonymous; but it has been ascribed to St. John because of references to him, such as those in chapter 21, verses 21 to 23, followed by the statement in verse 24 that "this is the disciple that ... wrote these things." The fourth gospel is unlike the other three even though, like them, it has the form of a biography. Omitting any information on the birth and early years of Jesus, it begins with a section equating him with the Word and the only begotten of the Father. It continues with his baptism by John the Baptist, following that with eleven chapters on his miracles and his discussions. Chapters thirteen to nineteen then report the events of twenty-four hours, followed by chapter twenty on his resurrection, which with a final chapter also relates his subsequent meetings with his disciples.

Reading and Textual Analysis

John 3:1-13, and Romans 1:17b (memory verse)

This selection from Chapter 3 is one of the most remarkable among the four gospels. It has given rise to the view that Christians must be born again. That belief rests on the interpretation of the Greek word ἄνωθεν. Jesus used it in his response to the statesman, Nicodemus, who may well have interpreted it in accordance with the language that was general in his position for dealing with public affairs, and with his logical mind, as reflected in his question in verse four.

The word is a compound consisting of the first element the adverb ἄνω, which means 'up, on high, in heaven'. The second element is the suffix -θεν, which means 'from', as in words like οἴκοθεν 'from home'. In Classical Greek it has only its literal meaning 'from above'; but in the New Testament it has the additional meaning 'again'. The statesman clearly interprets it in this sense. But Jesus in his usual quiet way of teaching goes on to say without contradicting him directly 'unless one is born of water and the spirit', clearly indicating that he intends the literal sense. He then continues in verse eight with one of the most remarkable passages in literature as presented in the King James translation; the verse supports the literal interpretation of ἄνωθεν.

The passage is also of interest in indicating that the conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus was probably conducted in Greek. Dr. Esther Raizen informs me that there is no ambiguity of interpretation of the corresponding terms in Hebrew, and presumably also not in Aramaic. Two Hebrew translations of the passage use a word meaning 'again', while another uses a word meaning 'from above'. Jesus' statements in verse five and later would be difficult to account for unless his use of ἄνωθεν indicated the necessity of being born from above.

3:1 - Ἦν δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ὄνομα αὐτῷ, ἄρχων τῶν Ἰουδαίων.
  • ἦν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- (there) was
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now
  • ἄνθρωπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- (a) man
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- of
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • Φαρισαίων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Φαρισαῖος> Pharisee -- Pharisees
  • Νικόδημος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Νικόδημος> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus
  • ὄνομα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <ὄνομα> name -- name
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him, his
  • ἄρχων -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄρχων> ruler -- (a) ruler
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • Ἰουδαίων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Ἰουδαῖος> Jew -- Jews

3:2 - οὗτος ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ,
  • οὗτος -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <οὗτος> this -- he
  • ἦλθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- came
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • νυκτὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <νύξ> night -- by night
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him

ῥαββὶ, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος·
  • ῥαββὶ -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <ῥαββί> rabbi -- Rabbi
  • οἴδαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <οἶδα> know -- we know
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • ἐλήλυθας -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- (who has) come
  • διδάσκαλος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διδάσκαλος> teacher -- teacher

οὐδεὶς γὰρ δύναται ταῦτα τὰ σημεῖα ποιεῖν ἃ σὺ ποιεῖς, ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ ὁ θεὸς μετ' αὐτοῦ.
  • οὐδεὶς -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- no one
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- is able
  • ταῦτα -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <οὗτος> this -- these
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • σημεῖα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <σημεῖον> sign, miracle -- miracles
  • ποιεῖν -- verb; infinitive of <ποιέω> make, do -- do
  • ἃ -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <ὅς> who, which -- that
  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • ποιεῖς -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ποιέω> make, do -- do
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ᾖ -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <εἰμί> I am -- were
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • μετ' -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- with
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

3:3 - ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ.
  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (to) him

ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν, οὐ δύναται ἰδεῖν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ.
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • λέγω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <λέγω> say -- I say
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • μή -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • τις -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <τις> someone, something -- one
  • γεννηθῇ -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- is...born
  • ἄνωθεν -- adverb; <ἄνωθεν> from above, anew -- from above (again)
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • ἰδεῖν -- verb; aorist infinitive of <ὁράω> see -- see
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλείαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- God

3:4 - λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Νικόδημος,
  • λέγει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <λέγω> say -- says
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Νικόδημος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Νικόδημος> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus

πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος γεννηθῆναι γέρων ὦν;
  • πῶς -- interrogative particle; <πῶς> how -- how
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • ἄνθρωπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- (a) man
  • γεννηθῆναι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be born
  • γέρων -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <γέρων> old man -- (an) old man
  • ὦν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <εἰμί> I am -- being

μὴ δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τῆς μητρός αὐτοῦ δεύτερον εἰσελθεῖν καὶ γεννηθῆναι;
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- surely...not
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- (he) can
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • κοιλίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <κοιλία> womb -- womb
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μητρός -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <μήτηρ> mother -- mother
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (of) his
  • δεύτερον -- adverb; <δεύτερον> second -- a second time
  • εἰσελθεῖν -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- enter
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • γεννηθῆναι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be born

3:5 - ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς.
  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus

ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ πνεύματος, οὐ δύναται εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • λέγω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <λέγω> say -- I say
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • μή -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • τις -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <τις> someone, something -- one
  • γεννηθῇ -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- is born
  • ἐξ -- preposition; <ἐξ> from, out of -- of
  • ὕδατος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ὕδωρ> water -- water
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- spirit
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • εἰσελθεῖν -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- enter
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλείαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- (of) God

3:6 - τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς σάρξ ἐστιν, καὶ τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος πνεῦμα ἐστιν.
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- that
  • γεγεννημένον -- deponent verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- born
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • σαρκὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <σάρξ> flesh -- flesh
  • σάρξ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <σάρξ> flesh -- flesh
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- that
  • γεγεννημένον -- deponent verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- born
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- spirit
  • πνεῦμα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- spirit
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is

3:7 - μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι εἶπόν σοι· δεῖ ὑμᾶς γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν.
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • θαυμάσῃς -- verb; 2nd person singular aorist subjunctive of <θαυμάζω> wonder -- do ... wonder
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • εἶπόν -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • δεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <δεῖ> it is necessary -- it is necessary (that)
  • ὑμᾶς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • γεννηθῆναι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be born
  • ἄνωθεν -- adverb; <ἄνωθεν> from above, anew -- from above; again

3:8 - τὸ πνεῦμα ὅπου θέλει πνεῖ, καὶ τὴν φωνήν αὐτοῦ ἀκούεις, ἀλλ' οὐκ οἶδας πόθεν ἔρχεται καὶ ποῦ ὑπάγει·
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πνεῦμα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- (spirit) wind
  • ὅπου -- adverb; <ὅπου> where -- where
  • θέλει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <θέλω> mean, purport -- it wishes
  • πνεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <πνέω> blow -- blows
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • φωνήν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <φωνή> voice, sound -- sound
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- of it
  • ἀκούεις -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- you hear
  • ἀλλ' -- conjunction; <ἀλλά> but -- but
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • οἶδας -- verb; 2nd person singular perfect of <οἶδα> know -- you know
  • πόθεν -- adverb; <πόθεν> from where -- from where
  • ἔρχεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- it comes
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ποῦ -- adverb; <ποῦ> where -- where
  • ὑπάγει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ὑπάγω> lead on, retire -- it goes

οὕτως ἐστὶν πᾶς ὁ γεγεννημένος ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος.
  • οὕτως -- adverb; <οὕτως> so, thus -- so
  • ἐστὶν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • πᾶς -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- every one
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • γεγεννημένος -- deponent verb; perfect participle passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- born
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- of
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- spirit

3:9 - ἀπεκρίθη Νικόδημος καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· πῶς δύναται ταῦτα γενέσθαι;
  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • Νικόδημος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Νικόδημος> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • πῶς -- interrogative particle; <πῶς> how -- how
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • ταῦτα -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <οὗτος> this -- these (things)
  • γενέσθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be

3:10 - ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ·
  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him

σὺ εἶ ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ταῦτα οὐ γινώσκεις;
  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • εἶ -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- are
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • διδάσκαλος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διδάσκαλος> teacher -- (a) teacher
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰσραὴλ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ἰσραήλ> Israel -- of Israel
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ταῦτα -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <οὗτος> this -- these things
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • γινώσκεις -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <γινώσκω> know, learn -- do ...know

3:11 - ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι ὅτι ὃ οἶδαμεν λαλοῦμεν καὶ ὃ ἑωράκαμεν μαρτυροῦμεν, καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἡμῶν οὐ λαμβάνετε.
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • λέγω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <λέγω> say -- I say
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • ὃ -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ὅς> who, which -- what
  • οἶδαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <οἶδα> know -- we know
  • λαλοῦμεν -- verb; 1st person plural present of <λαλέω> speak -- we speak of
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὃ -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ὅς> who, which -- what
  • ἑωράκαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <ὁράω> see -- we have seen
  • μαρτυροῦμεν -- verb; 1st person plural present of <μαρτυρέω> bear witness -- we bear witness (of)
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μαρτυρίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <μαρτυρία> testimony -- testimony
  • ἡμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- our
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • λαμβάνετε -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <λαμβάνω> receive, capture -- receive

3:12 - εἰ τὰ ἐπίγεια εἶπον ὑμῖν καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε, πῶς ἐάν εἶπω ὑμῖν τὰ ἐπουράνια πιστεύσετε;
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐπίγεια -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <ἐπίγειος> earthly -- earthly (things)
  • εἶπον -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- I told
  • ὑμῖν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • πιστεύετε -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <πιστεύω> believe -- (you do) ...believe
  • πῶς -- interrogative particle; <πῶς> how -- how
  • ἐάν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • εἶπω -- verb; 1st person singular aorist subjunctive of <λέγω> say -- I will tell
  • ὑμῖν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐπουράνια -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <ἐπουράνιος> heavenly -- heavenly
  • πιστεύσετε -- verb; 2nd person plural future of <πιστεύω> believe -- will ... believe

3:13 - καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀναβέβηκεν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰ μὴ ὅ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οὐδεὶς -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- no one
  • ἀναβέβηκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- has gone up
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • οὐρανὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heaven
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- except for
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- ...
  • ὅ -- article used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the (one)
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • οὐρανοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heaven
  • καταβάς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <καταβαίνω> descend -- coming down
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • υἱὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <υἱός> son -- son
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἀνθρώπου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- of man

Romans 1:17b (memory verse) -

        Ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται.
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- ...
  • δίκαιος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <δίκαιος> just, righteous -- just
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- by
  • πίστεως -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <πίστις> faith -- faith
  • ζήσεται -- verb; 3rd person singular future middle of <ζάω> live -- shall live

Lesson Text

3:1 - Ἦν δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ὄνομα αὐτῷ, ἄρχων τῶν Ἰουδαίων. 3:2 - οὗτος ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ, ῥαββὶ, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος· οὐδεὶς γὰρ δύναται ταῦτα τὰ σημεῖα ποιεῖν ἃ σὺ ποιεῖς, ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ ὁ θεὸς μετ' αὐτοῦ. 3:3 - ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ. ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν, οὐ δύναται ἰδεῖν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ. 3:4 - λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Νικόδημος, πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος γεννηθῆναι γέρων ὦν; μὴ δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τῆς μητρός αὐτοῦ δεύτερον εἰσελθεῖν καὶ γεννηθῆναι; 3:5 - ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς. ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ πνεύματος, οὐ δύναται εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ 3:6 - τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς σάρξ ἐστιν, καὶ τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος πνεῦμα ἐστιν. 3:7 - μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι εἶπόν σοι· δεῖ ὑμᾶς γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν. 3:8 - τὸ πνεῦμα ὅπου θέλει πνεῖ, καὶ τὴν φωνήν αὐτοῦ ἀκούεις, ἀλλ' οὐκ οἶδας πόθεν ἔρχεται καὶ ποῦ ὑπάγει· οὕτως ἐστὶν πᾶς ὁ γεγεννημένος ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος. 3:9 - ἀπεκρίθη Νικόδημος καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· πῶς δύναται ταῦτα γενέσθαι; 3:10 - ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· σὺ εἶ ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ταῦτα οὐ γινώσκεις; 3:11 - ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι ὅτι ὃ οἶδαμεν λαλοῦμεν καὶ ὃ ἑωράκαμεν μαρτυροῦμεν, καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἡμῶν οὐ λαμβάνετε. 3:12 - εἰ τὰ ἐπίγεια εἶπον ὑμῖν καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε, πῶς ἐάν εἶπω ὑμῖν τὰ ἐπουράνια πιστεύσετε; 3:13 - καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀναβέβηκεν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰ μὴ ὅ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. Romans 1:17b (memory verse) -

        Ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται.

Translation

From the King James version:
3:1 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:
2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.
3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?
5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again. 8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?
10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things? 11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness. 12 If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things? 13 And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.
Romans 1:17b (memory verse) --
The just shall live by faith.

Grammar

11 Nouns: ι-stems.

Nouns with stems in -ι have endings differing from those of the -ο- and -ᾱ- declensions, except in the accusative singular and genitive plural. Their endings also vary in the epic texts, but the basic inflection is given here with the noun πόλις 'city'.

Nom sg   ἡ πόλις   Nom pl   αἱ πόλεις
Gen sg   τῆς πόλεος   Gen pl   τῶν πολίων
Dat sg   τῇ πόλει   Dat pl   ταῖς πόλισι
Acc sg   τῆν πόλιν   Acc pl   τὰς πόλεις
12 Adjectives of the -ο- and -ᾱ- Declensions.

Many of the most common adjectives fall in these declensions, e.g. κακός 'bad', νέος 'new', φίλος 'dear'. Their endings are those of the nouns in the declensions. It must be noted, however, that feminine singular forms have -η rather than -α unless their stems ending in -ε, -ι, -ρ, as in δικαία 'just'. Some, especially compound adjectives, have only two endings, e.g. βάρβαρος, -ον 'foreign', παράνομος, -ον 'unlawful.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   κακός   κακή   κακόν
Gen sg   κακοῦ   κακῆς   κακοῦ
Dat sg   κακῷ   κακῇ   κακῷ
Acc sg   κακόν   κακήν   κακόν
             
Nom pl   κακοί   κακαί   κακά
Gen pl   κακῶν   κακῶν   κακῶν
Dat pl   κακοῖς   κακαῖς   κακοῖς
Acc pl   κακούς   κακάς   κακά
13 The Intensive Pronoun αὐτός and ἄλλος 'other'.

The intensive pronoun, meaning 'self, same', is inflected like adjectives except that the neuter nominative/accusative singular lacks final -ν, e.g. αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό. The forms of ἄλλος are also inflected in the same way. The forms of the third person reflexive pronouns 'his, her, their' are based on these:

Gen sg   ἑαυτοῦ 'his'   ἑαυτῆς 'her'   Gen pl   ἑαυτῶν 'their'
Dat sg   ἑαυτῷ   ἑαυτῇ   Dat pl   ἑαυτοῖς
Acc sg   ἑαυτόν   ἑαυτήν   Acc pl   ἑαυτούς
14 The Relative Pronouns.

The inflections of the simple relative pronoun are as follows. These are also maintained in the emphatic and general relative forms. The emphatic relative pronoun is ὅσπερ, ἥπερ, ὅπερ '(precisely) he who..., (precisely) she who...'. The general relative pronoun is σ̔́στις, ἥτι, ὄτι 'whoever, whatever'.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   ὅς   ἥ   ὅ
Gen sg   οὗ   ἧς   οὗ
Dat sg   ᾧ   ᾗ   ᾧ
Acc sg   ὅν   ἥν   ὅ
             
Nom pl   οἵ   αἵ   ἅ
Gen pl   ὧν   ὧν   ὧν
Dat pl   οἵς   αἷς   οἵς
Acc pl   οὕς   ἅς   ἅ
15 The Aorist System.

The aorist system is comparable to the present system, except that it lacks a form corresponding to the present indicative. Its basic meaning was punctual, but its basic set of forms generally may be translated with past tense forms. The subjunctive, optative and imperative are comparable to those of the present system.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ἐπίστευσα   πιστεύσω   πιστεύσαι    
2 sg   ἐπίστευσας   πιστεύσῃς   πιστεύσειας   πίστευσον
3 sg   ἐπίστευσε(ν)   πιστεύσῃ   πιστεύσειε(ν)   πιστευσάτω
                 
1 pl   ἐπιστεύσαμεν   πιστεύσωμεν   πιστεύσαιμεν    
2 pl   ἐπιστεύσατε   πιστεύσητε   πιστεύσαιτε   πιστεύσατε
3 pl   ἐπίστευσαν   πιστεύσωσι(ν)   πιστεύσειαν   πιστευσάντων

Infinitive   πιστεῦσαι            
Participle   πιστεύσας   πιστεύσασα   πιστεῦσαν   'one who
Gen sg   πιστεύσαντος   πιστεύσης   πιστεύσαντος   believed'

New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 4

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

After St. Luke describes the baptism of Jesus by John, followed by an account of Jesus's genealogy beginning with Adam, he reports in chapter 4:1-13 how Jesus was "led by the spirit into the wilderness," there to be tempted by the devil. The temptation is one of the central episodes in the life of Jesus. After overcoming the devil, Jesus goes to Galilee in the "power of the Spirit." It is also reported in two of the other gospels, briefly by St. Mark 1:12-13 and fully also by St. Matthew 4:1-11. While the basic accounts are similar, Mark refers to the tempter as Satan, the term Jesus uses in St. Matthew's account when he addresses the devil, but not by St. Luke. On the other hand, the order of the temptations differs. The first is the same, but in the account by St. Matthew the second has the devil taking Jesus to "a pinnacle of the temple" in the holy city, identified specifically by St. Luke as Jerusalem in his report of the third temptation. It is also interesting to compare other items such as the Old Testament passages that Jesus cites.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Luke 4:1-13, and Romans 8:31b (memory verse)

The story of the temptation has been central in treatments of the life of Jesus. It provides the basis for John Milton's Paradise Regained, which follows St. Luke in the order of temptations. The first lines of the poem may illustrate the importance that Milton and many others have given the episode:

I who e're while the Happy Garden sung,
By one man's disobedience lost, now sing
Recover'd Paradise to all mankind,
By one man's firm obedience fully tri'd
Through all temptation, and the Tempter foil'd
In all his wiles, defeated and repuls't,
And Eden rais'd in the waste Wilderness.
4:1 - Ἰησοῦς δὲ πλήρης πνεύματος ἁγίου ὑπέστρεψεν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, καὶ ἤγετο ἐν τῷ πνεύματι ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου.
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • πλήρης -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πλήρης> full of -- full of
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- Ghost
  • ἁγίου -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <ἅγιος> holy -- of the Holy
  • ὑπέστρεψεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ὑποστρέφω> turn away -- turned away
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • Ἰορδάνου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ἰόρδανος> Jordan -- Jordan
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἤγετο -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect passive of <ἄγω> lead -- was led
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πνεύματι -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- spirit
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐρήμῳ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἔρημος> desert -- desert
  • ἡμέρας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ἡμέρα> day -- days
  • τεσσεράκοντα -- number; <τεσσεράκοντα> forty -- forty
  • πειραζόμενος -- verb; nominative singular masculine middle of <πειράζω> tempt -- tempted
  • ὑπὸ -- preposition; <ὑπό> under, by -- by
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • διαβόλου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <διάβολος> devil -- devil

4:2 - Καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις, καὶ συντελεσθεισῶν αὐτῶν ἐπείνασεν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • ἔφαγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἔδω> eat -- he ate
  • οὐδὲν -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- nothing
  • ταῖς -- article; dative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἡμέραις -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <ἡμέρα> day -- days
  • ἐκείναις -- demonstrative pronoun; dative plural feminine of <ἐκεῖνος> that -- those
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συντελεσθεισῶν -- verb; genitive plural feminine of aorist passive participle of <συντελέω> complete -- (when ... were) completed
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- these
  • ἐπείνασεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πεινάω> to be hungry -- he was hungry

4:3 - εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ διάβολος, εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰπὲ τῷ λίθῷ τούτῳ ἵνα γένηται ἄρτος.
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • διάβολος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διάβολος> devil -- devil
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • υἱὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <υἱός> son -- son
  • εἶ -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- you are
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- of God
  • εἰπὲ -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative aorist of <λέγω> say -- tell
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • λίθῷ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <λίθος> stone -- stone
  • τούτῳ -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <οὗτος> this -- this
  • ἵνα -- conjunction; <ἵνα> so that -- that
  • γένηται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- it become
  • ἄρτος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄρτος> bread -- bread

4:4 - καὶ ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, γέγραπται ὅτι οὐκ ἐπ' ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- ...
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- it is written
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- ...
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • ἐπ' -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- by
  • ἄρτῳ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <ἄρτος> bread -- bread
  • μόνῳ -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <μόνος> alone -- alone
  • ζήσεται -- verb; 3rd person singular future middle of <ζάω> live -- will ... live
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἄνθρωπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- man

4:5 - καὶ ἀναγαγῶν αὐτὸν ἔδειξεν αὐτῷ πάσας τὰς βασιλείας τῆς οἰκουμένης ἐν στιγμῇ χρόνου.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀναγαγῶν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀνάγω> lead up -- leading ... up
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ἔδειξεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <δείκνυμι> show -- he showed
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • πάσας -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • τὰς -- article; accusative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλείας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdoms
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • οἰκουμένης -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <οἰκουμένη> the inhabited world, the Roman world -- world
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • στιγμῇ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <στιγμή> spot, point -- a point
  • χρόνου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <χρόνος> time -- of time

4:6 - καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ διάβολος, σοὶ δώσω τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην ἅπασαν καὶ τὴν δόξαν αὐτῶν, ὅτι ἐμοὶ παραδέδοται καὶ ᾧ ἐὰν θέλω δίδωμι αὐτὴν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • διάβολος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διάβολος> devil -- devil
  • σοὶ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • δώσω -- verb; 1st person singular future of <δίδωμι> give -- I will give
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐξουσίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ἐξουσία> power -- power
  • ταύτην -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <οὗτος> this -- this
  • ἅπασαν -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <ἅπας> all -- all
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • δόξαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <δόξα> glory -- glory
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- of them
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • ἐμοὶ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- to me
  • παραδέδοται -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <παραδίδωμι> give to -- it was given to
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ᾧ -- relative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <ὅς> who, which -- to whom
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • θέλω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <θέλω> mean, purport -- I wish
  • δίδωμι -- verb; 1st person singular present of <δίδωμι> give -- I give
  • αὐτὴν -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- it

4:7 - σὺ οὖν ἐὰν προσκυνήσῃς ἐνώπιον ἐμοῦ, ἔσται σοῦ πᾶσα.
  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • οὖν -- particle; <οὖν> indeed -- actually
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • προσκυνήσῃς -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive of <προσκυνέω> worship -- bow down
  • ἐνώπιον -- preposition; <ἐνώπιον> before -- before
  • ἐμοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- me
  • ἔσται -- verb; 3rd person singular future of <εἰμί> I am -- will be
  • σοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <σύ> you -- yours
  • πᾶσα -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all

4:8 - Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ, γέγραπται προσκυνήσεις κύριον τὸν θεὸν σοῦ καὶ αὐτῷ μονῷ λατρεύσεις.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀποκριθεὶς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist passive participle of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answering
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- it is written
  • προσκυνήσεις -- verb; 2nd person singular future of <προσκυνέω> worship -- you shall worship
  • κύριον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <κύριος> lord -- Lord
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • θεὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • σοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <σύ> you -- your
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • μονῷ -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <μόνος> alone -- alone
  • λατρεύσεις -- verb; 2nd person singular future of <λατρεύω> serve -- shall you serve

4:9 - Ἤγαγεν δὲ αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱερουσαλὴμ καὶ ἔστησεν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ.
  • ἤγαγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἄγω> lead -- he led
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • Ἱερουσαλὴμ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ἱερουσαλήμ> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔστησεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἵστημι> put, place, stand -- placed
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πτερύγιον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <πτερύγιον> pinnacle -- pinnacle
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • ἱεροῦ -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ἱερόν> temple -- temple

καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ, εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντεῦθεν κάτω.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- he said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • υἱὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <υἱός> son -- (the) son
  • εἶ -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- you are
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- of God
  • βάλε -- verb; 2nd person singular aorist imperative of <βάλλω> throw -- throw
  • σεαυτὸν -- reflexive pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative of <σἑαυτοῦ> yourself -- yourself
  • ἐντεῦθεν -- adverb; <ἐντεῦθεν> from there -- from here
  • κάτω -- adverb; <κάτω> down, downward -- down

4:10 - γέγραπται

        γὰρ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ
        τοῦ διαφυλάξαι σε,
  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- it is written
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • τοῖς -- article; dative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἀγγέλοις -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ἄγγελος> angel -- angels
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • ἐντελεῖται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ἐντέλλω> command -- he has commanded
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- around
  • σοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • διαφυλάξαι -- verb; infinitive future middle of <διαφυλάσσω> guard carefully -- to guard
  • σε -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you

4:11 - καὶ

        ὅτι ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε,
        μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σοῦ.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • χειρῶν -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <χείρ> hand -- (their) arms
  • ἀροῦσίν -- verb; 3rd person plural present middle of <αἴρω> take up, bear -- take ... up
  • σε -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • μήποτε -- conjunction; <μήποτε> lest -- so that ...not
  • προσκόψῃς -- verb; 2nd person singular future subjunctive of <προσκόπτω> strike...against -- you shall ...strike
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- against
  • λίθον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λίθος> stone -- (a) stone
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • πόδα -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ποῦς> foot -- foot
  • σοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <σύ> you -- your

4:12 - καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι εἶρηται, οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον τὸν θεὸν σοῦ.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀποκριθεὶς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answering
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- ...
  • εἶρηται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <εἰρέω> say -- it is said
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • ἐκπειράσεις -- verb; 2nd person singular future middle of <ἐκπειράομαι> tempt -- you shall ... tempt
  • κύριον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <κύριος> lord -- (the) Lord
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • σοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <σύ> you -- your

4:13 - Καὶ συντελέσας πάντα πειρασμὸν ὁ διάβολος ἀπέστη ἀπ' αὐτοῦ ἄχρι καιροῦ.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συντελέσας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <συντελέω> complete -- having completed
  • πάντα -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- (the) entire
  • πειρασμὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <πειρασμός> temptation -- temptation
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • διάβολος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διάβολος> devil -- devil
  • ἀπέστη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀπίστημι> leave, depart -- departed
  • ἀπ' -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ἄχρι -- preposition; <ἄχρι> until -- for
  • καιροῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <καιρός> time -- (a) time

Romans 8:31b (memory verse) -

        Εἰ ὁ θεὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, τίς καθ' ἡμῶν;
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • θεὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • ὑπὲρ -- preposition; <ὑπὲρ> over, for -- (is) for
  • ἡμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- us
  • τίς -- interrogative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <τίς> who, what -- who
  • καθ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- (be) against
  • ἡμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- us

Lesson Text

4:1 - Ἰησοῦς δὲ πλήρης πνεύματος ἁγίου ὑπέστρεψεν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, καὶ ἤγετο ἐν τῷ πνεύματι ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου. 4:2 - Καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις, καὶ συντελεσθεισῶν αὐτῶν ἐπείνασεν. 4:3 - εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ διάβολος, εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰπὲ τῷ λίθῷ τούτῳ ἵνα γένηται ἄρτος. 4:4 - καὶ ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, γέγραπται ὅτι οὐκ ἐπ' ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος. 4:5 - καὶ ἀναγαγῶν αὐτὸν ἔδειξεν αὐτῷ πάσας τὰς βασιλείας τῆς οἰκουμένης ἐν στιγμῇ χρόνου. 4:6 - καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ διάβολος, σοὶ δώσω τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην ἅπασαν καὶ τὴν δόξαν αὐτῶν, ὅτι ἐμοὶ παραδέδοται καὶ ᾧ ἐὰν θέλω δίδωμι αὐτὴν. 4:7 - σὺ οὖν ἐὰν προσκυνήσῃς ἐνώπιον ἐμοῦ, ἔσται σοῦ πᾶσα. 4:8 - Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ, γέγραπται προσκυνήσεις κύριον τὸν θεὸν σοῦ καὶ αὐτῷ μονῷ λατρεύσεις. 4:9 - Ἤγαγεν δὲ αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱερουσαλὴμ καὶ ἔστησεν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ, εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντεῦθεν κάτω. 4:10 - γέγραπται

        γὰρ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ
        τοῦ διαφυλάξαι σε, 4:11 - καὶ

        ὅτι ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε,
        μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σοῦ. 4:12 - καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι εἶρηται, οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον τὸν θεὸν σοῦ. 4:13 - Καὶ συντελέσας πάντα πειρασμὸν ὁ διάβολος ἀπέστη ἀπ' αὐτοῦ ἄχρι καιροῦ. Romans 8:31b (memory verse) -

        Εἰ ὁ θεὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, τίς καθ' ἡμῶν;

Translation

From the King James version:
4:1 And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, 2 Being forty days tempted of the devil. And in those days he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he afterward hungered.
3 And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread.
4 And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.
5 And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 6 And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it. 7 If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine.
8 And Jesus answered and said unto him, it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
9 And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence: 10 For it is written,
He shall give his angels charge over thee,
to keep thee:
11 And
in their hands they shall bear thee up,
lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.
12 And Jesus answering said unto him, It is said, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
13 And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.
Romans 8:31b (memory verse) --
If God is for us, who can be against us?

Grammar

16 Nouns ending in -ηρ.

The basic relationship terms, among other nouns, end in -ηρ, and have no -ε- in the genitive and dative singular, and the dative plural. The following are examples.

    father   daughter   man
Nom. sg.   ὁ πατήρ   ἡ θυγάτηρ   ὁ ἀνήρ
Gen. sg.   τοῦ πατρός   τῆς θυγατρός   τοῦ ἀνδρός
Dat. sg.   τῷ πατρί   τῇ θυγατρί   τῷ ανδρί
Acc. sg.   τὸν πατέρα   τῆν θυγατέρα   τὸν ἄνδρα
             
Nom. pl.   οἱ πατέρες   αἱ θυγατέρες   οἱ ἄνδρες
Gen. pl.   τῶν πατέρων   τῶν θυγατέρων   τῶν ἀνδρῶν
Dat. pl.   τοῖς πατράσι   ταῖς θυγατράσι   τοῖς ἀνδράσι
Acc. pl.   τοὺς πατέρας   τὰς θυγατέρας   τοὺς ἄνδρας
17 Irregular nouns.

Some of the more frequent nouns are irregular in inflection; three of them are given here.

    woman   ship   fire
Nom. sg.   ἡ γυνή   ἡ ναῦς   τὸ πῦρ
Gen. sg.   τῆς γυναικός   τῆς νεώς   τοῦ πυρός
Dat. sg.   τῇ γυναικί   τῇ νηί   τῷ πυρί
Acc. sg.   τῆν γυναῖκα   τῆν ναῦν   τὸ πῦρ
             
Nom. pl.   αἱ γυναῖκες   αἱ νῆες   τὰ πυρά
Gen. pl.   τῶν γυναικῶν   τῶν νεῶν   τῶν πυρῶν
Dat. pl.   ταῖς γυναιξί(ν)   ταῖς ναυσί(ν)   τοῖς πυροῖς
Acc. pl.   τὰς γυναῖκας   τὰς ναῦς   τὰ πυρά
18 Demonstrative pronouns.

There are three demonstrative pronouns. ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε points to the present or future, and corresponds to 'this,' 'this one here.' οὕτος, αὔτη, τοῦτο points to the former, and corresponds to 'that.' ἐκεῖνος, ἐκείνη, ἐκεῖνο points to things remote or absent, and corresponds to 'that there.' ὅδε is based on the definite article. The forms of ἐκεῖνος are like those of αὐτός. The forms of οὗτος are given here.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   οὗτος   αὕτη   τοῦτο
Gen. sg.   τούτου   ταύτης   τούτου
Dat. sg.   τούτῳ   ταύτῃ   τούτῳ
Acc. sg.   τοῦτον   ταύτην   τοῦτο
             
Nom. pl.   οὗτοι   αὗται   ταῦτα
Gen. pl.   τούτων   τούτων   τούτων
Dat. pl.   τούτοις   ταύταις   τούτοις
Acc. pl.   τούτους   ταύτας   ταῦτα
19 The uses of infinitives.

The syntax of New Testament Greek is relatively simple. Most sentences and clauses are completed by a finite verb governing an object, often accompanied by adverbial elements. When infinitives are used they generally complement the meaning of the principal verb as in John 3, with its repeated uses of δύναται followed by ποιεῖν '(no one) can do' and other infinitives. They often are used to indicate purpose, as in Luke 2:1 and following in the passages including ἀπογράφεσθαι '(that all the world) be registered', and similarly in Matthew 2:2 ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ 'we have come to worship him'. In this use they may be introduced by an article, as in verse 10 of this passage: τοῦ διαφυλάξαι σε 'to protect you'.

Infinitives may also be treated like nouns, where English makes use of participles, as in Luke 2:4 διὰ τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν..., literally 'through the (fact of) him be(ing)' > 'because he is'. The infinitive in verse 6 is similar though treated as a genitive after a noun: ἡμέραι τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, literally 'days of her giv(ing) birth'. But as these few examples illustrate, infinitives are relatively infrequent in New Testament Greek and readily interpreted.

20 The Present system of the Middle and the Passive.

The Greek verb has a full set of Middle and Passive forms corresponding to those of the Active. In the Present System, the forms of the two Voices are the same.

When used as Middle, the forms indicate an action or situation reflecting on the subject; thus the first singular indicative πιστεύομαι means 'I believe'. When used as Passive, the meaning corresponds to that of passives in English, so that the Passive πιστεύομαι means 'I am (being) believed.' The forms must be interpreted from the context.

The forms of the Present System (first, second, and third person, singular and plural) are as follows:

    Indicative   Imperfect   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   πιστεύομαι   ἐπιστευόμην   πιστεύωμαι   πιστευοίμην    
2s   πιστεύῃ   ἐπιστεύου   πιστεύῃ   πιστεύοιο   πιστεύου
3s   πιστεύεται   ἐπιστεύετο   πιστεύηται   πιστευοίτο   πιστευέσθω
1p   πιστευόμεθα   ἐπιστευόμεθα   πιστευώμεθα   πιστευοίμεθα    
2p   πιστεύεσθε   ἐπιστεύεσθε   πιστεύησθε   πιστεύοισθε   πιστεύεσθε
3p   πιστεύονται   ἐπιστεύοντο   πιστεύωνται   πιστεύοιντο   πιστευέσθων

Infinitive:   πιστεύεσθαι
Participle:   πιστευόμενος, πιστευομένη, πιστευόμενον

New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 5

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

As noted in the introduction to Lesson 2, the gospel according to Matthew includes many of the central teachings of Jesus. Among these the Beatitudes may be most commonly cited. They represent the essence of his teaching and of the principles of Christianity.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Matthew 5:1-12, and 1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse)

The Beatitudes illustrate the method of Jesus' teaching. Simply phrased in the manner of the Psalms, they are addressed to members of his audience with various problems. They represent the beginning of the celebrated Sermon on the Mount.

5:1 - Ἰδὼν δὲ τοὺς ὄχλους ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος· καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτοῦ προσῆλθαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ.
  • ἰδὼν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle aorist of <ὁράω> see -- seeing
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὄχλους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ὄχλος> crowd -- crowds
  • ἀνέβη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- he went up
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὄρος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ὄρος> mountain -- mountain
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • καθίσαντος -- verb; genitive singular masculine of aorist participle of <καθίζω> (force to) sit down -- sitting down
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- he
  • προσῆλθαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <προσέρχομαι> come to -- came to
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μαθηταὶ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciples
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his

5:2 - καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων,
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀνοίξας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀνοίγνυμι> open -- having opened
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • στόμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <στόμα> mouth -- mouth
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • ἐδίδασκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <διδάσκω> teach -- he taught
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • λέγων -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <λέγω> say -- saying

5:3 - μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι,
        ὅτι αὐτῶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.
  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • πτωχοὶ -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πτωχός> poor -- poor
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • πνεύματι -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- in spirit
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- theirs
  • ἡ -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- (is) the
  • βασιλεία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • οὐρανῶν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heavens

5:4 - μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται.
  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • πενθοῦντες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <πενθέω> mourn -- mourners
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • παρακληθήσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <παρακαλέω> encourage, comfort -- will be comforted

5:5 - μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆν.
  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • πραεῖς -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πραύς> gentle, meek -- gentle
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • κληρονομήσουσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural future of <κληρονομέω> inherit -- they will inherit
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • γῆν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- earth

5:6 - μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσανται.
  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • πεινῶντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle of <πεινάω> to be hungry -- (are) hungering
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • διψῶντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <διψάω> thirst after -- thirsting after
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • δικαιοσύνην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <δικαιοσύνη> justice, righteousness -- righteousness
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • χορτασθήσανται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <χορτάζω> feed; eat their fill -- shall eat their fill

5:7 - μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται.
  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • ἐλεήμονες -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ἐλεήμων> merciful -- merciful
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • ἐλεηθήσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <ἐλεέω> have pity; be pitied -- shall be pitied

5:8 - μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται
  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • καθαροὶ -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <καθαρός> clean, pure -- pure
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • καρδίᾳ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <καρδία> heart -- in heart
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • ὄψονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future of <ὁράω> see -- they shall see

5:9 - μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται.
  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • εἰρηνοποιοί -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <εἰρηνοποιός> peacemaker -- peacemakers
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • υἱοὶ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <υἱός> son -- sons
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- of God
  • κληθήσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <καλέω> call, summon -- will be called

5:10 - μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης,
        ὅτι αὐτῶν ἔστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.
  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • δεδιωγμένοι -- verb; nominative plural participle of participle perfect passive of <διώκω> follow, prosecute -- persecuted
  • ἕνεκεν -- preposition; <ἕνεκεν> because of -- because of
  • δικαιοσύνης -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <δικαιοσύνη> justice, righteousness -- righteousness
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- theirs
  • ἔστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • ἡ -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- (is) the
  • βασιλεία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • οὐρανῶν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heavens

5:11 - μακάριοι ἐστέ ὅταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ διώξωσιν καὶ εἴπωσιν πᾶν πονηρὸν καθ' ὑμῶν ψευδόμενοι ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ.
  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • ἐστέ -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <εἰμί> I am -- you are
  • ὅταν -- conjunction; <ὅταν> when, every time -- every time
  • ὀνειδίσωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <ὀνειδίζω> reproach -- they will reproach
  • ὑμᾶς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • διώξωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <διώκω> follow, prosecute -- persecute
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἴπωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <λέγω> say -- say
  • πᾶν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <πᾶς> all, every -- everything
  • πονηρὸν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <πονηρός> evil, wicked -- evil
  • καθ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- against
  • ὑμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • ψευδόμενοι -- deponent verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <ψεύδομαι> lie, deceive -- lyingly
  • ἕνεκεν -- preposition; <ἕνεκεν> because of -- because of
  • ἐμοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- me

5:12 - χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, ὅτι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς.
  • χαίρετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <χαίρω> rejoice -- be glad
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀγαλλιᾶσθε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative middle of <ἀγαλλιάω> rejoice exceedingly -- rejoice
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μισθὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <μισθός> reward -- reward
  • ὑμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- your
  • πολὺς -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πολύς> many -- (will be) great
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τοῖς -- article; dative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • οὐρανοῖς -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heavens

οὕτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμῶν.
  • οὕτως -- adverb; <οὕτως> so, thus -- so
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ἐδίωξαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <διώκω> follow, prosecute -- they persecuted
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • προφήτας -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <προφήτης> prophet -- prophets
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- those
  • πρὸ -- preposition; <πρό> before -- before
  • ὑμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you

1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) -

        Πᾶσαν τὴν μέριμναν ὑμῶν ἐπιρίψαντες ἐπ' αὐτόν,
        ὅτι αὐτῷ μέλει περὶ ὑμῶν.
  • πᾶσαν -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μέριμναν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <μέριμνα> care, anxious thought -- cares
  • ὑμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- your
  • ἐπιρίψαντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἐπιρρίπτω> cast at -- casting
  • ἐπ' -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- upon
  • αὐτόν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- in him
  • μέλει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <μέλω> to care, to be an object of care -- there is care
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- concerning
  • ὑμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you

Lesson Text

5:1 - Ἰδὼν δὲ τοὺς ὄχλους ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος· καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτοῦ προσῆλθαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. 5:2 - καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων, 5:3 - μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι,
        ὅτι αὐτῶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 5:4 - μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται. 5:5 - μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆν. 5:6 - μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσανται. 5:7 - μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται. 5:8 - μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται 5:9 - μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται. 5:10 - μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης,
        ὅτι αὐτῶν ἔστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 5:11 - μακάριοι ἐστέ ὅταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ διώξωσιν καὶ εἴπωσιν πᾶν πονηρὸν καθ' ὑμῶν ψευδόμενοι ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ. 5:12 - χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, ὅτι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς. οὕτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμῶν. 1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) -

        Πᾶσαν τὴν μέριμναν ὑμῶν ἐπιρίψαντες ἐπ' αὐτόν,
        ὅτι αὐτῷ μέλει περὶ ὑμῶν.

Translation

From the King James version:
1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him: 2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,
3 Blessed are the poor in spirit:
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
4 Blessed are they that mourn:
for they shall be comforted.
5 Blessed are the meek:
for they shall inherit the earth.
6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness:
for they shall be filled.
7 Blessed are the merciful:
for they shall obtain mercy.
8 Blessed are the pure in heart:
for they shall see God.
9 Blessed are the peacemakers:
for they shall be called the children of God.
10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake:
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.
1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) --
Casting all your care upon him; for he careth for you.

Grammar

21 Consonant stems ending in dentals.

In these stems the consonant is dropped in the nominative singular, as well as in the accusative singular of neuters, and in the dative plural.

    foot   body
Nom. sg.   ὁ πούς   τὸ σῶμα
Gen. sg.   τοῦ ποδός   τοῦ σώματος
Dat. sg.   τῷ ποδί   τῷ σώματι
Acc. sg.   τὸν ποδά   τὸ σῶμα
         
Nom. pl.   οἱ ποδές   τὰ σώματα
Gen. pl.   τῶν ποδῶν   τῶν σωμάτων
Dat. pl.   τοῖς ποσί   τοῖς σώμασι
Acc. pl.   τοὺς ποδάς   τὰ σώματα
22 Comparison of adjectives.

In most adjectives comparison is expressed by -τερος in the comparative degree, by -τατος in the superlative degree. The forms then are inflected in accordance with the ο- and α-declensions. Examples in this text are ἐμφερεστάτη and ὁμοιότατα. Some of the common adjectives on the other hand are irregular, for example, κακός 'bad'; κακίων, κάκιστος. Their forms will be listed in dictionaries.

23 Interrogative and indefinite pronouns.

These are declined as follows:

    Interrogative   Indefinite
    Masc/Fem   Neut | Masc/Fem   Neut
    'who'   'what' | 'someone'   'something'
Nom. sg.   τίς   τί | τις   τι
Gen. sg.   τίνος   τίνος | τινός   τινός
Dat. sg.   τίνι   τίνι | τινί   τινί
Acc. sg.   τίνα   τί | τινα   τι
                 
Nom. pl.   τίνες   τίνα | τινες   τινα
Gen. pl.   τίνων   τίνων | τινῶν   τινῶν
Dat. pl.   τίσι(ν)   τίσι(ν) | τισί(ν)   τισί(ν)
Acc. pl.   τίνας   τίνα | τινας   τινα

    Indefinite
    Masc   Fem   Neut
    'who(ever)'   'who(ever)'   'what(ever)'
Nom. sg.   ὄστις   ἥτις   ὅτι
Gen. sg.   ὅτου   ἧστινος   ὅτου
Dat. sg.   ᾧτινι   ᾗτινι   ᾧτινι
Acc. sg.   ὅντινα   ἥντινα   ὅτι
             
Nom. pl.   οἵτινες   αἵτινες   ἅτινα
Gen. pl.   ὥντινων   ὥντινων   ὥντινων
Dat. pl.   οἵστισι   αἷστισι   οἷστισι
Acc. pl.   οὕστινας   ἅστινας   ἅτινα
24 The middle and passive voices.

In the present system the forms of the middle (expressing action for one's own sake) and the passive (expressing action directed at the subject) are the same. The forms for the indicative and the imperfect are as follows.

    Present   Imperfect
1 sg   πιστεύομαι   ἐπιστευόμην
2 sg   πιστεύῃ   ἐπιστεύου
3 sg   πιστεύεται   ἐπιστεύετο
         
1 pl   πιστεύομεθα   ἐπιστευόμεθα
2 pl   πιστεύεσθε   ἐπιστεύεσθε
3 pl   πιστεύονται   ἐπιστεύονται
25 The subjunctive, optative, and imperative middle and passive forms, the infinitive and participle.

While these forms are not frequent, they are given here so that, if found, they may be recognized. The participial forms, on the other hand, are relatively frequent.

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   πιστεύωμαι   πιστευοίμην    
2s   πιστεύῃ   πιστεύοιο   πιστεύου
3s   πιστεύηται   πιστεύοιτο   πιστεύεσθω
             
1p   πιστευώμεθα   πιστευοίμεθα    
2p   πιστεύησθε   πιστεύοισθε   πιστεύεσθε
3p   πιστεύωνται   πιστεύοιντο   πιστευέσθων

Infinitive:   πιστεύεσθαι
Participle:   πιστευόμενος, πιστευομένη, πιστευόμενον

New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 6

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The Gospel according to Mark is generally assumed to be the first written down, possibly as early as 66-70 A.D. As with the other gospels we cannot be sure of the author. Among evidence that he was Mark, one of the early church fathers, Papias, Bishop of Hieropolis, wrote that Mark as interpreter of Peter recorded many of the words and activities of Jesus. Identification of Mark as the author is also supported by the remarkable report in the gospel of "a certain young man" who fled naked from the crowd that came to capture Jesus (Mark 14:5-52). In keeping with the statement of Papias, Mark may have been converted by Peter, who calls him his son (1 Peter 5:13). He is assumed to be the natural son of Mary, called John with the surname Mark (Acts 12:12). Mark accompanied Paul and Barnabas on their first missionary journey (Acts 13:5,13), and Paul also later. When imprisoned in Rome, Paul asked Timothy to bring Mark along from Asia Minor (2 Timothy 4:11). Mark may well have been with Peter in Rome, and there composed his gospel for Christians whose best language was Greek.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Mark 4:1-12, and 8:36 (memory verse)

The parable of the sower and the seed in chapter 4, in which Jesus compares his teaching and its results to the work of a farmer, is one of the most favored among his teachings. It is found also in Matthew 13:3-8, there as well with subsequent interpretation to his disciples. You may find it interesting to compare the two versions, noting among other things the somewhat differing descriptions of the situation for the telling of the parable. Straightforward, it needs little commentary.

4:1 - Καὶ πάλιν ἤρξατο διδάσκειν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ συνάγεται πρός αὐτὸν ὄχλος πλεῖστος, ὥστε αὐτὸν εἰς πλοῖον ἐμβάντα καθῆσθαι ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος πρὸς τὴν θάλασσαν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἦσαν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πάλιν -- adverb; <πάλιν> again -- again
  • ἤρξατο -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist middle of <ἄρχω> begin -- he began
  • διδάσκειν -- verb; infinitive of <διδάσκω> teach -- to teach
  • παρὰ -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- beside
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • θάλασσαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <θάλασσα> sea -- sea
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συνάγεται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <συνάγω> bring together -- comes together
  • πρός -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ὄχλος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ὄχλος> crowd -- crowd
  • πλεῖστος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of superlative of <πολύς> many -- (a) very large
  • ὥστε -- conjunction; <ὥστε> like, so that -- so that
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- he
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • πλοῖον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <πλοῖον> ship -- (a) ship
  • ἐμβάντα -- verb; accusative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἐμβαίνω> enter -- having entered
  • καθῆσθαι -- verb; infinitive middle of <καθίζω> (force to) sit down -- sat down
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • θαλάσσῃ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <θάλασσα> sea -- sea
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πᾶς -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- whole
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὄχλος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ὄχλος> crowd -- crowd
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- facing
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • θάλασσαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <θάλασσα> sea -- sea
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • γῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- land
  • ἦσαν -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- were

4:2 - καὶ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν παραβολαῖς πολλὰ, καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐδίδασκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <διδάσκω> teach -- he taught
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • παραβολαῖς -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <παραβολή> parable -- parables
  • πολλὰ -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <πολύς> many -- many (things)
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔλεγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <λέγω> say -- he spoke
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to them
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • διδαχῇ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <διδαχή> teaching -- teaching
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his

4:3 - ἀκούετε, ἰδοὺ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων σπεῖραι.
  • ἀκούετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- Listen!
  • ἰδοὺ -- adverb; <ἰδού> behold -- behold
  • ἐξῆλθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἐξέρχομαι> come out -- went out
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • σπείρων -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <σπείρων> sower -- (a) sower
  • σπεῖραι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <σπείρω> sow -- to sow

4:4 - καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ σπείρειν ὅ μὲν ἔπεσεν παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, καὶ ἥλθεν τὰ πετεινὰ καὶ κατέφαγεν αὐτό.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- it happened
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in (the course of)
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • σπείρειν -- verb; infinitive of <σπείρω> sow -- sowing
  • ὅ -- article used as pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- some (of the seed)
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- indeed
  • ἔπεσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πίπτω> fall -- fell
  • παρὰ -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- beside
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὁδόν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ὁδός> way, road -- road
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἥλθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- came
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πετεινὰ -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <πετεινόν> bird -- birds
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • κατέφαγεν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <κατέδω> eat up, devour -- devoured
  • αὐτό -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- it

4:5 - Καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὸ πετρῶδες ὅπου οὐκ εἶχεν γῆν πολλὴν, καὶ εὐθὺς ἐξανέτειλεν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν βάθος γῆς.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἄλλο -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <ἄλλος> other -- others
  • ἔπεσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πίπτω> fall -- fell
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • πετρῶδες -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <πετρῶδες> stony soil -- stony soil
  • ὅπου -- adverb; <ὅπου> where -- where
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • εἶχεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <ἔχω> have -- (it did) ...have
  • γῆν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- earth
  • πολλὴν -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <πολύς> many -- much
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εὐθὺς -- adverb; <εὐθύς> immediately -- immediately
  • ἐξανέτειλεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἐχανατέλλω> spring up -- (it) sprang up
  • διὰ -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- through
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ἔχειν -- verb; infinitive of <ἔχω> have -- having
  • βάθος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <βάθος> depth -- depth
  • γῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- of soil

4:6 - καὶ ὅτε ἀνέτειλεν ὁ ἧλιος ἐκαυματίσθη καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ῥίζαν ἐξηράνθη.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὅτε -- conjunction; <ὅτε> when -- when
  • ἀνέτειλεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀνατέλλω> rise -- rose
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἧλιος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἧλιος> sun -- sun
  • ἐκαυματίσθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <καυματίζω> burn up -- it was burned up
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • διὰ -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- through
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ἔχειν -- verb; infinitive of <ἔχω> have -- having
  • ῥίζαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ῥίζα> root -- roots
  • ἐξηράνθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ξηραίνω> dry up -- dried up

4:7 - καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας, καὶ ἀνέβησαν αἱ ἄκανθαι καὶ συνέπνιξαν αὐτό, καὶ καρπὸν οὐκ ἔδωκεν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἄλλο -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <ἄλλος> other -- others
  • ἔπεσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πίπτω> fall -- fell
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὰς -- article; accusative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀκάνθας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ἄκανθα> thorn -- thorns
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀνέβησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- grew up
  • αἱ -- article; nominative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἄκανθαι -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <ἄκανθα> thorn -- thorns
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συνέπνιξαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <συμπνίγω> choke -- choked
  • αὐτό -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- it
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • καρπὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <καρπός> fruit -- fruit
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • ἔδωκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <δίδωμι> give -- give

4:8 - καὶ ἄλλα ἔπεσεν εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν καλήν, καὶ ἐδίδου καρπὸν ἀναβαίνοντα καὶ αὐξανόμενα, καὶ ἔφερεν εἰς τριάκοντα καὶ ἐν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἐν ἑκατόν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἄλλα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <ἄλλος> other -- others
  • ἔπεσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πίπτω> fall -- fell
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- on
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • γῆν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- land
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • καλήν -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <καλός> good, beautiful -- excellent
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐδίδου -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <δίδωμι> give -- it gave
  • καρπὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <καρπός> fruit -- fruit
  • ἀναβαίνοντα -- verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- that having ripened
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • αὐξανόμενα -- verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle middle of <αὐξάνω> increase -- having increased
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔφερεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <φέρω> bear, bring, carry -- produced
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- (some) as much as
  • τριάκοντα -- number; <τριάκοντα> thirty -- thirty(fold)
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- as much as
  • ἑξήκοντα -- number; <ἑξήκοντα> sixty -- sixty(fold)
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- as much as
  • ἑκατόν -- number; <ἑκατόν> hundred -- a hundred

4:9 - καὶ ἔλεγεν, ὃς ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔλεγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <λέγω> say -- he said
  • ὃς -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ὅς> who, which -- whoever
  • ἔχει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ἔχω> have -- has
  • ὦτα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <οὖς, ὦς> ear -- ears
  • ἀκούειν -- verb; infinitive of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- to hear
  • ἀκουέτω -- verb; 3rd person singular imperative of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- he should hear

4:10 - Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο κατὰ μόνας ἠρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα τὰς παραβολάς.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὅτε -- conjunction; <ὅτε> when -- when
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- it happened
  • κατὰ -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- ...
  • μόνας -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <μόνος> alone -- (that they were) alone
  • ἠρώτων -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ἐρωτάω> ask -- asked
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the(ones)
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- about
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • σὺν -- preposition; <σύν> with -- with
  • τοῖς -- article; dative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • δώδεκα -- number; <δώδεκα> twelve -- twelve
  • τὰς -- article; accusative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- (about) the
  • παραβολάς -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <παραβολή> parable -- parables

4:11 - καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, ὑμῖν τὸ μυστήριον δέδοται τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔλεγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <λέγω> say -- he said
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to them
  • ὑμῖν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μυστήριον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μυστήριον> mystery -- mystery
  • δέδοται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <δίδωμι> give -- it is given
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • βασιλείας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- God

ἐκείνοις δὲ τοῖς ἔξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὰ πάντα γίνεται,
  • ἐκείνοις -- demonstrative pronoun; dative plural masculine of <ἐκεῖνος> that -- to those
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • τοῖς -- article; dative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the (ones)
  • ἔξω -- adverb; <ἔξω> outside -- outside
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • παραβολαῖς -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <παραβολή> parable -- parables
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • πάντα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <πᾶς> all, every -- all things
  • γίνεται -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <γίνομαι> come into being, be produced -- will come

4:12 - ἵνα

        βλέποντες βλέπωσιν καὶ μὴ ἴδωσιν,
        καὶ ἀκούοντες ἀκούωσιν καὶ μὴ συνιῶσιν,
        μήποτε ἐπιστρέψωσιν
        καὶ ἀφεθῇ αὐτοῖς.
  • ἵνα -- conjunction; <ἵνα> so that -- so that
  • βλέποντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <βλέπω> see -- seeing
  • βλέπωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <βλέπω> see -- they may see
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ἴδωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <ὁράω> see -- perceive
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀκούοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- hearing
  • ἀκούωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- they may hear
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • συνιῶσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <συνοράω> comprehend -- comprehend
  • μήποτε -- conjunction; <μήποτε> lest -- lest
  • ἐπιστρέψωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural future subjunctive of <ἐπιστρέψω> repent -- they repent
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀφεθῇ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <ἀφίημι> send forth, throw down, permit, forgive -- it is forgiven
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them

8:36 (memory verse) -

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖ ἄνθρωπον κερδῆσαι τὸν κόσμον ὅλον καὶ ζημιωθῆναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ;
  • τί -- interrogative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <τίς> who, what -- what
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ὠφελεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ὠφελέω> to help, be of use -- does it profit
  • ἄνθρωπον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- a human being
  • κερδῆσαι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <κερδαίνω> gain -- to gain
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • κόσμον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <κόσμος> beauty, order, world -- world
  • ὅλον -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <ὅλος> whole -- whole
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ζημιωθῆναι -- verb; infinitive aorist passive of <ζημιόω> cause loss -- lose
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ψυχὴν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ψυχή> soul -- soul
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his

Lesson Text

4:1 - Καὶ πάλιν ἤρξατο διδάσκειν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ συνάγεται πρός αὐτὸν ὄχλος πλεῖστος, ὥστε αὐτὸν εἰς πλοῖον ἐμβάντα καθῆσθαι ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος πρὸς τὴν θάλασσαν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἦσαν. 4:2 - καὶ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν παραβολαῖς πολλὰ, καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ. 4:3 - ἀκούετε, ἰδοὺ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων σπεῖραι. 4:4 - καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ σπείρειν ὅ μὲν ἔπεσεν παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, καὶ ἥλθεν τὰ πετεινὰ καὶ κατέφαγεν αὐτό. 4:5 - Καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὸ πετρῶδες ὅπου οὐκ εἶχεν γῆν πολλὴν, καὶ εὐθὺς ἐξανέτειλεν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν βάθος γῆς. 4:6 - καὶ ὅτε ἀνέτειλεν ὁ ἧλιος ἐκαυματίσθη καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ῥίζαν ἐξηράνθη. 4:7 - καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας, καὶ ἀνέβησαν αἱ ἄκανθαι καὶ συνέπνιξαν αὐτό, καὶ καρπὸν οὐκ ἔδωκεν. 4:8 - καὶ ἄλλα ἔπεσεν εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν καλήν, καὶ ἐδίδου καρπὸν ἀναβαίνοντα καὶ αὐξανόμενα, καὶ ἔφερεν εἰς τριάκοντα καὶ ἐν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἐν ἑκατόν. 4:9 - καὶ ἔλεγεν, ὃς ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω. 4:10 - Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο κατὰ μόνας ἠρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα τὰς παραβολάς. 4:11 - καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, ὑμῖν τὸ μυστήριον δέδοται τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ. ἐκείνοις δὲ τοῖς ἔξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὰ πάντα γίνεται, 4:12 - ἵνα

        βλέποντες βλέπωσιν καὶ μὴ ἴδωσιν,
        καὶ ἀκούοντες ἀκούωσιν καὶ μὴ συνιῶσιν,
        μήποτε ἐπιστρέψωσιν
        καὶ ἀφεθῇ αὐτοῖς. 8:36 (memory verse) -

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖ ἄνθρωπον κερδῆσαι τὸν κόσμον ὅλον καὶ ζημιωθῆναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ;

Translation

From the King James version:
4:1 And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land. 2 And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine,
3 Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow: 4 And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up. 5 And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth: 6 But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 7 And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 8 And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred.
9 And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
10 And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable. 11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables: 12 That
seeing they may see, and not perceive;
and hearing they may hear, and not understand;
lest at any time they should be converted,
and their sins should be forgiven them.
8:36 (memory verse) --
For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?

Grammar

26 Survey of noun declensions.

The ο- and α- declensions have been given in section 4, and subsequent sections of the grammar, 11 and 16, have provided examples of consonantal declension and that of some irregular nouns. Here additional sub-classes of the consonantal declension are listed.

Grammars provide the sub-classes according to the consonants of the stem. There may be modifications from sub-group to sub-group, but if the inflection of the word for salt is memorized, such forms may be identified. Examples are given here also for stems ending in velars, dentals, and other elements; as the selection indicates, nouns in the consonantal declension vary in gender: ἡ αἴξ 'goat', τὸ σῶμα 'body', ὁ ἁλ́ς 'salt', ὁ Ἕλλην 'Greek', ὁ σῦς 'pig'.

    velars   dentals
Nom. sg.   ἡ αἴξ   τὸ σῶμα
Gen. sg.   τῆς αἰγός   τοῦ σώματος
Dat. sg.   τῇ αἰγί   τῷ σώματι
Acc. sg.   τῆν αἶγα   τὸ σῶμα
         
Nom. pl.   αἱ αἶγες   τὰ σώματα
Gen. pl.   τῶν αἰγῶν   τῶν σωμάτων
Dat. pl.   τοῖς αἰξί   τοῖς σώμασι
Acc. pl.   τὰς αἶγας   τὰ σώματα

    -λ, -ρ   -ν   -υ
Nom. sg.   ὁ ἅλς   ὁ Ἕλλην   ὁ σῦς
Gen. sg.   τοῦ ἁλός   τοῦ Ἕλληνος   τοῦ συός
Dat. sg.   τῷ ἁλί   τῷ Ἕλλενι   τῷ συί
Acc. sg.   τὸν ἅλα   τὸν Ἕλληνα   τὸν σῦν
             
Nom. pl.   οἱ ἅλες   οἱ Ἕλληνες   οἱ σύες
Gen. pl.   τῶν ἁλῶν   τῶν Ἕλλήνων   τῶν συῶν
Dat. pl.   τοῖς ἁλσί   τοῖς Ἕλλήσι   τοῖς συσί
Acc. pl.   τοὺς ἅλας   τοὺς Ἕλληνας   τοὺς σῦς
27 Suffixes applied to stems to indicate location.

The following suffixes are used to produce adverbs on noun stems with specific meanings:

  • -θεν 'whence', as in -ανώθεν 'from on high', οἴκοθεν 'from home', χαμᾶθεν 'from the ground'
  • -ι, -θι 'where', as in οἴκοι 'at home', χαμαί 'on the ground'; but -σι(ν) if the noun in question is a plural, as in Ἀθήνησι 'at Athens'
  • -δε, -σε, ζε 'whither', as in Ἀθήναζε 'to Athens', χαμᾶζε 'to the ground'
28 Use of the augment.

The augment is used on past tenses in the indicative, that is, the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect. Verbs beginning with a consonant prefix ἐ-, as in the imperfect ἐπίστευον 'I believed', the aorist ἐπίστευσα 'I have believed', the pluperfect ἐπεπιστεύκειν 'I had believed'. Verbs beginning with a vowel or diphthong combine the augment with that vowel or diphthong, usually resulting in its lengthening, as in the imperfect ἦγον 'I led' from ἄγω, ηὔξανον 'I increased' from αὐξάνω.

Compound verbs place the augment on the verb, after the initial prefix, for example ἐν-έβαλλον from ἐμβάλλω 'throw into', ἐπ-έβαλλον from ἐπι-βάλλω 'throw on'. In the early texts, the augment may be omitted, as in the aorist form ποίησαν 'they made' from ποιέω.

29 Deponents.

As in Latin, a number of verbs have their forms in the middle while corresponding to active verbs in English. Many of them indicate state, and do not take objects. They can be recognized from dictionary entries. Examples are:

  • γίγνομαι 'become'
  • δέχομαι 'receive'
  • ἐργάζομαι 'work'
  • ἀπο-κρίνομαι 'reply'
  • λογίζομαι 'reason'
  • μιμέομαι 'imitate'

These have a active meaning in the aorist middle form, but passive meaning in the passive form of the aorist.

Others have the passive form of the aorist. Many of them denote motion, feeling or mental action. Examples are:

  • ἔραμαι 'love'
  • ἥδομαι 'rejoice'
  • έν-θυμέομαι 'consider'
  • δια-νοέομαι 'intend'
30 The middle forms of the aorist.

In the aorist the passive has different forms from those of the middle. Here the middle forms will be given.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ἐπιστευσάμην   πιστεύσωμαι   πιστευσαίμην    
2 sg   ἐπιστεύσω   πιστεύσῃ   πιστεύσαιο   πίστευσαι
3 sg   ἐπιστεύσατο   πιστεύσηται   πιστεύσαιτο   πιστευσάσθω
                 
1 pl   ἐπιστευσάμεθα   πιστευσώμεθα   πιστευσαίμεθα    
2 pl   ἐπιστεύσασθε   πιστεύσησθε   πιστεύσαισθε   πιστεύσασθε
3 pl   ἐπιστεύσαντο   πιστεύσωνται   πιστεύσαιντο   πιστευσάσθων

New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 7

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The inclusion of the report on the transfiguration in three of the gospels indicates its importance. It is interesting to compare the accounts in Matthew 17:1-13 and Luke 9:28-36 with that of Mark. Neither of the others is as detailed as Mark, lending support to the idea that both were written later than his, and made modifications. Only Mark describes the extreme whiteness of Jesus's clothing. And the conclusion in Luke seems rather abrupt. On the other hand, if Mark as author is indeed providing his account on the basis of information from Peter, he may have omitted the somewhat unflattering statement on Peter's behavior that is included in both of the other gospels. The central elements of the event are however identical.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Mark 9:2-13, and John 5:39 (memory verse)
9:2 - Καὶ μετὰ ἡμέρας ἓξ παραλαμβάνει ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὸν Πέτρον καὶ τὸν Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάννην, καὶ ἀναφέρει αὐτοὺς εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν κατ' ἰδίαν μόνους.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • μετὰ -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- after
  • ἡμέρας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ἡμέρα> day -- days
  • ἓξ -- number; <ἕξ> six -- six
  • παραλαμβάνει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <παραλαμβάνω> take -- takes
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Πέτρον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Πέτρος> Peter -- Peter
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰάκωβον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Ἰάκωβος> James -- James
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • Ἰωάννην -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Ἰωάννης> John -- John
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀναφέρει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ἀναφέρω> lead -- leads
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- up
  • ὄρος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ὄρος> mountain -- mountain
  • ὑψηλὸν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ὑψηλός> high -- (a) high
  • κατ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- ...
  • ἰδίαν -- adverb locution; <ἰδίαν> alone -- by themselves
  • μόνους -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <μόνος> alone -- alone

9:3 - καὶ μετεμορφώθη ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν, καὶ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο στίλβοντα λευκὰ λίαν, οἷα γναφεὺς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς οὐ δύναται οὕτως λευκᾶναι.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • μετεμορφώθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <μεταμορφόω> transform -- he was transfigured
  • ἔμπροσθεν -- preposition; <ἔμπροσθεν> before, in front -- before
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἱμάτια -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ἱμάτιον> clothing -- clothing
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- became
  • στίλβοντα -- verb; nominative plural neuter of present middle participle of <στίλβω> to shine, be radiant -- radiant
  • λευκὰ -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <λευκός> white -- white
  • λίαν -- adverb; <λίαν> very -- very
  • οἷα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <οἷος> like, such that -- such that
  • γναφεὺς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <γναφεύς> fuller -- fuller
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • γῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- earth
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- is able
  • οὕτως -- adverb; <οὕτως> so, thus -- to such an extent
  • λευκᾶναι -- verb; aorist infinitive of <λευκάνόω> make white -- whiten

9:4 - καὶ ὤφθη αὐτοῖς Ἠλίας σὺν Μωυσεῖ, καὶ ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες τῷ Ἰησοῦ.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὤφθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ὁράω> see -- appeared (was seen)
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- by them
  • Ἠλίας -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἠλίας> Elias -- Elias
  • σὺν -- preposition; <σύν> with -- with
  • Μωυσεῖ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <Μωυσῆς> Moses -- Moses
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἦσαν -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- were
  • συλλαλοῦντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <συλλαλέω> talk with -- talking with
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰησοῦ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus

9:5 - καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ; ῥαββὶ, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ ποιήσωμεν τρεῖς σκηνάς, σοὶ μίαν καὶ Μωυσεῖ μίαν καὶ Ἠλίᾳ μίαν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀποκριθεὶς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist passive participle of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- speaking up
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Πέτρος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Πέτρος> Peter -- Peter
  • λέγει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <λέγω> say -- says
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰησοῦ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- to Jesus
  • ῥαββὶ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ῥαββί> rabbi -- Master
  • καλόν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <καλός> good, beautiful -- good
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- it is
  • ἡμᾶς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- (for) us
  • ὧδε -- adverb; <ὧδε> here -- here
  • εἶναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- to be
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ποιήσωμεν -- verb; 1st person plural future subjunctive of <ποιέω> make, do -- let us make
  • τρεῖς -- number; <τρεῖς> three -- three
  • σκηνάς -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <σκηνή> tent -- tents
  • σοὶ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- for you
  • μίαν -- number; accusative singular feminine of <εἷς> one -- one
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • Μωυσεῖ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <Μωυσῆς> Moses -- for Moses
  • μίαν -- number; accusative singular feminine of <εἷς> one -- one
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • Ἠλίᾳ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <Ἠλίας> Elias -- for Elias
  • μίαν -- number; accusative singular feminine of <εἷς> one -- one

9:6 - οὐ γὰρ ᾖδει τί ἀποκριθῇ; ἔκφοβοι γὰρ ἐγένοντο.
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ᾖδει -- verb; 3rd person singular pluperfect of <οἶδα> know -- he ...did know
  • τί -- interrogative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <τίς> who, what -- what
  • ἀποκριθῇ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- he might comment
  • ἔκφοβοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ἔκφοβος> very afraid -- very afraid
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ἐγένοντο -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- they became

9:7 - καὶ ἐγένετο νεφέλη ἐπισκιάζουσα αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐγένετο φωνὴ ἐκ τῆς νεφέλης·
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- developed
  • νεφέλη -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <νεφέλη> cloud -- a cloud
  • ἐπισκιάζουσα -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present participle of <ἐπισκιάζω> overshadow -- overshadowing
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- came
  • φωνὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <φωνή> voice, sound -- a voice
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- out of
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • νεφέλης -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <νεφέλη> cloud -- cloud

οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός. ἀκούετε αὐτοῦ.
  • οὗτός -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <οὗτος> this -- this
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • υἱός -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <υἱός> son -- son
  • μου -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- my
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀγαπητός -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ἀγαπητός> dear, beloved -- beloved
  • ἀκούετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- listen to
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

9:8 - καὶ ἐξάπινα περιβλεψάμενοι οὐκέτι οὐδένα εἶδον εἰ μὴ τὸν Ἰησοῦν μόνον μεθ' ἑαυτῶν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐξάπινα -- adverb; <ἐξάπινα> suddenly -- suddenly
  • περιβλεψάμενοι -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle middle of <περιβλέπω> look around -- looking around
  • οὐκέτι -- adverb; <οὐκέτι> no longer -- no longer
  • οὐδένα -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- anyone
  • εἶδον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- they saw
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not = except
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰησοῦν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • μόνον -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <μόνος> alone -- alone
  • μεθ' -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- with
  • ἑαυτῶν -- reflexive pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἑαυτοῦ> oneself -- themselves

9:9 - Καὶ καταβαινόντων αὐτῶν ἐκ τοῦ ὄρους διεστείλατο αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδενὶ ἅ εἶδον διηγήσωνται, εἰ μὴ ὅταν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῇ.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • καταβαινόντων -- verb; genitive plural masculine of present participle of <καταβαίνω> descend -- (were) going down
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (as) they
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὄρους -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ὄρος> mountain -- mountain
  • διεστείλατο -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist middle of <διαστέλλω> give express orders -- he gave express orders
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to them
  • ἵνα -- conjunction; <ἵνα> so that -- that
  • μηδενὶ -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <μηδείς> no one -- to no one
  • ἅ -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <ὅς> who, which -- what
  • εἶδον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- they had seen
  • διηγήσωνται -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <διηγέομαι> divulge -- should divulge
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not = except
  • ὅταν -- conjunction; <ὅταν> when, every time -- when
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • υἱὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <υἱός> son -- son
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἀνθρώπου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- of man
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • νεκρῶν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <νεκρός> dead -- (the) dead
  • ἀναστῇ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive <ἀνίστημι> rise -- would arise

9:10 - καὶ τὸν λόγον ἐκράτησαν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς συζητοῦντες τὶ ἐστιν τὸ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • λόγον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λόγος> word, reason -- statement
  • ἐκράτησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <κρατέω> hold fast, take to heart; rule, conquer -- they took to heart
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- among
  • ἑαυτοὺς -- reflexive pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <ἑαυτοῦ> oneself -- themselves
  • συζητοῦντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine present participle of <συζητέω> discuss -- discussing
  • τὶ -- interrogative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <τίς> who, what -- what
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is (might be)
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • νεκρῶν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <νεκρός> dead -- the dead
  • ἀναστῆναι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <ἀνίστημι> rise -- rising

9:11 - Καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν λέγοντες ὅτι λέγουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς ὅτι Ἠλίαν δεῖ ἐλθεῖν πρῶτον;
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐπηρώτων -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ἐπερωτάω> ask -- they asked
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • λέγοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <λέγω> say -- saying
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- ...
  • λέγουσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <λέγω> say -- do. . .say
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • γραμματεῖς -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <γραμματεύς> scribe -- scribes
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • Ἠλίαν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Ἠλίας> Elias -- Elias
  • δεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <δεῖ> it is necessary -- it is necessary
  • ἐλθεῖν -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- come
  • πρῶτον -- adverb; <πρῶτον> first -- first

9:12 - ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτοῖς· Ἠλίας μὲν ἐλθὼν πρῶτον ἀποκαθιστάνει πάντα.
  • ὁ -- article used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- he
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • ἔφη -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <φῆμι> say -- he said
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to them
  • Ἠλίας -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἠλίας> Elias -- Elias
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- indeed
  • ἐλθὼν -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- having come
  • πρῶτον -- adverb; <πρῶτον> first -- first
  • ἀποκαθιστάνει -- verb; present infinitive of <ἀποκαθίστημι> restore -- to restore
  • πάντα -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <πᾶς> all, every -- all (things)

καὶ πῶς γέγραπται ἐπὶ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, ἵνα πολλὰ πάθῃ καὶ ἐξουδενηθῇ;
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πῶς -- interrogative particle; <πῶς> how -- how
  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- is it written
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- about
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • υἱὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <υἱός> son -- son
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἀνθρώπου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- of man
  • ἵνα -- conjunction; <ἵνα> so that -- that
  • πολλὰ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <πολύς> many -- many things
  • πάθῃ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive of <πάσχω> suffer -- he must suffer
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐξουδενηθῇ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἐξουδενέω> set at naught -- be set at naught

9:13 - ἀλλὰ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι καὶ Ἠλίας ἐλήλυθεν, καὶ ἐποίησαν αὐτῷ ὅσα ἤθελον, καθὼς γέγραπται ἐπ' αὐτόν.
  • ἀλλὰ -- conjunction; <ἀλλά> but -- but
  • λέγω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <λέγω> say -- I say
  • ὑμῖν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • Ἠλίας -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἠλίας> Elias -- Elias
  • ἐλήλυθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular pluperfect of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- has come
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐποίησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ποιέω> make, do -- they have done
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • ὅσα -- conjunction; accusative plural neuter of <ὅσος> (as many) as -- as
  • ἤθελον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ἐθέλω> wish, want -- they wished
  • καθὼς -- conjunction; <καθώς> as -- as
  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- is written
  • ἐπ' -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- about
  • αὐτόν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

John 5:39 (memory verse) - Ἐρευνᾶτε τὰς γραφάς, ὅτι ὑμεῖς δοκεῖτε ἐν αὐταῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον ἔχειν; καὶ ἐκεῖναί εἰσιν αἱ μαρτυροῦσαι περὶ ἐμοῦ.
  • ἐρευνᾶτε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <ἐρευνάω> search -- search
  • τὰς -- article; accusative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • γραφάς -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <γραφή> writing, scripture -- scriptures
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • ὑμεῖς -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • δοκεῖτε -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <δοκέω> seem, think -- think
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • αὐταῖς -- pronoun; dative plural feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • ζωὴν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ζωή> life -- life
  • αἰώνιον -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <αἰώνιος> eternal -- eternal
  • ἔχειν -- verb; infinitive of <ἔχω> have -- have
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐκεῖναί -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural feminine of <ἐκεῖνος> that -- they
  • εἰσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <εἰμί> I am -- are
  • αἱ -- article; nominative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- the (those who)
  • μαρτυροῦσαι -- verb; nominative plural feminine of aorist participle of <μαρτυρέω> bear witness -- testify
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- concerning
  • ἐμοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- me

Lesson Text

9:2 - Καὶ μετὰ ἡμέρας ἓξ παραλαμβάνει ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὸν Πέτρον καὶ τὸν Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάννην, καὶ ἀναφέρει αὐτοὺς εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν κατ' ἰδίαν μόνους. 9:3 - καὶ μετεμορφώθη ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν, καὶ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο στίλβοντα λευκὰ λίαν, οἷα γναφεὺς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς οὐ δύναται οὕτως λευκᾶναι. 9:4 - καὶ ὤφθη αὐτοῖς Ἠλίας σὺν Μωυσεῖ, καὶ ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες τῷ Ἰησοῦ. 9:5 - καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ; ῥαββὶ, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ ποιήσωμεν τρεῖς σκηνάς, σοὶ μίαν καὶ Μωυσεῖ μίαν καὶ Ἠλίᾳ μίαν. 9:6 - οὐ γὰρ ᾖδει τί ἀποκριθῇ; ἔκφοβοι γὰρ ἐγένοντο. 9:7 - καὶ ἐγένετο νεφέλη ἐπισκιάζουσα αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐγένετο φωνὴ ἐκ τῆς νεφέλης· οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός. ἀκούετε αὐτοῦ. 9:8 - καὶ ἐξάπινα περιβλεψάμενοι οὐκέτι οὐδένα εἶδον εἰ μὴ τὸν Ἰησοῦν μόνον μεθ' ἑαυτῶν. 9:9 - Καὶ καταβαινόντων αὐτῶν ἐκ τοῦ ὄρους διεστείλατο αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδενὶ ἅ εἶδον διηγήσωνται, εἰ μὴ ὅταν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῇ. 9:10 - καὶ τὸν λόγον ἐκράτησαν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς συζητοῦντες τὶ ἐστιν τὸ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι. 9:11 - Καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν λέγοντες ὅτι λέγουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς ὅτι Ἠλίαν δεῖ ἐλθεῖν πρῶτον; 9:12 - ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτοῖς· Ἠλίας μὲν ἐλθὼν πρῶτον ἀποκαθιστάνει πάντα. καὶ πῶς γέγραπται ἐπὶ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, ἵνα πολλὰ πάθῃ καὶ ἐξουδενηθῇ; 9:13 - ἀλλὰ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι καὶ Ἠλίας ἐλήλυθεν, καὶ ἐποίησαν αὐτῷ ὅσα ἤθελον, καθὼς γέγραπται ἐπ' αὐτόν. John 5:39 (memory verse) - Ἐρευνᾶτε τὰς γραφάς, ὅτι ὑμεῖς δοκεῖτε ἐν αὐταῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον ἔχειν; καὶ ἐκεῖναί εἰσιν αἱ μαρτυροῦσαι περὶ ἐμοῦ.

Translation

From the King James version:
9:2 And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up into an high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them. 3 And his raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them. 4 And there appeared unto them Elias with Moses: and they were talking with Jesus. 5 And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias. 6 For he wist not what to say; for they were sore afraid.
7 And there was a cloud that overshadowed them: and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him. 8 And suddenly, when they had looked round about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only with themselves.
9 And as they came down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen from the dead. 10 And they kept that saying with themselves, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean.
11 And they asked him, saying, Why say the scribes that Elias must first come?
12 And he answered and told them, Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth all things; and how it is written of the Son of man, that he must suffer many things, and be set at nought. 13 But I say unto you, That Elias is indeed come, and they have done unto him whatsoever they listed, as it is written of him.
John 5:39 (memory verse) --
Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.

Grammar

31 Inflection of adjectives and participles.

Section 12 provided the inflection of the most common adjectives, Here that of adjectives with consonantal stems is given for the adjective ἄκων 'unwilling'; it applies also to present participles.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   ἄκων   ἄκουσα   ἄκον
Gen. sg.   ἄκοντος   ἀκούσης   ἀκοντος
Dat. sg.   ἄκοντι   ἀκούσῃ   ἄκοντι
Acc. sg.   ἄκοντα   ἄκουσαν   ἄκον
             
Nom. pl.   ἄκοντες   ἄκουσαι   ἄκοντα
Gen. pl.   ἀκόντων   ἀκουσῶν   ἀκόντων
Dat. pl.   ἄκουσι(ν)   ἀκούσαις   ἄκουσι(ν)
Acc. pl.   ἄκοντας   ἀκούσας   ἄκοντα

The frequent adjective, πᾶς 'all, whole' is also inflected in this way; the nominative and genitive singular are given as an illustration.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   πᾶς   πᾶσα   πᾶν
Gen. sg.   παντός   πάσης   παντός

The nominative forms of other consonantal adjectives are given in dictionaries; the other cases may be identified with the help of the forms given above.

32 Two frequently occurring adjectives.

The forms of two frequently ocurring adjectives are given here in view of their common occurrence, μέγας 'great' and πολύς 'much'.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   μέγας   μεγάλη   μέγα
Gen. sg.   μεγάλου   μεγάλης   μεγάλου
Dat. sg.   μεγάλῳ   μεγάλῃ   μεγάλῳ
Acc. sg.   μέγαν   μεγάλην   μέγα
             
Nom. pl.   μεγάλοι   μεγάλαι   μεγάλα
Gen. pl.   μεγάλων   μεγάλων   μεγάλων
Dat. pl.   μεγάλοις   μεγάλαις   μεγάλοις
Acc. pl.   μεγάλους   μεγάλας   μεγάλα

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   πολύς   πολλή   πόλυ
Gen. sg.   πολλοῦ   πολλῆς   πολλοῦ
Dat. sg.   πολλῷ   πολλῇ   πολλῷ
Acc. sg.   πολύν   πολλήν   πολύ
             
Nom. pl.   πολλοί   πολλαί   πολλά
Gen. pl.   πολλῶν   πολλῶν   πολλῶν
Dat. pl.   πολλοῖς   πολλαῖς   πολλοῖς
Acc. pl.   πολλούς   πολλάς   πολλά
33 Less frequent patterns of adjectival comparison.

The most frequent type of comparison with the suffixes -τερος, -τατος was given in section 22. Some common adjectives have different suffixes, as noted there for κακός, with its comparative in κακίων 'worse'and superlative κάκιστος. Similarly, καλός 'beautiful' has the forms καλλίων and κάλλιστος, ἐχθρός 'hostile' has the forms έχθίων, ἔχθιστος.

Other adjectives have different roots in the comparative and superlative forms. Some have several types of comparison, with differing connotations for the various types.

άγαθ́ος 'good'   ἀμείνων   ἄριστος   'clever, brave'
    βελτίων   βέλτιστος   'virtuous'
    κρείττων   κράτιστος   'strong, superior'
κακός 'bad'   χείρων   χείριστος   'less good'
    ἥττων   ἥκιστος   'weaker'
μέγας 'great'   μείζων   μέγιστος    
μικρός 'small'   μικρότερος   μικρότατος    
    ἐλάττων   ἐλαχ́ιστος   (also applies to ὀλίγος)
ὀλίγος 'little'   μείων   ---    
πολύς 'much'   πλείων   πλεῖστος    
34 Aorist of the passive.

As noted in section 30, the aorist in the passive differs from that in the middle.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ἐπιστεύθην   πιστευθῶ   πιστευθείην    
2 sg   ἐπιστεύθης   πιστευθῇς   πιστευθείης   πιστεύθητι
3 sg   ἐπιστεύθη   πιστευθῇ   πιστευθείη   πιστευθήτω
                 
1 pl   ἐπιστεύθημεν   πιστευθῶμενͅ   πιστευθείημεν    
2 pl   ἐπιστεύθητε   πιστευθῆτε   πιστευθείητε   πιστεύθητε
3 pl   ἐπιστεύθησαν   πιστευθῶσι   πιστευθείησαν   πιστευθέντων
35 Infinitives and participles of the aorist middle and passive.
    Middle   Passive
Infinitive   πιστεύσασθαι
'to believe'
  πιστευθήσεσθαι
'to be believed'
Participle   πιστευσάμενος, -η, -ον
'one who believed'
  πιστευθείς, -θεῖσα, -θέν
'be believed'

New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 8

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

An account of the resurrection is included in all four gospels. That in the book of St. John is the most personal. In describing how the disciples reacted to the report of Mary Magdelene that the tomb was empty, John identifies himself as the author both through omitting the name of the disciple who accompanied Peter, and also through reporting that he outstripped the older man in arriving at the tomb. The account in St. Matthew did not include this episode, but expands on the role of Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary," besides reporting the reaction of the guards, as well might be expected of an author who himself had occupied a governmental position. The account in St. Mark is sketchy, including in one short chapter reports on the reaction of the women, and on the appearances of Jesus to the disciples as well as his ascension. The account in St. Luke also stresses the role of the women, followed by a brief statement on Peter's running to the tomb -- though not commenting on the other disciple. It is curious that little has been made in later times of the greater activity of the women at this time. St. Luke then goes on with an extensive report of Jesus accompanying Cleopas and his companion to Emmaus, also concluding with a brief note on the ascension. The two chapters in the book of St. John are more extensive and detailed than those of the other gospels, again supporting the view that they were written by the disciple, even though Chapter twenty-one is presented as something of an afterthought.

Reading and Textual Analysis

John 20:1-10, and Romans 3:28 (memory verse)
20:1 - Τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ἔρχεται πρωὶ σκοτίας ἔτι οὔσης εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ βλέπει τὸν λίθον ἡρμένον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου,
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- (on) the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now
  • μιᾷ -- number; dative singular feminine of <εἷς> one -- first (day)
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • σαββάτων -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <σαββατόν> week -- week
  • Μαρία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Μαρία> Mary -- Mary
  • ἡ -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Μαγδαληνὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Μαγδαληνή> Magdalene -- Magdalene
  • ἔρχεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- comes
  • πρωὶ -- adverb; <πρωί> early -- early
  • σκοτίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <σκοτία> darkness -- darkness
  • ἔτι -- adverb; <ἔτι> still -- still
  • οὔσης -- verb; genitive singular feminine of present participle of <εἰμί> I am -- (while there) was
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημεῖον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μνημεῖον> tomb -- tomb
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • βλέπει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <βλέπω> see -- sees
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • λίθον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λίθος> stone -- stone
  • ἡρμένον -- verb; accusative singular masculine of aorist middle participle of <αἱρέω> take away -- removed
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημείου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <μνημεῖον> tomb -- tomb

20:2 - τρέχει οὖν καὶ ἔρχεται πρὸς Σίμωνα Πέτρον καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἄλλον μαθητὴν ὅν ἐφίλει ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς.
  • τρέχει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <τρέχω> run -- she runs
  • οὖν -- particle; <οὖν> indeed -- now
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔρχεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- comes
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • Σίμωνα -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Σίμων> Simon -- Simon
  • Πέτρον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Πέτρος> Peter -- Peter
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἄλλον -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <ἄλλος> other -- other
  • μαθητὴν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciple
  • ὅν -- relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ὅς> who, which -- whom
  • ἐφίλει -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <φιλέω> love -- loved
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λέγει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <λέγω> say -- says
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to them

ἧραν τὸν κύριον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου, καὶ οὐκ οἴδαμεν ποῦ ἔθηκαν αὐτόν.
  • ἧραν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <αἱρέω> take away -- they have taken
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • κύριον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <κύριος> lord -- Lord
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- out of
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημείου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <μνημεῖον> tomb -- tomb
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • οἴδαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <οἶδα> know -- we do ... know
  • ποῦ -- adverb; <ποῦ> where -- where
  • ἔθηκαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <τίθημι> put, place -- placed
  • αὐτόν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

20:3 - Ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πέτρος καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητής, καὶ ἤρχοντο εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον.
  • ἐξῆλθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἐξέρχομαι> come out -- went out
  • οὖν -- particle; <οὖν> indeed -- now
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Πέτρος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Πέτρος> Peter -- Peter
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἄλλος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ἄλλος> other -- other
  • μαθητής -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciple
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἤρχοντο -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect middle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- came
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημεῖον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μνημεῖον> tomb -- tomb

20:4 - ἔτρεχον δὲ οἱ δύο ὁμοῦ.
  • ἔτρεχον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <τρέχω> run -- were running
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • δύο -- number; <δύο> two -- two
  • ὁμοῦ -- adverb; <ὁμοῦ> together -- together

καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς προέδραμεν τάχιον τοῦ Πέτρου, καὶ ἦλθεν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον,
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἄλλος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ἄλλος> other -- other
  • μαθητὴς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciple
  • προέδραμεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <προτρέχω> outrun -- ran ahead
  • τάχιον -- adverb; comparative of <τάχυς> fast -- faster
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- (than) ...
  • Πέτρου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Πέτρος> Peter -- Peter
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἦλθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- came
  • πρῶτος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πρῶτος> first -- first
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημεῖον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μνημεῖον> tomb -- tomb

20:5 - καὶ παρακύψας βλέπει κείμενα τὰ ὀθόνια, οὐ μέντοι εἰσῆλθεν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • παρακύψας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <παρακύπτω> bend down -- bending down
  • βλέπει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <βλέπω> see -- he sees
  • κείμενα -- verb; accusative plural neuter of perfect middle participle of <κεῖμαι> lie -- lying
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὀθόνια -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ὀθόνιον> linen cloth -- linen clothes
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • μέντοι -- particle; <μέντοι> but, however -- but
  • εἰσῆλθεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- does...enter

20:6 - ἔρχεται οὖν καὶ Σίμων Πέτρος ἀκολουθῶν αὐτῷ, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ θεωρεῖ τὰ ὀθόνια κείμενα ,
  • ἔρχεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- comes
  • οὖν -- particle; <οὖν> indeed -- now
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- also
  • Σίμων -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Σίμων> Simon -- Simon
  • Πέτρος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Πέτρος> Peter -- Peter
  • ἀκολουθῶν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle of <ἀκολουθέω> follow -- following
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἰσῆλθεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- entered
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημεῖον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μνημεῖον> tomb -- tomb
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • θεωρεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <θεωρέω> see -- sees
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὀθόνια -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ὀθόνιον> linen cloth -- linen clothes
  • κείμενα -- verb; accusative plural neuter of perfect middle participle of <κεῖμαι> lie -- lying

20:7 - καὶ τὸ σουδάριον, ὃ ἦν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ, οὐ μετὰ τῶν ὀθονίων κείμενον ἀλλὰ χωρὶς ἐντετυλιγμένον εἰς ἕνα τόπον.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • σουδάριον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <σουδάριον> napkin -- napkin
  • ὃ -- relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <ὅς> who, which -- that
  • ἦν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- was
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • κεφαλῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <κεφαλή> head -- head
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • μετὰ -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- with
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὀθονίων -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <ὀθόνιον> linen cloth -- linen clothing
  • κείμενον -- verb; accusative singular neuter of present participle middle of <κεῖμαι> lie -- lying
  • ἀλλὰ -- conjunction; <ἀλλά> but -- but
  • χωρὶς -- adverb; <χωρίς> apart -- apart
  • ἐντετυλιγμένον -- verb; accusative singular neuter of perfect passive participle of <ἐντυλίσσω> wrap up -- wrapped up
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- at
  • ἕνα -- number; accusative singular masculine of <εἷς> one -- one
  • τόπον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <τόπος> place -- place

20:8 - τότε οὖν εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς ὁ ἐλθὼν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ εἶδεν καὶ ἐπίστευσεν.
  • τότε -- adverb; <τότε> then -- then
  • οὖν -- particle; <οὖν> indeed -- ...
  • εἰσῆλθεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- he entered
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἄλλος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ἄλλος> other -- other
  • μαθητὴς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciple
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐλθὼν -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- (one) having come
  • πρῶτος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πρῶτος> first -- first
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημεῖον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μνημεῖον> tomb -- tomb
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶδεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ὁράω> see -- he saw
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐπίστευσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πιστεύω> believe -- believed

20:9 - οὐδέπω γὰρ ᾔδεισαν τὴν γραφὴν ὅτι δεῖ αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι.
  • οὐδέπω -- adverb; <οὐδέπω> not yet -- not yet
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ᾔδεισαν -- verb; 3rd person singular pluperfect of <οἶδα> know -- they did . . .know
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • γραφὴν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γραφή> writing, scripture -- scripture
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • δεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <δεῖ> it is necessary -- it was necessary
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (for) him
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • νεκρῶν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <νεκρός> dead -- the dead
  • ἀναστῆναι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <ἀνίστημι> rise -- to rise

20:10 - ἀπῆλθον οὖν πάλιν πρὸς αὐτοὺς οἱ μαθηταί.
  • ἀπῆλθον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ἀπέρχομαι> go back -- went back
  • οὖν -- particle; <οὖν> indeed -- then
  • πάλιν -- adverb; <πάλιν> again -- back
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their own
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μαθηταί -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciples

Romans 3:28 (memory verse) - Λογιζόμεθα γὰρ δικαιοῦσθαι πίστει ἄνθρωπος χωρὶς ἔργων νόμου.
  • λογιζόμεθα -- verb; 1st person plural present middle of <λογίζομαι> calculate, think -- we conclude
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • δικαιοῦσθαι -- verb; passive infinitive of <δικαιόω> justify -- (is) justified
  • πίστει -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <πίστις> faith -- by faith
  • ἄνθρωπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- a human being
  • χωρὶς -- preposition; <χωρίς> apart -- without
  • ἔργων -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <ἔργον> work, deed -- works
  • νόμου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <νόμος> law -- of the law

Lesson Text

20:1 - Τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ἔρχεται πρωὶ σκοτίας ἔτι οὔσης εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ βλέπει τὸν λίθον ἡρμένον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου, 20:2 - τρέχει οὖν καὶ ἔρχεται πρὸς Σίμωνα Πέτρον καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἄλλον μαθητὴν ὅν ἐφίλει ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς. ἧραν τὸν κύριον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου, καὶ οὐκ οἴδαμεν ποῦ ἔθηκαν αὐτόν. 20:3 - Ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πέτρος καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητής, καὶ ἤρχοντο εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον. 20:4 - ἔτρεχον δὲ οἱ δύο ὁμοῦ. καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς προέδραμεν τάχιον τοῦ Πέτρου, καὶ ἦλθεν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, 20:5 - καὶ παρακύψας βλέπει κείμενα τὰ ὀθόνια, οὐ μέντοι εἰσῆλθεν. 20:6 - ἔρχεται οὖν καὶ Σίμων Πέτρος ἀκολουθῶν αὐτῷ, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ θεωρεῖ τὰ ὀθόνια κείμενα , 20:7 - καὶ τὸ σουδάριον, ὃ ἦν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ, οὐ μετὰ τῶν ὀθονίων κείμενον ἀλλὰ χωρὶς ἐντετυλιγμένον εἰς ἕνα τόπον. 20:8 - τότε οὖν εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς ὁ ἐλθὼν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ εἶδεν καὶ ἐπίστευσεν. 20:9 - οὐδέπω γὰρ ᾔδεισαν τὴν γραφὴν ὅτι δεῖ αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι. 20:10 - ἀπῆλθον οὖν πάλιν πρὸς αὐτοὺς οἱ μαθηταί. Romans 3:28 (memory verse) - Λογιζόμεθα γὰρ δικαιοῦσθαι πίστει ἄνθρωπος χωρὶς ἔργων νόμου.

Translation

From the King James version:
20:1 The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. 2 Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the LORD out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.
3 Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. 4 So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. 5 And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in. 6 Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie, 7 And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. 8 Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. 9 For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead. 10 Then the disciples went away again unto their own home.
Romans 3:28 (memory verse) --
Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.

Grammar

36 Tense formation.

To identify verbal forms, it is useful to note the principal parts. Illustrations are provided here, first with the so-called pure verbs, that is, those for which the stems are not modified by the endings. Examples are: πιστεύω 'believe', τιμάω 'honor', ποιέω 'make'.

Present   πιστεύω   τιμάω   ποιέω
Future   πιστεύσω   τιμήσω   ποιήσω
Aorist active   ἐπίστευσα   ἐτίμησα   ἐποιήσα
Perfect active   πεπίστευκα   τετίμηκα   πεποίηκα
Perfect middle   πεπίστευμαι   τετίμημαι   πεποίημαι
Aorist passive   ἐπιστεύθην   ἐτιμήθην   ἐποιήθην
37 Tense formation of obstruent stems.

In stems ending in obstruent consonants, that is, those ending in stops or fricatives, the consonant of the stem is modified before the tense markers. Examples are given here for πείθω 'persuade', πράττω 'do', ἄγω 'lead', and γράφω 'write'.

Present   πείθω   πράττω   ἄγω   γράφω
Future   πείσω   πράξω   ἄξω   γράψα
Aorist active   ἔπεισα   ἔπραξα   ἤγαγον   ἔγραψα
Perfect active   πέπεικα   πέπραχα   ἦχα   γέγραφα
Perfect middle   πέπεισμαι   πέπραγμαι   ἤγμαι   γέγραμμαι
Aorist passive   ἐπείσθην   ἐπράχθην   ἤχθην   ἐγράφθην
38 Tense formation of resonant stems.

Stems ending in resonants may fail to have the future/aorist marker. Examples are φαίνω 'appear', ἀγγέλλω 'announce', and σπείρω 'sow'.

Present   φαίνω   ἀγγέλλω   σπείρω
Future   φανῶ   ἀγγελῶ   σπερῶ
Aorist active   ἔφηνα   ἤγγειλα   ἔσπειρα
Perfect active   πέφαγκα   ἤγγελκα   ἔσπαρκα
Perfect middle   πέφασμαι   ἤγγελμαι   ἔσπαρμαι
Aorist passive   ἐφάνθην   ἠγγέλθην   ἔσπάρθην
39 The tense formations of some frequent but irregular verbs.

Some verb forms are quite irregular. Some forms of ἔχω 'have' are based on its ancient root *σεχ-. The forms of φέρω 'bear' are based on several roots. The forms of λέγω, φημί, ἀγορεύω 'say, speak' are also based on various roots.

Present   ἔχω   φέρω   λέγω (etc.)
Future   ἕξω   οἴσω   έρῶ
Aorist active   ἔσχον   ἤνεγκον   εἶπον
Perfect active   ἔσχηκα   ἐνήνοχα   εἴρηκα
Perfect middle   ἔσχημαι   ἐνήνεγμαι   εἴρημαι
Aorist passive   ἔσχομην   ἠνέχθην   ἐρρήθην
40 The Middle and Passive Perfect.

The forms are the same in the two voices. The subjunctive and optative have forms of the verb 'to be' after the participle (not repeated in the optative, below). They are as follows:

    Indicative   Preterite   Subjunctive   Opt.
1s   πεπίστευμαι   ἐπεπιστεύμην   πεπιστευμένος ω ᾿̃   εἴην
2s   πεπίστευσαι   έπεπίστευσο   --- ἦς   εἴης
3s   πεπίστευται   ἐπεπίστευτο   --- ἦ   εἴη
                 
1p   πεπιστεύμεθα   ἐπεπιστεύμεθα   πεπιστευμένοι ὦμεν   εἴημεν
2p   πεπίστευσθε   ἐπεπιστεύσθε   --- ἦτε   εἴτηε
3p   πεπίστευνται   ἐπεπίστευντο   --- ὦσι   εἴησιν

New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 9

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The Book of Acts continues St. Luke's account of the days after the resurrection. The second chapter reports the events of the fiftieth day after the festival of the Passover, that is to say, fulfillment of the promise of Jesus in St. John 14:16-27 and 16,7, that he would send the Comforter to his disciples after his death. The importance of the events is commemorated ever since on Pentecost, one of the great holy days of the church. Among remarkable details is the presence of a great spread of nationalities at the event. Those who believed illustrate how the church began its wide expansion. This was further strengthened by the activities reported in the remainder of the book, especially the missionary journeys of St. Paul.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Acts 2:1-13, and Mark 3:35 (memory verse)
2:1 - Καὶ ἐν τῷ συμπληροῦσθαι τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς πεντηκοστῆς ἦσαν πάντες ὁμοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- on
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • συμπληροῦσθαι -- verb; infinitive passive of <συμπληρόω> fill up -- (being) fulfilled
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἡμέραν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ἡμέρα> day -- day
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • πεντηκοστῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <πεντηκοστή> 50th day after the Passover -- Pentecost
  • ἦσαν -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- they were
  • πάντες -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • ὁμοῦ -- adverb; <ὁμοῦ> together -- together
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- at
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • αὐτό -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- the same place

2:2 - καὶ ἐγένετο ἄφνω ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἦχος ὥσπερ φερομένης πνοῆς βιαίας καὶ ἐπλήρωσεν ὅλον τὸν οἶκον οὗ ἦσαν καθήμενοι.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- there arose
  • ἄφνω -- adverb; <ἄφνω> suddenly -- suddenly
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • οὐρανοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heaven
  • ἦχος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἦχος> sound -- a sound
  • ὥσπερ -- adverb; <ὥσπερ> as -- as of
  • φερομένης -- verb; genitive singular feminine of passive participle of <φέρω> bear, bring, carry -- borne along
  • πνοῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <πνοῆ> wind -- wind
  • βιαίας -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <βίαιος> violent -- a violent
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐπλήρωσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <πληρόω> fill -- it filled
  • ὅλον -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <ὅλος> whole -- whole
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • οἶκον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <οἶκος> house -- house
  • οὗ -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ὅς> who, which -- where
  • ἦσαν -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- they were
  • καθήμενοι -- verb; nominative plural masculine of middle participle of <κάθημαι> sit -- sitting

2:3 - καὶ ὤφθησαν αὐτοῖς διαμεριζόμεναι γλῶσσαι ὡσεὶ πυρός, καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐφ' ἕνα ἕκαστον αὐτῶν.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὤφθησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <ὁράω> see -- were seen
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- by them
  • διαμεριζόμεναι -- verb; nominative plural feminine of participle passive of <διαμερίζω> cleave -- cloven
  • γλῶσσαι -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <γλῶσσα> tongue, language -- tongues
  • ὡσεὶ -- adverb; <ὡσεί> as of -- as of
  • πυρός -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πῦρ> fire -- fire
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐκάθισεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <καθίζω> (force to) sit down -- it sat down
  • ἐφ' -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • ἕνα -- number; accusative singular masculine of <εἷς> one -- one
  • ἕκαστον -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ἕκαστος> each, every -- each
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- of them

2:4 - καὶ ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες πνεύματος ἁγίου, καὶ ἤρξαντο λαλεῖν ἑτέραις γλώσσαις καθὼς τὸ πνεῦμα ἐδίδου ἀποφθέγγεσθαι αὐτοῖς.
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐπλήσθησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <πίμπλημι> fill -- they were filled
  • πάντες -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- Ghost
  • ἁγίου -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <ἅγιος> holy -- (with the) Holy
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἤρξαντο -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <ἄρχομαι> begin -- they began to
  • λαλεῖν -- verb; infinitive of <λαλέω> speak -- speak
  • ἑτέραις -- adjective; dative plural feminine of <ἕτερος> other -- in other
  • γλώσσαις -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <γλῶσσα> tongue, language -- languages
  • καθὼς -- conjunction; <καθώς> as -- as
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πνεῦμα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- Spirit
  • ἐδίδου -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <δίδωμι> give -- gave
  • ἀποφθέγγεσθαι -- verb; infinitive of <ἀποφθέγγομαι> speak -- to speak
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them

2:5 - Ἦσαν δὲ εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ κατοικούντες Ἰουδαῖοι ἄνδρες εὐλαβεῖς ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔθνους τῶν ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανόν.
  • ἦσαν -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- there were
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- in
  • Ἰερουσαλὴμ -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <Ἰερουσαλήμ> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • κατοικούντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <κατοικέω> dwell -- dwelling
  • Ἰουδαῖοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <Ἰουδαῖος> Jewish -- Jewish
  • ἄνδρες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ἀνήρ> man -- men
  • εὐλαβεῖς -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <εὐλαβής> devout -- devout
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • παντὸς -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <πᾶς> all, every -- every
  • ἔθνους -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ἔθνος> nation, people, tribe -- nation
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- of those
  • ὑπὸ -- preposition; <ὑπό> under, by -- under
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • οὐρανόν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heaven

2:6 - γενομένης δὲ τῆς φωνῆς ταύτης συνῆλθεν τὸ πλῆθος καὶ συνεχύθη, ὅτι ἤκουον εἷς ἕκαστος τῇ ἰδίᾳ διαλέκτῳ λαλούντων αὐτῶν.
  • γενομένης -- deponent verb; genitive singular feminine of participle middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- got around
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • φωνῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <φωνή> voice, sound -- word
  • ταύτης -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <οὗτος> this -- (when) this
  • συνῆλθεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <συνέρχομαι> unite, come together -- came together
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πλῆθος -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <πλῆθος> multitude -- multitude
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συνεχύθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <συγχύω> confuse -- were confused
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • ἤκουον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- they heard
  • εἷς -- number; nominative singular masculine of <εἷς> one -- one
  • ἕκαστος -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ἕκαστος> each, every -- each
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἰδίᾳ -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <ἴδιος> own -- (in his) own
  • διαλέκτῳ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <διάλεκτος> language -- language
  • λαλούντων -- verb; genitive plural masculine of present participle of <λαλέω> speak -- speaking
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them

2:7 - ἐξίσταντο δὲ καὶ ἐθαύμαζον λέγοντες, οὐχὶ ἰδοὺ πάντες οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ λαλοῦντες Γαλιλαῖοι;
  • ἐξίσταντο -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect passive of <ἐξίστημι> be amazed -- they were amazed
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐθαύμαζον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <θαυμάζω> wonder -- wondered
  • λέγοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <λέγω> say -- saying
  • οὐχὶ -- particle; <οὐχί> not -- not
  • ἰδοὺ -- adverb; <ἰδού> behold -- behold
  • πάντες -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • οὗτοί -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <οὗτος> this -- these
  • εἰσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <εἰμί> I am -- are
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • λαλοῦντες -- verb; 3rd person plural masculine of present participle of <λαλέω> speak -- speakers
  • Γαλιλαῖοι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Γαλιλαῖος> Galilean -- Galileans

2:8 - Καὶ πῶς ἡμεῖς ἀκούομεν ἕκαστος τῇ ἰδίᾳ διαλέκτῳ ἡμῶν ἐν ᾗ ἐγεννήθημεν;
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πῶς -- interrogative particle; <πῶς> how -- how
  • ἡμεῖς -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- we
  • ἀκούομεν -- verb; 1st person plural present of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- do we hear (them speaking)
  • ἕκαστος -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ἕκαστος> each, every -- each (of us)
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἰδίᾳ -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <ἴδιος> own -- own
  • διαλέκτῳ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <διάλεκτος> language -- language
  • ἡμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- our
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • ᾗ -- relative pronoun; dative singular feminine of <ὅς> who, which -- which
  • ἐγεννήθημεν -- deponent verb; 1st person plural aorist passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- were born

2:9 - Πάρθοι καὶ Μῆδοι καὶ Ἐλαμῖται, καὶ οἱ καταοικοῦντες τήν Μεσοποταμίαν, Ἰουδαίαν τε καὶ Καππαδοκίαν, Πόντον καὶ τὴν Ἀσίαν,
  • Πάρθοι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Πάρθος> Parthian -- Parthians
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • Μῆδοι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Μῆδος> Mede -- Medes
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • Ἐλαμῖται -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Ἐλαμῖται> Elamites -- Elamites
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • καταοικοῦντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle of <κατοικέω> dwell -- dwellers
  • τήν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Μεσοποταμίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Μεσοποταμία> Mesopotamia -- Mesopotamia
  • Ἰουδαίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ἰουδαία> Judea -- Judea
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- ...
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • Καππαδοκίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Καππαδοκία> Cappadocia -- Cappadocia
  • Πόντον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Πόντος> Pontos -- Pontos
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ἀσίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ἀσία> Asia -- Asia

2:10 - Φρυγίαν τε καὶ Παμφυλίαν, Αἴγυπτον καὶ τὰ μέρη τῆς Λιβύης τῆς κατὰ Κυρήνην, καὶ οἱ ἐπιδημοῦντες Ῥωμαῖοι, Ἰουδαῖοί τε καὶ προσήλυτοι,
  • Φρυγίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Φρύγια> Phrygia -- Phrygia