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Old Church Slavonic Online

Series Introduction

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

Old Church Slavonic is the name given to the language that is preserved in several manuscripts and a few inscriptions originating from the regions of the Moravian Empire, situated between the Vistula River and the easternmost extent of Carolingian influence, and the Bulgarian Empire, extending from the lower reaches of Macedonia in the south up beyond the Danube in the north. These are the regions of the first missionary work among the Slavs by the monks Cyril and Methodius, who devised in the 9th century AD the first full-fledged writing system to represent the indigenous language. The documents that survive are primarily ecclesiastical. They were produced in a religious tradition that used Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical medium very much the way Latin was used in the Roman Catholic Church.

Linguistic Heredity

Although Old Church Slavonic (OCS) is the oldest documented Slavic language, it is not the language from which the other Slavic languages evolved any more than Sanskrit is the language from which the other Indo-European languages evolved. Rather, OCS is now thought to be a dialect of one of the branches of the Slavic languages.

We may imagine that the community which later became Slavic speakers was at some time a dialect group of Proto-Indo-European (PIE). When the speech community became sufficiently separated from other PIE speakers to allow for independent language evolution, over time their dialect developed into what we may term Common Slavic (CS) or Proto-Slavic (PSl). Subsequently the same process happened again whereby, through the course of migration and the vying for power of different neighboring and internal kingdoms or empires, divisions of the Common Slavic speech community became isolated from one another. By the time of Late Common Slavic (LCS), three distinct dialects had emerged: East, West, and South Slavic. Modern examples of this dialectal division would be Russian in the East, Czech and Polish in the West, and Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian in the South.

Certain linguistic features show Old Church Slavonic to be a member of the South Slavic group of languages. For instance, the front nasal of LCS retains its front quality in South Slavic, whereas it develops a back quality in both the East and West dialects. Thus OCS has męso where Czech, for example, has maso. Likewise, South Slavic retains the nasal in the accusative plural of ja-stem nouns, whereas in East and West Slavic the nasality is lost. Hence OCS konję in contrast to Old Russian koně (East Slavic) and Polish konie (West Slavic).

It is supposed, however, that in the 9th century the dialectal differences were still minor enough that mutual intelligibility was possible across a wide expanse of the Slavic-speaking community. This view is supported by the fact that the efforts of Cyril and Methodius were conducted through the medium of OCS alone; presumably they chose this language so that their translations would be suitable for conversion of the pan-Slavic community. It is not quite clear to what degree the language of the OCS manuscripts resembles the actual spoken language of the region. It is often assumed that the language is the same as that which was spoken in the centuries preceding the work of Cyril and Methodius; but by the time the extant manuscripts were written, the actual spoken language was beginning to diverge from the written language. Nevertheless, the written language continued to exert an influence of its own, even beyond the regions of its origin. For example, in the 11th century one finds in Old Russian, on the geographical extremity of the Slavic community, constant stylistic and lexical borrowings from OCS as its own literature develops.

Geographical Location

The precise location of the archaic homeland of the Slavs is little more than conjecture. Most estimations center on a region bounded by the Bug river to the west, the Pripjat to the north, the Don to the east, and the Dnieper to the south. But there is no consensus, and these tentative boundaries shift depending on the particular linguistic or cultural attributes being discussed. Often linguistic evidence is cited in the defense of geographic conjectures. For example, the words for 'yew' and 'ivy' are native to LCS (Russian tis, pljušč), but the term for 'beech' is a loanword (Russian buk, cf. German Buche). Hence it is assumed that the beech tree cannot be native to the original Slavic-speaking area, and because the easternmost extent of the red beech is along a line extending from modern Kaliningrad (Koenigsberg) to the mouth of the Danube, the Slavs could not have lived west of this line.

A few tribes mentioned in Greek and Latin writings from the first few centuries AD are thought to be Slavic. The earliest references come from the first century AD, where the terms Venedi or Veneti presumably refer to Slavs. These terms appear in the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder and the Germania of Tacitus, and are maintained in the German Wendisch as a term for Lusatian. In the second century Claudius Ptolemy uses the Greek Ouenedai in his work De geographia, and refers to the Baltic Sea as the Venedic Gulf. He claims that the Venedae lived to the north of the Goths, to the west of the Baltic tribes, and to the south of the Finns. Later the term Venetae is used in the sixth century by Jordanus, and then by Procopius, to denote both the Antes and the Sclaveni. They are agreed to have spoken the same language over a wide territory between the Dniester and Dnieper rivers; they appear to have migrated to the area after the Huns drove out the Goths in the fifth century.

From here various groups seem to have split off and migrated to the south and west. The ancestors of the East Slavs remained for the most part sedentary while the West Slavs pushed farther into Germany, though they were forced to retreat over the following centuries. The ancestors of the South Slavs pushed south into the Balkans and beyond to Greece, but were driven back from Greece in the next century. The South Slavs and West Slavs maintained contact over the region of Pannonia, but this was cut off with the advent of the Hungarians in the 9th century AD and the eastward expansion of the Germans. The South Slavs were isolated from the East Slavs with the growth of the Rumanians.

Language Contact

LCS includes lexical borrowings from what must have been neighboring speech communities. Political and military vocabulary items were borrowed from the Germanic peoples to the west, such as Gmc. *kuningaz 'king' ~ LCS *kŭnędzĭ 'prince', Gmc. *doms 'judgement' ~ LCS *duma 'thought', Gmc. *helmaz ~ LCS *šelmĭ 'helmet'. A few spiritual elements were borrowed from the Indo-Iranian speech community: notably LCS *bogŭ 'god' and *bogatŭ 'rich' correspond to Avestan baga 'god', Sanskrit bhagas 'distributor' and bhagavant- 'honorable', and Phrygian (Zeus) Bagaios 'lord'. Similarities with the Baltic languages are so great that some suggest a common Balto-Slavic branch of PIE. The contacts of the Slavic speakers with these three different speech communities provide another set of clues to their original location.

The OCS vocabulary, for its part, shows evidence of previous missionary work which had converted many of the Slavs to the Christian doctrine espoused by the Western Church. This was achieved primarily through the work of German priests, so that one finds a core Church vocabulary in OCS derived from Latin or German. Hence OCS olŭtarĭ 'altar' derives from Old High German altari < Lat. altare, and OCS crĭky 'church' comes from OHG chirihha < Grk. kuriakon. Other terms were literal translations, or calques, of their German counterparts, e.g. OCS ne-priěznĭ for OHG un-holdo 'devil'.

History and Documents

Despite the dialectal variation of the spoken Slavic languages, the language of the church remained quite consistent. It also remained the primary medium of the liturgy for centuries, though it underwent some changes through the course of time. Hence the terminology Church Slavonic or Church Slavic and, for the oldest documents, Old Church Slavonic or Old Church Slavic. In addition to its use in the ecclesiastical setting, Church Slavonic also remained for several centuries the literary language in various parts of the East and West Slavic speaking areas. Because of the Balkan origin of the earliest manuscripts, OCS is at times termed Old Bulgarian, though this nomenclature has fallen out of fashion.

There are no clear-cut events or finds that identify the period of Old Church Slavonic. Linguists and historians, however, have for the most part settled upon a convention. The earliest date for the OCS period is given by our estimation of the missions of Cyril and Methodius in the middle of the ninth century. The latest date for OCS is given as roughly 1100, after which it seems that manuscripts have more linguistic variation than they did before. Thus one may speak of the OCS period as extending from ca. 850 - 1100 AD. This is certainly an oversimplification, since the language spoken by Cyril and Methodius must have been in use for quite some time prior to their work, and there are later texts that show definite affinity with the OCS discussed in grammars.

The OCS corpus, limited to this time frame, is actually rather small. There are five manuscripts containing various portions of the Gospel. Next to these stand three other manuscripts, in which are contained a prayer-book, part of a missal, hymns, sermons, and saints' lives. The oldest dated Slavic text is a gravestone inscription erected in 993 by Samuel -- of Armenian ancestry according to one primary source -- who later became Tsar and established the so-called Western Bulgarian Empire centered around Ohrid in what is now Macedonia. (N.B. We take no position on any ethnic/cultural association of Samuel with modern groups/entities; see our Blog post for details.) Several manuscripts from Russian-speaking areas are dated before 1100, but these have such East Slavic characteristics that they are excluded from discussions of the OCS corpus proper.

Related Language Courses at UT

Most but not all language courses taught at The University of Texas concern modern languages; sometimes courses are offered in ancient languages, though more often at the graduate level. Slavic language courses are taught in the Department of Slavic & Eurasian Studies (link opens in a new browser window). Other online language courses for college credit are offered through the University Extension (new window).

Slavic Resources Elsewhere

Our Web Links page includes pointers to Slavic resources elsewhere.

Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 1

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

It is not known for certain who authored the Biblical translations that have come down to us in the Old Church Slavonic corpus, though tradition assigns authorship to the brothers St. Cyril and St. Methodius. St. Cyril is generally acknowledged as the primary force behind the effort of translation, and St. Methodius is thought to have finished what was left undone by his brother. Nevertheless, due to the paucity of first- or even second-hand information pertaining to the two brothers, the question of intent must remain open insofar as it deals with the author's desire to remain close to or break away from the wording of the original Greek. Certainly the author was writing to make the Gospels transparent to the audience, since the original translations were composed as an act of missionary work. Therefore the wording of the text, though at times amazingly close to the Greek, cannot be presumed to be unnatural to the OCS language itself. It may nevertheless stretch the bounds of OCS here and there in an attempt to highlight linguistically the special nature of the Gospels. The OCS translations shadow the Greek original most in either of two situations: one where the Greek is at its most simple and direct, the other where the Greek is most convoluted and opaque.

Translations for the Biblical passages in these lessons are quoted from the King James version of the New Testament.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following text, Luke 12:16-21, is a beautiful illustration of both the OCS translator's adherence to the Greek original and his playfulness with the OCS language. The passage begins with the first verse mimicking the Greek original nearly word for word. Noting the simplicity of the narrative at this point, one must assume that this word order was natural in both languages, and the OCS version should not be seen as in any way taxing the abilities of the language. Throughout the passage, there is little departure from the Greek, until the last verse. Here one sees the compositional talents of the author. His rendering of "he is not rich toward God" is a play on words not present in the original Greek. It cannot be said how much choice the author had in rephrasing the verse, but it is hard to believe this play on words was lost on the audience, and must have been rendered so in order to finish out the passage in high style.

рєчє жє притъчѫ к н҄имъ глагол҄ѧ чловѣкѹ єтєрѹ богатѹ ѹгобьѕи сѧ н҄ива |
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- he spake
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • притъчѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <притъча> parable, example -- a parable
  • к -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • н҄имъ -- demonstrative pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*и> he -- them
  • глагол҄ѧ -- verb; present active participle <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saying
  • чловѣкѹ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <чловѣкъ> man, human -- man
  • єтєрѹ -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <єтєръ> one, a certain -- of a
  • богатѹ -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <богатъ> rich -- rich
  • ѹгобьѕи сѧ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist reflexive deponent of <ѹгобьзити цѧ, -жѫ, -зиши> yield richly -- brought forth plentifully
  • н҄ива -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <н҄ива> field, ground -- the ground

и мъішл҄јаашє в сєбѣ глагол҄ѧ чьто сътвор҄ѭ јако нє имамь къдє събьрати плодъ моихъ |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • мъішл҄јаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <мъіслити, -шлѫ, -слиши> think -- he thought
  • в -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- within
  • сєбѣ -- reflexive pronoun; locative singular of <сєбє> self -- himself
  • глагол҄ѧ -- verb; present active participle <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saying
  • чьто -- interrogative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <чьто> what -- what
  • сътвор҄ѭ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <сътворити, -рѭ, -риши> do, make -- shall I do
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- because
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- no
  • имамь -- verb; 1st person singular present of <имѣти, имамь, имаши> have, hold -- I have
  • къдє -- interrogative adverb; <къдє> where, when -- room where
  • събьрати -- verb; infinitive of <събрати, -бєрѫ, -бєрєши> collect, gather -- to bestow
  • плодъ -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <плодъ> fruit -- fruits
  • моихъ -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <мои> my -- my

и рєчє сє сътвор҄ѭ разор҄ѭ житьницѧ моѧ и бол҄ьшѧ съзиждѫ и събєрѫ тѹ вьсја жита моја и добро моє |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- he said
  • сє -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <сь> this -- this
  • сътвор҄ѭ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <сътворити, -рѭ, -риши> do, make -- will I do
  • разор҄ѭ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <разорити, -рѭ, -риши> destroy -- I will pull down
  • житьницѧ -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <житьница> barn -- barns
  • моѧ -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <мои> my -- my
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • бол҄ьшѧ -- comparative adjective; accusative plural feminine of <бол҄ьи> bigger, more -- greater
  • съзиждѫ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <съзидати, -ждѫ, -ждєши> build -- build
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • събєрѫ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <събрати, -бєрѫ, -бєрєши> collect, gather -- will I bestow
  • тѹ -- adverb; <тѹ> there; then -- there
  • вьсја -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • жита -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <жито> grain, produce -- fruits
  • моја -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <мои> my -- my
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • добро -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <добръ> good -- goods
  • моє -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <мои> my -- my

рєкѫ дѹши моєи дѹшє имаши мъного добро лєжѧштє на лѣта мънога
почиваи јаждь пии вєсєли сѧ |
  • рєкѫ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- (and) I will say
  • дѹши -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <дѹша> soul -- soul
  • моєи -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <мои> my -- to my
  • дѹшє -- noun, feminine; vocative singular of <дѹша> soul -- soul
  • имаши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <имѣти, имамь, имаши> have, hold -- thou hast
  • мъного -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <мъногъ> much, many -- much
  • добро -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <добръ> good -- goods
  • лєжѧштє -- verb; present active participle <лєжати, -жѫ, -жиши> lie, recline -- laid up
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- for
  • лѣта -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <лѣто> year, summer -- years
  • мънога -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <мъногъ> much, many -- many
  • почиваи -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <почивати, -аѭ, -аѩши> rest, sleep; die -- take thine ease
  • јаждь -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <асти, амь, аси> eat -- eat
  • пии -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <пити, пиѭ, пиѩши> drink -- drink
  • вєсєли сѧ -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative reflexive of <вєсєлити, -л҄ѭ, -лиши> entertain; (refl.) rejoice -- (and) be merry

рєчє жє ємѹ богъ бєзѹмьнє въ сьѭ ношть дѹшѫ твоѭ истѧѕаѭтъ отъ тєбє а јажє ѹготова комѹ бѫдєтъ |
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- unto him
  • богъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • бєзѹмьнє -- adjective used as substantive; vocative singular masculine of <бєзѹмьнъ> mad, crazy, foolish -- thou fool
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- ...
  • сьѭ -- demonstrative adjective; accusative singular feminine of <сь> this -- this
  • ношть -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ношть> night -- night
  • дѹшѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <дѹша> soul -- soul
  • твоѭ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <твои> your, thy -- thy
  • истѧѕаѭтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <істѧзати, -заѭ, -заѥши> demand back; find out; test -- shall be required
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- of
  • тєбє -- pronoun; genitive singular of <тъі> you, thou -- thee
  • а -- conjunction; <а> and, but; if -- then
  • јажє -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • ѹготова -- verb; 2nd person singular aorist of <ѹготовати, -аѭ, -аѥши> prepare -- thou hast provided
  • комѹ -- interrogative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <къто> who -- whose
  • бѫдєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular future of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- shall (those things) be

тако вьсакъ събираѧи сєбѣ нє въ богъ богатѣѧ
  • тако -- adverb; <тако> thus, in this way -- so
  • вьсакъ -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <вьсакъ> each, every -- ...
  • събираѧи -- verb; present active participle used as substantive <събрати, -бєрѫ, -бєрєши> collect, gather -- (is he that) layeth up treasure
  • сєбѣ -- reflexive pronoun; dative singular of <сєбє> self -- for himself
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- (and) not
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- toward
  • богъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • богатѣѧ -- verb; present active participle used as substantive <богатѣти, -тѣѭ, -тѣѥши> be rich -- is... rich

Lesson Text

рєчє жє притъчѫ к н҄имъ глагол҄ѧ чловѣкѹ єтєрѹ богатѹ ѹгобьѕи сѧ н҄ива | и мъішл҄јаашє в сєбѣ глагол҄ѧ чьто сътвор҄ѭ јако нє имамь къдє събьрати плодъ моихъ | и рєчє сє сътвор҄ѭ разор҄ѭ житьницѧ моѧ и бол҄ьшѧ съзиждѫ и събєрѫ тѹ вьсја жита моја и добро моє | рєкѫ дѹши моєи дѹшє имаши мъного добро лєжѧштє на лѣта мънога
почиваи јаждь пии вєсєли сѧ | рєчє жє ємѹ богъ бєзѹмьнє въ сьѭ ношть дѹшѫ твоѭ истѧѕаѭтъ отъ тєбє а јажє ѹготова комѹ бѫдєтъ | тако вьсакъ събираѧи сєбѣ нє въ богъ богатѣѧ

Translation

(12:16) And he spake a parable unto them, saying, The ground of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully: (17) And he thought within himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have no room where to bestow my fruits? (18) And he said, This will I do: I will pull down my barns, and build greater; and there will I bestow all my fruits and my goods. (19) And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry. (20) But God said unto him, Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee: then whose shall those things be, which thou hast provided? (21) So is he that layeth up treasure for himself and is not rich toward God.

Grammar

1 The Alphabet

The early OCS documents are written primarily in two alphabets, Glagolitic or Cyrillic. Much research has been done on the origins of the two, and the debate as to which was devised by St. Cyril (AD 827-869) himself does not seem to have been resolved to everyone's satisfaction. The majority of scholars, however, are of the opinion that Glagolitic was the one devised by Cyril in his early missionary work, a conclusion based in large part on the fact that, of the extant OCS manuscripts, the oldest are written in the Glagolitic script.

Regardless of the question of historical priority, for the study of OCS it is preferable to start by learning Cyrillic. Most of the textbooks on the subject make use of this alphabet throughout, to the point of transliterating Glagolitic passages into Cyrillic. These lessons will therefore focus only on it.

The Cyrillic alphabet is similar to the Greek alphabet from which it is derived. For the most part the Greek values of the letters are kept as they were pronounced in the time of Cyril and Methodius (c. 825-885); other letters were added to supplement the Greek system where it lacked representations for OCS sounds. This occurs most notably for sibilants, nasalized vowels, and reduced vowels (jers -- pronounced as the Modern English word "hairs", with the h replaced by y).

The following chart depicts the Cyrillic alphabetic character, its Cyrillic numerical value (which may differ slightly from its Glagolitic numerical value), its Slavonic name, its Roman transliteration, and a guide to its pronunciation. Unless otherwise specified, the examples of pronunciation are from American English.

Letter   Number   Name   Translit.   Pronunciation
А а   1   азъ   A a   a as in 'father'
Б б   -   бѹкъі   B b   b as in 'boy'
В в   2   вѣдѣ   V v   v as in 'vine'
Г г   3   глаголи   G g   g as in 'good'
Д д   4   добро   D d   d as in 'dog'
Е є   5   єсть   E e   e as in 'end'
Ж ж   -   жівѣтє   Ž ž   s as in 'pleasure'
Ѕ ѕ   6   ѕѣло   Dz dz   ds as in 'heads'
З з   7   зємл҄ја   Z z   z as in 'zebra'
І і   10   ижє   I i   ee as in 'feet'
И и   8   ижєи   I i   ee as in 'feet'
(Ћ ћ)   -   ћа, дѥрв   G' g'   g as in 'coagulate'
К к   20   како   K k   c as in 'coop'
Л л   30   людиѥ   L l   l as in 'elk'
М м   40   мъіслитє   M m   m as in 'mother'
Н н   50   нашь   N n   n as in 'not'
О о   70   онъ   O o   ou as in 'ought'
П п   80   покой   P p   p as in 'post'
Р р   100   рьци   R r   r as in 'rather', but trilled
С с   200   слово   S s   s as in 'song'
Т т   300   тврьдо   T t   t as in 'top'
Ѹ ѹ   400   ѹкъ   U u   oo as in 'food'
Ф ф   500   фрьтъ   F f   f as in 'father'
Ѳ ѳ   9   фита   Θ θ   t as in 'top', or th as in 'path', or f as in 'father'
Х х   600   хѣръ   X x   ch as in Scots English 'loch'
Ѡ ѡ   800   отъ   Ō ō   au as in 'caught'
Щ щ   -   ща   Št št   shed as in 'mashed'
Ц ц   900   ци   C c   ts as in 'hats'
Ч ч   90   чрьвь, ча   Č č   ch as in 'church'
Ш ш   -   ша   Š š   sh as in 'sharp'
Ъ ъ   -   ѥръ   Ŭ ŭ   u as in 'put'
ЪІ ъі   -   ѥръі   Y y   oo of 'foot' with the tongue, with lips as in ee of 'feet'; compare Bronx pronunciation of 'Spuyten Duyvil'
Ь ь   -   ѥрь   Ĭ ĭ   i as in 'stop it!'
Ѣ ѣ   -   јать   Ě ě   ya as in 'yam'
Ю ю   -   ю   Ju ju   you as in 'you'
ЈА ја   -   ја   Ja ja   ya as in 'yacht'
Ѧ ѧ   900   юсъ, ѧсъ   Ę ę   in as in French 'fin', similar to an in American English 'can't' when final t is not fully articulated (a glottal stop)
Ѫ ѫ   -   юсъ, ѫсъ   Ǫ ǫ   on as in French 'bon'
Ѩ ѩ   -   юсъ, ѩсъ   Ję ję   ien as in French 'bien'
Ѭ ѭ   -   юсъ, ѭсъ   Jǫ jǫ   ion as in French 'lion'
Ѯ ѯ   60   ѯи   Ks ks   x as in 'tax'
Ѱ ѱ   700   ѱи   Ps ps   ps as in 'taps'
Ѵ ѵ   400   ижица   Ü ü   i in English 'ship', or u in French 'tu', ue in German 'Muenchen'

The letter Ћ, ћ is adopted from late Serbian manuscripts to transcribe a letter found in the Glagolitic alphabet. It represents a palatalized articulation of Г, г. It is sometimes transcribed in Cyrillic as Г҄, г҄.

Special mention must be made of the sound jot, denoted j and pronounced like the y in 'year'. It had no corresponding representation in either the Glagolitic or the Cyrillic alphabets. However, when it formed a phoneme with a following vowel, it was indicated in the Cyrillic alphabet as in ја, ѥ,ю,я,ѭ. It was not indicated in combination with и, and only inconsistenly with є. When following a consonant, its presence was occasionally indicated by ҄. Hence we have the following representations:

Palatalized        
Б҄ б҄   B' b'   b as in 'beauty'
К҄ к҄   K' k'   c as in 'cute'
Л҄ л҄   L' l'   ll as in 'William'
Н҄ н҄   N' n'   ni as in 'onion'
П҄ п҄   P' p'   p as in 'computer'
Р҄ р҄   R' r'   re as in 'are you', but trilled
Х҄ х҄   X' x'   ch y as in 'Is this the loch you mentioned?'

In addition an apostrophe ҄ is often used to denote an omitted jer, as in ч҄то for чьто.

2 The Sound System

The sounds of OCS may be arranged in tables by their articulation. The chart below indicates consonants. Note the letters in parentheses are not separate phonemes (see the discussion below concerning soft and palatalized sounds).

    Labial   Dental   Palatal(ized)   Retracted   Velar
Stops                    
voiceless   п   т   (п҄, к҄, х҄)       к
voiced   б   д   (б҄, ћ)       г
                     
Nasals   м   н   н҄        
                     
Fricatives                    
voiceless   ф   с   (с)   ш   х
voiced   в   з   (з)   ж    
                     
Affricates                    
voiceless       ц   щ   ч    
voiced       ѕ   жд        
                     
Apical Trill       р   р҄        
                     
Lateral       л   л҄        
                     
Resonant           j        

The consonants in parentheses are palatalized, meaning that they are doubly articulated. For example, the sound represented as к҄ has a primary velar articulation and a following palatal off-glide.

The vowels are as follows

    Front   Central   Back
High   и   ъі   ѹ
    ь       ъ
Middle   є       о, ѫ
    ѧ        
Low   ѣ       а

The compound vowels such as ја,ѥ, etc. were pronounced like the corresponding vowels in the chart above, preceded by the glide j.

There are two types of consonants: hard and soft. The hard consonants are followed by a back vowel, the soft by a front vowel (as listed in the vowel chart above). This distinction is not graphically distinguished in the OCS writing system. This presumably stems from there being no phonemic distinction between, say, k and k' (that is, accidentally saying k instead of k' would not result in a change of meaning). However, in pronouncing a word like пьсати 'to write', p is pronounced as p', and t is pronounced as t', like the "t y" in a slow pronunciation of "aren't you" (i.e. a pronunciation where one is not saying "arenchoo").

By contrast, the jot, j, adds to a preceding consonant a palatal off-glide. In some situations, the consonant preceding the jot itself acquires a palatal articulation, so that sj (с + j), say, regularly develops into (ш). With labial consonants, one either finds the same labial with a palatal off-glide, or, more commonly, with an epenthetic l inserted between the original consonant and jot. This l is then represented as having a palatal off-glide (l'). Thus three major possibilities must be discerned: hard (preceding a back vowel), soft (preceding a front vowel), and palatalized (preceding jot). The following examples illustrate the distinction:

Consonant   Hard   Soft   Palatalized
[r]   рабъ [rabŭ]   рѣка [rěka]   мор҄є [morje]
[m]   имати [imati]   имѣти [iměti]   ѥмл҄ѫ [jemljǫ]
[s]   пьсати [pĭsati]   письць [pisĭcĭ]   пишѫ [pišǫ < *pis-jǫ]
[v]   слава [slava]   славити [slaviti]   славл҄ѫ [slavljǫ]
[d]   родъ [rodŭ]   родити [roditi]   рождѫ [roždjǫ < *rod-jǫ]

One never finds the jot written in an OCS text. Thus, one may discern by looking at a word whether a given consonant is soft or hard in the above sense. Deciding whether a consonant is palatalized, if not so marked, may however be tricky. In general one looks for clues as to the presence of jot, as with the third example above, where с alternates with щ; likewise in the last example, where д alternates with жд.

It is quite certain that there was for the native speakers of OCS a definite distinction between soft and palatalized consonants. The following forms make this clear:

  • єлєни [eleni] (nom. dual) 'two deer', versus
  • єлєн҄и [elen'i] (possessive adj., nom. sg. masc.) 'deer's'.
3 Noun Inflection and the Twofold Nominal Declension

The nouns of OCS are inflected to show their role in a given sentence. Seven cases and three numbers are possible for each noun. In addition each noun may can be either singular in number, dual (two of a thing), or plural (more than two of a thing): рѫка '(a/the) hand', рѫцѣ '(the) two hands', рѫкъі '(the) hands'. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, or neuter. Grammatical gender often agrees with the sexual gender of the item denoted, e.g. жєна 'woman' is feminine; the assignment of gender may, however, have no overt rationale, e.g. рѫка 'hand' is feminine.

The following chart indicates the basic meanings for the various cases.

Case Name   Description of Use   Basic Preposition   Example
Nominative   case of the subject, or something predicated to the subject   (none)   градъ '(a/the) city' (as subject)
Accusative   case of the direct object, or of the terminus of directed motion   (none); toward   градъ '(a/the) city' (as object)
Genitive   case of the sphere of relation; possession; (masculine direct object)   of; (none)   града 'of (a/the) city'
Locative   case of the location in space or time   in, on, at   градѣ 'in (a/the) city'
Dative   case of the indirect object; person/thing affected by the action   to, for   градѹ 'for (a/the) city'
Instrumental   case of the instrument of an action; case of accompaniment   with, by   градомь 'with (a/the) city'
Vocative   case of direct address   o!   градє 'O City!'
             

Terminology: The nominal endings found in the following two sections constitute the twofold nominal declension.

3.1 o, jo-Stem Nouns

By far the most common type of nouns are the o- and jo-stem declensions, so called based on historical linguistic grounds. Some authors employ the terms hard and soft o-stems, respectively.

The following are paradigms for the masculine hard stem nouns градъ 'city' and чловѣкъ 'human being'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   градъ   града   гради
A   градъ   града   градъі
G   града   градѹ   градъ
L   градѣ   градѹ   градѣхъ
D   градѹ   градома   градомъ
I   градомь   градома   градъі
V   градє   града   гради
             
    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   чловѣкъ   чловѣка   чловѣци
A   чловѣка   чловѣка   чловѣкъі
G   чловѣка   чловѣкѹ   чловѣкъ
L   чловѣцѣ   чловѣкѹ   чловѣцѣхъ
D   чловѣкѹ   чловѣкома   чловѣкомъ
    чловѣкови        
I   чловѣкомь   чловѣкома   чловѣкъі
V   чловѣчє   чловѣка   чловѣци

The paradigms below are for the masculine soft stem nouns мѫжь 'man' and змии 'dragon'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   мѫжь   мѫжа   мѫжи
A   мѫжа   мѫжа   мѫжѧ
G   мѫжа   мѫжѹ   мѫжь
L   мѫжи   мѫжѹ   мѫжихъ
D   мѫжѹ   мѫжєма   мѫжємъ
    мѫжєви        
I   мѫжємь   мѫжєма   мѫжи
V   мѫжѹ   мѫжа   мѫжи
             
    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   змии   змија   змии
A   змии   змија   змиѩ
G   змија   змию   змии
L   змии   змию   змиихъ
D   змию   змиѥма   змиѥмъ
I   змиѥмь   змиѥма   змии
V   змию   змија   змии

The neuter hard stem nouns are declined like мѣсто 'place' and вѣко 'eyelid'. Note the accusative forms are the same as the nominative, which is always true for neuter nouns.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   мѣсто   мѣстѣ   мѣста
A   мѣсто   мѣстѣ   мѣста
G   мѣста   мѣстѹ   мѣстъ
L   мѣстѣ   мѣстѹ   мѣстѣхъ
D   мѣстѹ   мѣстома   мѣстомъ
I   мѣстомь   мѣстома   мѣстъі
V   мѣсто   мѣстѣ   мѣста
             
    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   вѣко   вѣцѣ   вѣка
A   вѣко   вѣцѣ   вѣка
G   вѣка   вѣкѹ   вѣкъ
L   вѣцѣ   вѣкѹ   вѣцѣхъ
D   вѣкѹ   вѣкома   вѣкомъ
I   вѣкомь   вѣкома   вѣкъі
V   вѣко   вѣцѣ   вѣка

The neuter soft stem nouns are declined like срьдьцє 'heart' and знамєньє 'sign'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   срьдьцє   срьдьци   срьдьца
A   срьдьцє   срьдьци   срьдьца
G   срьдьца   срьдьцѹ   срьдьць
L   срьдьци   срьдьцѹ   срьдьцихъ
D   срьдьцѹ   срьдьцєма   срьдьцємъ
I   срьдьцємь   срьдьцєма   срьдьци
V   срьдьцє   срьдьци   срьдьца
             
    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   знамєньѥ   знамєньи   знамєньја
A   знамєньѥ   знамєньи   знамєньја
G   знамєньја   знамєнью   знамєньи
L   знамєньи   знамєнью   знамєньихъ
D   знамєнью   знамєньѥма   знамєньѥмъ
I   знамєньѥмь   знамєньѥма   знамєньи
V   знамєньѥ   знамєньи   знамєньја

A few things should be noted in the paradigms. One is the action of softening of the final stem consonant before front vowels. Hence чловѣкъ for the nominative singular, but чловѣцѣ for the locative; similarly the alternation of вѣко and вѣцѣ. In addition, the vocative is the same as the nominative in the dual and plural forms of nouns.

In the paradigm for знамєньѥ, in each form the jer ь is tense, and therefore may be vocalized as и. (This will be discussed further in the next lesson.) Hence the entire paradigm has the alternate forms знамєниѥ, знамєниѥ, знамєнија, знамєнии, and so on.

3.2 a, ja-Stem Nouns

The a- and ja-stem nouns are feminine, except for a relatively few nouns whose natural gender is masculine. Thus жєна 'woman', глава 'head', and ладии 'ship' are feminine; but владъіка 'ruler' and сѫдьи 'judge' are masculine.

The following are paradigms for the feminine hard stem nouns жєна 'woman' and нога 'foot'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   жєна   жєнѣ   жєнъі
A   жєнѫ   жєнѣ   жєнъі
G   жєнъі   жєнѹ   жєнъ
L   жєнѣ   жєнѹ   жєнахъ
D   жєнѣ   жєнама   жєнамъ
I   жєноѭ   жєнама   жєнами
V   жєно   жєнѣ   жєнъі
    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   нога   ноѕѣ   ногъі
A   ногѫ   ноѕѣ   ногъі
G   ногъі   ногѹ   ногъ
L   ноѕѣ   ногѹ   ногахъ
D   ноѕѣ   ногама   ногамъ
I   ногоѭ   ногама   ногами
V   ного   ноѕѣ   ногъі

Below are paradigms for a feminine and a masculine soft stem noun, дѹша 'soul' and сѫдьи 'judge'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   дѹша   дѹши   дѹшѧ
A   дѹшѫ   дѹши   дѹшѧ
G   дѹшѧ   дѹшѹ   дѹшь
L   дѹши   дѹшѹ   дѹшахъ
D   дѹши   дѹшама   дѹшамъ
I   дѹшєѭ   дѹшама   дѹшами
V   дѹшє   дѹши   дѹшѧ
    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   сѫдьи   сѫдьи   сѫдьѩ
A   сѫдьѭ   сѫдьи   сѫдьѩ
G   сѫдьѩ   сѫдью   сѫдьи
L   сѫдьи   сѫдью   сѫдьјахъ
D   сѫдьи   сѫдьјама   сѫдьјамъ
I   сѫдьѥѭ   сѫдьјама   сѫдьјами
V   сѫдьи   сѫдьи   сѫдьѩ
    сѫди        

As in the o, jo-stem nouns, the stem consonant is softened before endings with front vowels. Thus the nominative singular is нога, but locative is ноѕѣ.

Like знамєньѥ, the ь of сѫдьи is tense; each form has an alternate with the ь replaced by и: сѫдии, сѫдиѭ, сѫдиѩ, etc.

4 Verb Inflection

Verbs are inflected for number and for person. Separate endings distinguish 1st, 2nd and 3rd person subjects; likewise a distinction is made between singular, dual, or plural subjects. Three simple tenses are distinguished: present, imperfect, and aorist. There are also three compound tenses: perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect.

4.1 Present Tense

The present tense is used for actions contemporaneous with the utterance and for the future. The same tense is used for both statements like "I am walking", which is a continual action ongoing at the time of the utterance, and like "I walk", which is a general statement about the situation surrounding the time frame of the utterance. OCS has no future tense, so that the present tense is used in reference to future time. Compare English: "We are going to the store tomorrow."

The construction of the present tense forms of a given verb proceeds naturally from the present tense stem. This stem is obtained from the 2nd person singular by dropping the ending -ши. Hence if one has зовєши 'you call', the present tense stem is зовє-. To this stem one adds the endings for the other persons and numbers. This is analogous to how one might, in slightly older English, take a verb like 'sacrifice' and append -st to obtain the 2nd person singular form 'thou sacrificest'. If one does the same to the verb 'have', however, one does not find 'havest' but rather 'thou hast'. Here the stem has undergone phonological changes which obscure its bare form. The situation is much the same in OCS, so that one must be aware of the possible changes undergone by verbal stems.

Some grammars classify verbs into five categories based on the form of the present tense stems. Thus verbs whose present tense stem ends in -є- are distinguished from those that end in -нє-, and so forth. These classifications will be discussed further in subsequent lessons. Here the present tense paradigms of two common verbs, глаголати 'to say' and молити 'to beg' are given.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
1st Person   глагол҄ѭ   глагол҄ѥвѣ   глагол҄ѥмъ
2nd   глагол҄ѥши   глагол҄ѥта   глагол҄ѥтє
3rd   глагол҄ѥтъ   глагол҄ѥтє   глагол҄ѭтъ
    Singular   Dual   Plural
1st Person   мол҄ѭ   моливѣ   молимъ
2nd   молиши   молита   молитє
3rd   молитъ   молитє   молѧтъ

In some OCS texts the ending -та of the 2nd person dual is used in place of -тє for the 3rd dual.

4.2 Imperfect Tense

The imperfect tense is used for continuous actions started and ongoing prior to the utterance, as well for habitual actions. Thus "I was begging" and "I used to beg" are both English renderings of what would be in OCS imperfect forms. They would be expressed by the same verb form, мол҄јаахъ.

The forms of the imperfect are obtained from the infinitive-aorist stem. This stem is derived from the infinitive by dropping the suffix -ти. This may leave a stem with or without a vowel: нєсти 'to carry' gives нєс- for the stem, while глаголати and молити give глагола- and моли-, respectively. This process, however, does not always give the proper result, since the stem may have undergone phonological changes when the -ти suffix was added. These changes must be "undone" in order to arrive at the proper stem. Thus пасти 'to fall' should give the stem пас-; but the с is the result of an original д changing before the ending -ти. Hence the actual stem is пад-.

The distinctive marker of imperfect verb forms is the suffix -ах- or -ѣах- added to the stem. The suffix -ах- is appended to verbs with a stem ending in а or ѣ, the suffix -ѣах- to all other verbs. So знати 'to know' gives the imperfect зна-ахъ and сѣдѣти 'to sit' gives сѣдѣ-ахъ; but нєсти 'to carry' gives the imperfect нєс-ѣахъ. If the ending -ѣах- is appended to a stem ending in к or г, the final consonants undergo First Palatalization and become ч and ж, respectively. (The rules of palatalization will be discussed further in the next lesson.) However, following the palatals č, ž, j, the ѣ changed to а, resulting in the suffix -аах-. For example, the verb могѫ, мошти 'to be able' forms the imperfect можаахъ < *mog-ěaxŭ. Simply put, in practice one looks for -ах-, -аах-, and -ѣах- as signs of imperfect verb forms.

Below are the paradigms for глаголати 'to say' and молити 'to beg'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
1st Person   глаголаахъ   глаголааховѣ   глаголаахомъ
2nd   глаголаашє   глаголаашєта   глаголаашєтє
3rd   глаголаашє   глаголаашєтє   глаголаахѫ
    Singular   Dual   Plural
1st Person   мол҄јаахъ   мол҄јааховѣ   мол҄јаахомъ
2nd   мол҄јаашє   мол҄јаашєта   мол҄јаашєтє
3rd   мол҄јаашє   мол҄јаашєтє   мол҄јаахѫ

In the later language, the suffixes were often shortened to -ах- and -ѣх-, leading forms like нєсѣхъ instead of нєсѣахъ. Also as variant endings in the dual, -шєта is replaced by -ста, -шєтє by -стє; and in the plural, -шєтє is replaced by -стє.

5 Word Order

The word order in OCS sentences was generally free. What dictated a word's position in a sentence was its importance in the utterance: the important elements of a statement tended to be set toward the beginning. This "important element" could be the subject, but it could likewise be the object, the verb, an adverb, or what have you. In the typical narrative passages found in the translations of the Bible, the verb was generally placed first. This is illustrated by the first sentence of the Lesson 1 Reading:

    рєчє   жє   притъчѫ   к н҄имъ   глагол҄ѧ
    said   and   a parable   to them,   saying

The first word is рєчє '(he) said'. The second position is occupied by the connective жє 'and', a position usual for several enclitic conjunctions, such as бо 'for' and ли 'if'. Similarly in the sentence

    рєчє   жє   ємѹ   богъ
    said   and   to him   God

In both these statements the last word (глагол҄ѧ or богъ) refers to the subject. In addition to placing words at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis, words in final position were likewise highlighted.

In subordinate clauses, the first element was generally a conjunction or relative pronoun. The verb would then follow this or be placed at the end of the clause. Such subordination is less common, with most actions subordinate to the main verb being expressed via participles. Even the relative pronoun ижє 'he who' still retained much of its demonstrative force: more 'and he, that one, he...' rather than the weak 'he who...'. This left relative clauses to be interpreted simply as paratactic constructions joined by a pronoun and enclitic conjunction.

Other general tendencies included a preference for datives to precede accusatives, although рєчє жє притъчѫ к н҄имъ (where притъчѫ is acc., к н҄имъ is dat.) shows this is clearly not a hard and fast rule. A partitive genitive would follow its noun, as in 'one of the servants'; but an attributive genitive would precede the noun: 'of silver a cup'. As is seen from сьѭ ношть '(in) this night' in the reading and common phrases like дьнь сь 'this day, today', a demonstrative might precede or follow its noun (here сьѭ and сь).

Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 2

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

Our knowledge of the exploits of Sts. Cyril and Methodius derives primarily from the Church Slavonic Lives, the Vita Constantini and Vita Methodii. According to these, the two brothers were born in Macedonia in the Greek city of Thessalonica. Methodius was the elder, born in 815 AD, and Cyril, whose given name was Constantine, was born in 826 or 827 AD. Their father Leo was a man of some stature in the Byzantine Empire. At the time, much of northern Greece and the Balkans was Slavic-speaking, and it is clear that the brothers were well acquainted with the local Bulgarian-Macedonian dialects.

Cyril is reputed to have been a very talented young man. Upon completing his education, he was designated librarian at the patriarch's library in Byzantium. While there he taught philosophy, and thus is often referred to as Constantine the Philosopher. He displayed exceptional linguistic talent, being versed in Slavonic, Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic. Such linguistic dexterity, coupled with his theological training, made him well-suited to the work of a missionary priest, and it was in this vein that he most greatly served the Byzantine empire. Methodius, for his part, served as an administrative official in Moravia. He later abandoned this pursuit to become a monk and missionary.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The text below, Matthew 14:1-12, relates the death of John the Baptist at the request of King Herod's daughter. The narrative style is simple and paratactic, and the OCS translation follows the original Greek almost word for word. Aorist forms in the Greek are rendered with aorists in OCS, imperfects with imperfects, and participles with participles. Minor differences between the translation and the original hint at the fact that the OCS translation is quite natural within the language itself. Two such features are found in verse 9. Here the Greek uses a past passive participle in conjunction with a finite verb: "The king, pained (participle) on account of..., ordered (finite verb)...". The OCS is almost exactly the same, but the participial construction is made finite with the addition of the form бъістъ: "The king was pained, and on account of... he ordered...". In the same verse the OCS has повєлѣ дати и, where the и makes explicit a direct object not rendered in the Greek. In verse 11, where the Greek has the passive "his head was brought... and was given...", the OCS favors an active construction with an unspecified plural subject: "they brought his head... and they gave...". These differences between the Greek and OCS are indeed very slight, and one must assume that they are made in the effort to convert what would have been slightly unnatural wording into a smooth and flowing OCS narrative.

Also to be noted is the use, in verse 8, of the instrumental case for the phrase наваждєна матєрѭ своєѭ 'instructed by her mother'. With a personal agent, one would expect a construction отъ + G. However, as will be discussed in Section 15: Genitive Objects and Negation, feminine nouns were treated differently from masculine nouns. Feminine nouns in general are used in the same way as inanimate nouns.

въ оно врѣмѧ ѹслъіша иродъ тєтрархъ слѹхъ иисѹсовъ | и рєчє отрокомъ своимъ сь єстъ иоанъ крьститєл҄ь тъ въскрьсє отъ мрьтвъіихъ и сєго ради силъі дѣѭтъ сѧ о н҄ємь |
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- at
  • оно -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <онъ> that -- that
  • врѣмѧ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <врѣмѧ> time -- time
  • ѹслъіша -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹслъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear, find out -- heard of
  • иродъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иродъ> Herod -- Herod
  • тєтрархъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <тєтрархъ> tetrarch -- the tetrarch
  • слѹхъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <слѹхъ> hearing, fame, rumor -- the fame
  • иисѹсовъ -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <иисѹсовъ> of Jesus, Jesus' -- of Jesus
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- he said
  • отрокомъ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <отрокъ> boy, servant -- unto... servants
  • своимъ -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- his
  • сь -- demonstrative adjective; nominative singular masculine of <сь> this -- this
  • єстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- is
  • иоанъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иоанъ> John -- John
  • крьститєл҄ь -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <крьститєл҄ь> baptist -- the Baptist
  • тъ -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- he
  • въскрьсє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <въскръснѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> rise again, be resurrected -- is risen
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- from
  • мрьтвъіихъ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural masculine of <мрьтвъ> dead -- the dead
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • сєго -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <сь> this -- ...
  • ради -- postposition; <ради> for, for the sake of, because of -- therefore
  • силъі -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <сила> power, virtue -- mighty works
  • дѣѭтъ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural present reflexive of <дѣјати, дѣѭ, дѣѥши> do, commit -- do shew forth themselves
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- in
  • н҄ємь -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him

иродъ бо имъ иоана съвѧза и и въсади и въ тьмьницѫ иродьјадъі ради жєнъі филипа братра своєго |
  • иродъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иродъ> Herod -- Herod
  • бо -- conjunction; <бо> for -- for
  • имъ -- verb; past active participle <ѩти, имѫ, имєши> take, seize -- had laid hold on
  • иоана -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Иоанъ> John -- John
  • съвѧза -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <съвѧзати, -заѭ, -заѥши> bind, tie -- (and) bound
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • въсади -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <въсадити, -ждѫ, -диши> place on, place in -- put
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • тьмьницѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <тьмьница> prison -- prison
  • иродьјадъі -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Иродьјада> Herodias -- Herodias'
  • ради -- postposition; <ради> for, for the sake of, because of -- for... sake
  • жєнъі -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <жєна> woman, wife -- wife
  • филипа -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Филипъ, Филиппъ> Philip -- Philip's
  • братра -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • своєго -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- his

глаголаашє бо ємѹ иоанъ нє достоитъ ти имѣти єѧ | и хотѧ и ѹбити ѹбоја сѧ народа зан҄є пророка имѣахѫ и |
  • глаголаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- said
  • бо -- conjunction; <бо> for -- for
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- to him
  • иоанъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иоанъ> John -- John
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • достоитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <достојати, -стоѭ, -стоиши> befit, be proper -- it is... lawful
  • ти -- pronoun; dative singular of <тъі> you, thou -- for thee
  • имѣти -- verb; infinitive of <имѣти, имамь, имаши> have, hold -- to have
  • єѧ -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <*и> he -- her
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • хотѧ -- verb; present active participle <хотѣти, хоштѫ, хоштєши> want, wish -- when he would have
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • ѹбити -- verb; infinitive of <ѹбити, -биѭ, биѥши> kill -- put... to death
  • ѹбоја сѧ -- verb; 3rd person singular present reflexive deponent of <ѹбојати сѧ, -боѭ, -боиши> fear, become afraid -- he feared
  • народа -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <народъ> crowd, multitude -- the multitude
  • зан҄є -- conjunction; <зан҄є> because -- because
  • пророка -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <пророкъ> prophet -- as a prophet
  • имѣахѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <имѣти, имамь, имаши> have, hold -- they counted
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him

дьни жє бъівъшѹ рождьства иродова плѧса дъшти иродьјадина по срѣдѣ и ѹгоди иродови | тѣмьжє съ клѧтвоѭ издрєчє єи дати єгожє аштє въспроситъ |
  • дьни -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <дьнь> day -- day
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but when
  • бъівъшѹ -- verb; past active participle <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- was kept
  • рождьства -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <рождьство> birth -- birth-
  • иродова -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <иродовъ> of Herod, Herod's -- Herod's
  • плѧса -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <плѧсати, -саѭ, -саѥши> dance -- danced
  • дъшти -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <дъшти, дъштєр> daughter -- the daughter
  • иродьјадина -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <иродьјадинъ> of Herodias, Herodias' -- of Herodias
  • по -- preposition; <по> after; according to -- ...
  • срѣдѣ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <срѣда> center; Wednesday -- before (them)
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • ѹгоди -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹгодити, -ждѫ, -диши> please, be pleasing -- pleased
  • иродови -- proper noun, masculine; dative singular of <Иродъ> Herod -- Herod
  • тѣмьжє -- conjunction; <тѣмьжє> thereby, therefore, through this -- whereupon
  • съ -- preposition; <съ> with -- with
  • клѧтвоѭ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <клѧтва> oath -- an oath
  • издрєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <издрєшти, -кѫ, -чєши> express; promise -- he promised
  • єи -- pronoun; dative singular feminine of <*и> he -- her
  • дати -- verb; infinitive of <дати, дамь, даси> give -- to give
  • єгожє аштє -- relative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <ижє аштє> whoever -- whatsoever
  • въспроситъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <въспросити, -шѫ, -сиши> demand -- she would ask

она жє наваждєна матєрѭ своєѭ даждь ми рєчє сьдє на мисѣ главѫ иоана крьститєлја |
  • она -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <онъ> that -- she
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • наваждєна -- verb; past passive participle <навадити, -ждѫ, -диши> influence, urge -- being (before) instructed
  • матєрѭ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <мати> mother -- of... mother
  • своєѭ -- adjective; instrumental singular feminine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- her
  • даждь -- verb; 2nd person imperative singular of <дати, дамь, даси> give -- give
  • ми -- pronoun; dative singular of <азъ> I -- me
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • сьдє -- adverb; <сьдє> here -- here
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- in
  • мисѣ -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <миса> dish, plate -- a charger
  • главѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <глава> head; chapter -- head
  • иоана -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Иоанъ> John -- John
  • крьститєлја -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <крьститєл҄ь> baptist -- the Baptist's

и пєчальнъ бъістъ цѣсар҄ь | клѧтвъ жє ради и възлєжѧштиихъ съ н҄имъ повєлѣ дати и и посълавъ ѹсѣкнѫ иоана въ тьмьници |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • пєчальнъ -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <пєчальнъ> sad -- sorry
  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- was
  • цѣсар҄ь -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <цѣсар҄ь> king, ruler -- the king
  • клѧтвъ -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <клѧтва> oath -- the oath's
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- nevertheless
  • ради -- postposition; <ради> for, for the sake of, because of -- for... sake
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • възлєжѧштиихъ -- verb; present active participle used as substantive <възлєжати, -жѫ, -жиши> lie, recline -- them which sat... at meat
  • съ -- preposition; <съ> with -- with
  • н҄имъ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • повєлѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <повєлѣти, -лѭ, -лиши> give a command, command -- he commanded
  • дати -- verb; infinitive of <дати, дамь, даси> give -- (it) to be given (her)
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- ...
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • посълавъ -- verb; past active participle <посълати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> send, summon -- he sent
  • ѹсѣкнѫ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹсѣкнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> behead -- (and) beheaded
  • иоана -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Иоанъ> John -- John
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • тьмьници -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <тьмьница> prison -- the prison

и принѣсѧ главѫ єго на мисѣ и дашѧ дѣвици и нєсє матєри своєи | и пристѫпл҄ьшє ѹчєници єго възѧсѧ тѣло єго и погрѣсѧ є и пришьдъшє възвѣстишѧ иисѹсови |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • принѣсѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <принєсти, -сѫ, -сєши> bring, carry -- was brought
  • главѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <глава> head; chapter -- head
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- his
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- in
  • мисѣ -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <миса> dish, plate -- a charger
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • дашѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <дати, дамь, даси> give -- given
  • дѣвици -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <дѣвица> girl, virgin -- to the damsel
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • нєсє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <нєсти, -сѫ, -сєши> bring -- she brought (it)
  • матєри -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <мати> mother -- to... mother
  • своєи -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- her
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • пристѫпл҄ьшє -- verb; past active participle <пристѫпити, -пл҄ѭ, -пиши> come up to, step up -- came
  • ѹчєници -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ѹчєникъ> student, disciple -- disciples
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- his
  • възѧсѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <възѧти, -зьмѫ, -зьмєши> pick up, take -- (and) took up
  • тѣло -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <тѣло> body -- the body
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- ...
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • погрѣсѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <погрєти, -грєбѫ, -грєбєши> bury -- buried
  • є -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <*и> he -- it
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • пришьдъшє -- verb; past active participle <прити, -идѫ, -идєши> come, arrive -- went
  • възвѣстишѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <възвѣстити, -штѫ, -стиши> proclaim -- (and) told
  • иисѹсови -- proper noun, masculine; dative singular of <Исѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus

Lesson Text

въ оно врѣмѧ ѹслъіша иродъ тєтрархъ слѹхъ иисѹсовъ | и рєчє отрокомъ своимъ сь єстъ иоанъ крьститєл҄ь тъ въскрьсє отъ мрьтвъіихъ и сєго ради силъі дѣѭтъ сѧ о н҄ємь | иродъ бо имъ иоана съвѧза и и въсади и въ тьмьницѫ иродьјадъі ради жєнъі филипа братра своєго | глаголаашє бо ємѹ иоанъ нє достоитъ ти имѣти єѧ | и хотѧ и ѹбити ѹбоја сѧ народа зан҄є пророка имѣахѫ и | дьни жє бъівъшѹ рождьства иродова плѧса дъшти иродьјадина по срѣдѣ и ѹгоди иродови | тѣмьжє съ клѧтвоѭ издрєчє єи дати єгожє аштє въспроситъ | она жє наваждєна матєрѭ своєѭ даждь ми рєчє сьдє на мисѣ главѫ иоана крьститєлја | и пєчальнъ бъістъ цѣсар҄ь | клѧтвъ жє ради и възлєжѧштиихъ съ н҄имъ повєлѣ дати и и посълавъ ѹсѣкнѫ иоана въ тьмьници | и принѣсѧ главѫ єго на мисѣ и дашѧ дѣвици и нєсє матєри своєи | и пристѫпл҄ьшє ѹчєници єго възѧсѧ тѣло єго и погрѣсѧ є и пришьдъшє възвѣстишѧ иисѹсови |

Translation

(14:1) At that time Herod the tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus. (2) And he said unto his servants, This is John the Baptist; he is risen from the dead; and therefore mighty works do shew forth themselves in him. (3) For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him, and put him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife. (4) For John said unto him, It is not lawful for thee to have her. (5) And when he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him as a prophet. (6) But when Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced before them, and pleased Herod. (7) Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask. (8) And she, being before instructed of her mother, said, Give me here John the Baptist's head in a charger. (9) And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath's sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he commanded it to be given her. (10) And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison. (11) And his head was brought in a charger, and given to the damsel: and she brought it to her mother. (12) And his disciples came, and took up the body, and buried it, and went and told Jesus.

Grammar

6 Palatalization and Reduced Vowels
6.1 Palatalization of Velars

As mentioned in the previous lesson, palatalization of consonants was a very productive process in the OCS language. Knowledge of such sound changes will be of assistance in looking up forms in the dictionary. For example, when confronted with рождѫ, one must know to look up родити. Thus it is appropriate to devote attention to some of the broad patterns governing palatalization.

Palatization is a term denoting a change of a consonant in certain environments. When next to a "front" sound, a consonant becomes more "front". This is similar to the process whereby American English "aren't you" becomes "arenchoo". The t and y are brought closer to each other in pronunciation in a smoothing-out process. The dental t picks up some of the palatal articulation of the y, giving the ch sound. The same holds for palatalization of consonants in OCS, with a perhaps slightly different sense of what "smoothed-out" means.

In the stages of linguistic prehistory leading up to the documents of OCS, there appear to have been three separate stages of palatalization which affected the velar sounds k,g,x. To see what distinguishes the stages, one must first briefly note the history of some of the OCS vowels. In particular, in Common Slavonic, there had been vowels e:, i: (long e and long i) and diphthongs ej, oj, aj; these had variously changed into the ѣ and и of OCS as written down.

First Palatalization: In this stage, k,g,x changed into č',ž',š'. The environment for this change was one in which the velar was followed by a front vowel (ě, e, i, ĭ, ę) or soft liquid sonant (r', l' thought of essentially as vowels). However, this only happened before when it was derived from e:; before following i only when it developed from i: or ej. For example, the first person is могѫ 'I am able', but the second person is можєши 'you are able', from *mog-eši (the asterisk denotes a form not attested, but reconstructed).

In the same environment, sk, zk became sč, zdž, then šč, ždž, and finally št, žd. For example, искѫ 'I demand', but иштєши 'you demand'.

Also in this stage kt, gt both became št. Hence мошти 'to be able' from *mog-ti; also рєшти 'to say' from *rek-ti.

Second Palatalization: In this stage k,g,x became c', dz' (> z'), s', respectively, when followed by or i. This phase came about when the diphthongs oj, aj became or i. Since o, a are back vowels, preceding consonants would not be subject to palatalization. When the diphthongs, however, containing o and a became the front vowels ѣ, і, then palatalization took place. For example, отрокъ 'boy', but отроци 'boys' from *otrok-oj; also рєкѫ 'I say', but рьци 'say!' from *rĭk-oj.

In addition, -sk-, -zg- became -sc-, -zdz-, sometimes developing into -st-, -zd-. Thus людьскъ 'human', but людьсции 'humans', and further людьстии.

Third Palatalization: During this stage, k,g,x became c', dz' (> z'),s' when preceded by a front vowel and followed by a back vowel. Thus кънѧзь 'prince' from the Germanic *kuning -- however кънѧгъін҄и 'princess' preserves the velar g.

6.2 Softening Chart

The following chart provides a summary of how the velars are palatalized. It indicates, for a given consonant, other consonants that may have developed from it. Knowledge of these possibilities is crucial for navigating the dictionaries.

Velars and Fricatives

    к > ч or ц   ск > щ   ц > ч
    г > ж or ѕ   зг > жд   ѕ > ж
    х > ш or с        

Below is a chart outlining other consonantal changes which are often encountered.

Dentals, Labials, Resonants

    т > щ   п > пл҄   л > л҄   сн > шн҄
    д > жд   б > бл҄   р > р҄   зн > жн҄
    с > ш   в > вл҄   н > н҄   сл > чл҄
    з > ж   м > мл҄        
    ст > щ            
    зд > жд            

These are intended to be used as a dictionary of correspondences, read from right to left. Given something to the right of ">", in looking up a word in a lexicon, check under spellings to the left of ">".

7 Reduced Vowels

Reduced vowels is a common term denoting the jers ъ and ь. In the language of the OCS texts, these reduced vowels were still pronounced. However, in the language of the scribes writing the manuscripts, they were well on their way out, and so one finds spellings of OCS words that reflect the scribes' own tendencies. In particular, jers are at times omitted, at other times changed into full (i.e. non-reduced) vowels. Whether omission or change to a full vowel would occur depended on the position the jer occupied within a word. One must realize, however, that "word" could mean any part of an utterance pronounced "together", without a break.

7.1 Strong and Weak Jers

Of special importance is the distinction between strong and weak position of jers. Either jer (ъ or ь) may be strong or weak. To determine which, start at the end of the word (the right-hand side) and work toward the front (left): the first jer one encounters is weak, the next strong, the next weak, strong, and so on. If one encounters a (full) vowel, start over: weak, strong, weak, etc. For example, in the city name съмольньскъ, the sequence (read the following from left to right) is weak-(full vowel)-weak-strong-weak (ъ-о-ь-ь-ъ).

When pronounced, strong jers were often promoted to full vowels, and weak jers dropped. The back jer ъ in strong position became the back vowel о, and the front jer ь became the front vowel є. So, in accordance with the strong-weak pattern from above, съмольньскъ evolves into смолнєск.

Why then is смолнєск not the city name familiar from Russian geography? One must realize that the form съмольньскъ is not the only one which will occur in the language. This is the nominative form; but the genitive is съмольньска. The dative is съмольньскѹ. Most forms of this word will not have a jer following the к. By the strong-weak pattern, the genitive form съмольньска has (now from left to right) weak-(full vowel)-strong-weak-(full vowel). Dropping weak jers and promoting stong jers to the corresponding full vowels, this becomes смолєнска. This is the name Smolensk as commonly encountered.

Another example is the word дьнь 'day'. Dropping weak and promoting strong jers would give дєн. However, дьнь is often found in combination with the word сь 'this'. Together, дьнь сь means 'this day', 'today'. The two-word combination дьнь сь as a unit has a weak-strong-weak pattern, yielding днєс 'today'.

7.2 Tense Jers

The tense position of jers is also important. A jer is said to be tense when it is followed by a glide, j. The jer vocalized as the corresponding full vowel by the rules ĭj > ij and ŭj > yj. Spellings alternate between showing the jer and showing the fully vocalized form: абьѥ vs. абиѥ 'suddenly'; пьѭ vs. пиѭ 'I drink'. As with strong and weak postition, one must consider entire units: въ истинѫ becomes въі истинѫ 'in truth'.

Moreover, when ь was preceded by the glide j, it was vocalized as the full vowel и. Thus *jĭže > *jiže, which is written as ижє 'he who'. This situation is often found in combination with tense position of a nearby jer in the forms of the definite adjective (long form of the adjective). For example, the adjective свѧтъ 'holy' with the appended pronoun *jĭ 'he' becomes svętŭjĭ 'the one who is holy'. The following glide makes the tense, so that it becomes y. And the preceding glide means the is pronounced as i. Hence the adjective is often written as svętyi. The spellings svętŭi and svęty are also found.

8 Personal Pronouns
8.1 First and Second Person Pronouns

The nominative forms of the first and second person pronouns are only used for emphasis, being otherwise unnecessary because the subject is implicit in the verb. The oblique forms, however, are quite commonly used. There are no special "formal" pronouns in OCS; one uses the same pronoun "you" regardless of whether one addresses someone of higher or lower social status. The paradigms for азъ 'I' and тъі 'you' (lit. 'thou') are given below.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   азъ   вѣ   мъі
A   мѧ   на (нъі)   нъі
G   мєнє   наю   насъ
L   мьнѣ   наю   насъ
D   мьнѣ (ми)   нама (на)   намъ (нъі)
I   мъноѭ   нама   нами
    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   тъі   ва (въі)   въі
A   тѧ   ва (въі)   въі
G   тєбє   ваю   васъ
L   тєбѣ   ваю   васъ
D   тєбѣ (ти)   вама (ва)   вамъ (въі)
I   тобоѭ   вама   вами

The forms in parentheses are alternate forms, which are enclitic, usually standing after the first accented word of a clause.

8.2 Reflexive Pronoun

Forms of the reflexive pronoun are found only in the oblique cases. In English it is usually rendered by '-self': 'George laughed at himself'; 'One should not give too much of oneself away'; 'He stared at the dog scratching itself.' Although in English one might also say 'They talked amongst themselves', making the reflexive plural in accordance with the subject, this is not done in OCS. It refers to the subject as a whole, and is declined only in the singular.

    Sg./Du./Pl.
N   -
A   сѧ
G   сєбє
L   сєбѣ
D   сєбѣ (си)
I   собоѭ
8.3 Third Person Pronoun

The third person pronoun is most commonly used in oblique cases. It is formed from the stem j-, and so the nominative masculine singular form would be jĭ, which in the orthography of OCS would become и. Since the nominative singular forms of this stem do not occur, the asterisk indicates that the nominative forms are reconstructed. When a third person pronoun is needed in the nominative, forms of тъ 'that' or онъ 'that one there', more rarely сь 'this', are used. Their declensions will be given in subsequent lessons; below is the declension of the pronoun .

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.       *ја
A   и   є   ѭ
G   єго   єго   єѧ
L   ємь   ємь   єи
D   ємѹ   ємѹ   єи
I   имь   имь   єѭ
             
N Du.   ја   и   и
A   ја   и   и
G   єю   єю   єю
L   єю   єю   єю
D   има   има   има
I   има   има   има
             
N Pl.     ја   ѧ
A   ѧ   ја   ѧ
G   ихъ   ихъ   ихъ
L   ихъ   ихъ   ихъ
D   имъ   имъ   имъ
I   ими   ими   ими

When the enclitic particle жє is attached to the forms of , one obtains the relative pronoun. Thus ижє 'he who' (this form does occur in the nominative), єижє 'the (female) one to whom', єюжє 'the two of whom', and likewise for the other forms.

The genitive of male nouns is often used in place of the accusative, so that єго will often function as direct object. и nevertheless still occurs, and should not be confused with the conjunction и 'and'; it is used only enclitically, e.g. избавитъ и 'he shall save him.' The genitive of the feminine pronoun is not used to replace the accusative, so that єѧ is 'of her'.

When following prepositions, these pronouns take a prothetic n-, hence къ н҄имъ 'to them' instead of имъ, на н҄ємь 'on him', and so forth. One writes въ н҄ь 'in him' and not въ н҄и because the accusative form и is actually jĭ. The collocation evolves as vŭn jĭ > vŭ njĭ, and so vŭ n'ĭ. This appearance of the prothetic н apparently started with the prepositions къ, въ, and съ, whose forms in PIE had a final -n (cf. OCS съ and Lat. cum); subsequently the prothetic n- came to be used with the other prepositions as well.

9 The Present System of Verbs

The present system of verbs includes the following: present and imperfect indicative, imperative, infinitive and participle. The present and imperfect indicative were discussed in Lesson 1, with example paradigms of the verbs глаголати 'to say' and молити 'to beg'. These indicative forms refer to actual actions; the only finite verb forms referring to potential action that are built from the present stem are those of the imperative. These are historically optative forms: the optative marker -i- was added to the thematic vowel -o-, resulting in the diphthong -oj-. In OCS this was monophthongized to -ѣ-. When following -j- or a palatal consonant, or when final, this became -и-.

Imperative for the verbs глаголати, -лѭ, -лѥши 'say'; молити, -лѭ, -лиши 'beg'; знати, знаѭ, знаѥши 'know'; вєсти, вєдѫ, вєдєши 'lead'.

Infin.   глаголати   молити   знати   вєсти
    'to say'   'to beg'   'to know'   'to lead'
                 
Imperat.                
1st Sg.   -   -   -   -
2nd   глагол҄и   моли   знаи [znaji]   вєди
3rd   глагол҄и   моли   знаи   вєди
                 
1st Du.   глагол҄ивѣ   моливѣ   знаивѣ   вєдѣвѣ
2nd   глагол҄ита   молита   знаита   вєдѣта
3rd   -   -   -   -
                 
1st Pl.   глагол҄имъ   молимъ   знаимъ   вєдѣмъ
2nd   глагол҄итє   молитє   знаитє   вєдѣтє
3rd   -   -   -   -

Phrases representing the first singular and third plural imperatives may be formed by using the particle да with the present indicative, e.g. да придѫ 'may I come, let me come'; да придѫтъ 'may they come, let them come'.

Verbs of the same type as глаголати and знати also have plural endings -јамъ and -јатє, e.g. глагол҄јамъ beside глагол҄имъ, глагол҄јатє beside глагол҄итє.

The infinitive is characterized by the ending -ти. Often the stem undergoes certain sound changes when the infinitive ending is added, e.g. the stem вєд- gives infinitive вєсти, and рєк- gives рєшти.

The stem of the present active participle may be obtained from the third person plural present indicative of verbs. The stem is -ѫшт- or -ѧшт-, as may be determined from the third plural present indicative. Thus глаголати 'to say' has 3rd plural глагол҄ѭтъ; hence the present active participle is formed from the stem глагол҄ѭшт-. By contrast, слъішати 'to hear' has 3rd plural слъішѧтъ, giving слъішѧшт- for the participle stem. The masculine nominative singular form is different, being either -ъі or -ѧ. -ѧ is appended to stems ending in a palatal consonant (including -j-), -ъі to all others, as in the following examples:

Conjugation   Nom. Masc. Sg.   Gen. Masc. Sg.
I   ид-ъі 'going'   ид-ѫшт-а
II   двигн-ъі 'moving'   двигн-ѫшт-а
III   зна-ѩ 'knowing'   зна-ѭшт-а
IV   мол-ѧ 'begging'   мол-ѧшт-а
V   дад-ъі 'giving'   дад-ѫшт-а

The numbers under the "conjugation" column refer to a classification system which will be explained in subsequent lessons. The full declension of the present active participle will also be given later.

The present passive participle is formed by adding -мъ to the present tense stem. It is then declined as an o-/a-stem adjective, as will be discussed in the next lesson, e.g. молити gives молимъ '(being) carried'.

10 Conjunctions and Particles

As one sees from the reading selections, rarely are two independent OCS statements placed simply one after the other. In most utterances a particle such as и or жє is used to signal the transition, sometimes highlighting the dependence of one statement on the other, other times merely marking the beginning of a new thought. Each nevertheless adds its own nuance, and so some of the more important particles are touched upon below. One must bear in mind that each particle has its own preferred position within a clause, some coming at the head (proclitic), some as the (usually) second element (enclitic). This position is noted for each particle below.

а, али 'but' Proclitic. Sets two parts of a statement in opposition: иєбо и зємл҄ѣ мимо идєтъ, а словєса моѣ нє мимо идѫтъ "heaven and earth will pass, but my words will not pass away."

ако, јако, ѣко 'that, so that, how, when' Proclitic. This has an incredible range of meaning. It introduces indirect speech as does 'that' in English "he said that she..." or "I thought that she...". It may also introduce direct speech, functioning as an opening quotation mark. It has the sense of 'when' or 'as' in и ѣко приближи сѧ, видивъ градъ плака сѧ о нємь "when he was come near, having beheld the city he wept over it". Similarly и отъпѹсти намъ длъгъі иашѧ, јако и мъі отъпѹштаѥмъ "and forgive us our debts, as we forgive...".

аштє 'if, whether' Proclitic. This is a conditional particle: аштє хоштєши, можєши "if you wish, you are able." Also used to generalize relative pronouns: ижє 'he who', ижє аштє 'whoever, whosoever'.

бо 'for, because' Enclitic. Often used after и as ибо 'and really': ибо и пси ѣдѧтъ "for even the dogs eat."

да 'in order that' Proclitic. Introduces final result: ѣко сънидъ с нєбєсє, да нє творѫ волѧ моѥѩ, нъ волѭ посълабъшааго мѧ "for I came down from heaven, not that I do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me." Through statements like народъ жє запрѣти има да ѹмльчитє "the crowd rebuked the two, that they be quiet", it is not difficult to see how this particle also comes to be used with a following verb in the present indicative to give a direct command: да свѧтитъ сѧ имѧ твоє "Hallowed be Thy name."

жє 'on the other hand, or, and' Enclitic. Highlights the contrast between clauses; often untranslated, or rendered weakly by a simple narrative 'and': бъістъ жє налєзѧштю ємь иародѹ "and it happened, while the people pressed upon him, that...". Attached to pronouns, they become relative pronouns -- thus єго 'of it', єгожє 'of which, of that which': издрєчє єи дати єгожє аштє въспроситъ "he promised to give her whatsoever she would ask."

и 'and; even, too' Proclitic. This may connect clauses, as in въ оно врѣмѧ ѹслъіша иродъ тєтрархъ слѹхъ иисѹсовъ и рєчє отрокомъ своимъ "during that time Herod heard the fame of Jesus, and he said to his servants..."; or it may be used as an adverb within a clause: посъла и того къ нимъ "he sent also him to them".

идє 'for, since' Proclitic. Not to be confused with the aorist form идє 'he went'. Thus како бѫдєтъ сє идє мѫжа нє знаѭ "how shall this be, since I do not know a man".

ли 'or'; ли...ли 'either... or' Proclitic or enclitic. This most generallymarks a question; when enclitic, usually a direct question: онъжє рєчє кръстијанъін҄и ли ѥси "and he said, are you a Christian woman?" When proclitic, it takes the meaning 'or': ли како рєчєши братѹ твоємѹ "or how will you speak to your brother?"

нє 'not'; нє...ни 'neither... nor' нє generally stands before the item negated, occuring once in a main clause; ни may occur several times in the same clause. Thus нѣсмъ азъ христосъ "I am not the Christ", and да нє видѧтъ очима ни разѹмѣѭтъ срьдьцємь "so that they not see with the eyes, nor understand with the heart." Compare придє иоанъ ни пиѧ ни јадъі "John came, neither drinking nor eating."

нъ 'but' Proclitic. Connects two clauses: татъ нє приходитъ, нъ да ѹкрадєтъ "the thief comes not, but that he steal."

то 'then, so' Proclitic. Correlative to аштє 'if': аштє ли хоштєши въ животъ вънити, то съхрани заповѣди "but if you wish to enter into life, then keep the commandments."

ѥгда, ѥгдажє 'when, if' Proclitic. For example, придѫтъ жє дьниє, єгдажє отънимєтъ сѧ отъ нихъ жєнихъ "but the days will come, when the bridegroom will be taken from them."

ѥда 'surely not' Proclitic. Introduces a question expecting a negative answer. Thus єда и мъі слѣпи єсмъ "are we blind as well?", meaning "surely we are not blind, are we?"

Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 3

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

At the time St. Cyril, then still known as Constantine, was receiving his education in Byzantium, there was a strong German effort to convert the Slavic population in Moravia to the Roman Catholic faith. Their teachings however were in Latin, and as a result, in 862 or 863, the Moravian Prince Rostislav sent to the Byzantine Emperor Michael III for a "bishop and a teacher," saying, "My people have rejected paganism and hold the Christian law, but we do not have a teacher who could preach to us in our own native tongue." The Emperor quickly chose to send Constantine, accompanied by his brother Methodius, justifying his decision with the words "You two are from Salonika, and all Thessalonians speak pure Slavonic." Constantine immediately composed an alphabet and with his brother began the process of translating the Gospels into Slavonic. It appears that, at the time, the Slavonic dialects were little enough differentiated so that a translation could be made which would be broadly intelligible.

In Moravia the brothers were well received by Prince Rostislav. Their missionary work continued for some years, although it met with constant opposition from the German clergy. After a few years, the brothers decided to depart the area, though their destination is not certain. On the way the two stopped at the court of a local ruler by the name Kocel. There, fifty new students accompanied them when they resumed their journey. They subsequently stopped in Venice, where Constantine was again inveighed against by clergy asserting that God could be praised only in the three 'holy' languages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. Constantine stated, in response,

"Are ye not ashamed to mention only three tongues, and to command all other nations and tribes to be blind and deaf? Tell me, render ye God powerless, that He is incapable of granting this? or envious, that He desires this not? We know of numerous peoples who possess writing, and render glory unto God, each in his own tongue. Surely these are obvious: Armenians, Persians, Abkhazians, Iberians, Sogdians, Goths, Avars, Turks, Khazars, Arabs, Egyptians, and many others."

While in Venice, the brothers received an invitation from Pope Nicholas I to come to Rome. They accepted the invitation and arrived in Rome in late 867 or early 868 only to be greeted by Pope Hadrian II, who informed them that Nicholas I had passed away in November. Nevertheless the Slavonic liturgy was blessed by the Pope, and the two brothers were consecrated priests along with their disciples. Unfortunately, Constantine soon fell ill. It was at this time that he became a monk and adopted the name Cyril. Fifty days later, on 14 February 869, Cyril passed away.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following text is excerpted from the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 20, verses 30-34. In this tale, Jesus gives sight to two blind men he chances upon as he travels from Jericho. The OCS translation is linguistically telling in its use of the dual number throughout. By this time the dual in Greek had completely fallen away, so that the original Greek passage uses solely plural forms. The translation, by contrast, displays that the dual was a fully functioning morphological category by no means restricted to archaic phrases or purely "natural pairs."

и сє дъва слѣпьса сѣдѧшта при пѫти слъішавъша јако иисѹсъ мимо ходитъ възъпистє глагол҄ѭшта помилѹи нъі господи съінѹ давъідовъ |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • сє -- interjection; <сє> lo, behold -- behold
  • дъва -- adjective; nominative dual masculine of <дъва, дъвѣ> two -- two
  • слѣпьса -- adjective; nominative dual masculine of <слѣпьсь> blind -- blind (men)
  • сѣдѧшта -- verb; present active participle <сѣдѣти, -ждѫ, -диши> sit, remain -- sitting
  • при -- preposition; <при> near; at the time of -- by
  • пѫти -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <пѫть> road, way, journey -- the way (side)
  • слъішавъша -- verb; past active participle <слъішати, -шаѭ, -шаѥши> hear -- when they heard
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • мимо -- adverb; <мимо> past, by -- by
  • ходитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ходити, -ждѫ, -диши> walk, go -- passed
  • възъпистє -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <възъпити, -пиѭ, -пиѥши> cry out -- cried out
  • глагол҄ѭшта -- verb; present active participle <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saying
  • помилѹи -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <помиловати, -лѹѭ, -лѹѥши> pity, have mercy on -- have mercy on
  • нъі -- pronoun; accusative dual of <азъ> I -- us
  • господи -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <господь> lord, master -- O Lord
  • съінѹ -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <съінъ> son -- (thou) son
  • давъідовъ -- adjective; vocative singular masculine of <давъідовъ> of David, David's -- of David

народъ жє запрѣти има да ѹмльчитє | она жє пачє въпьјаашєтє глагол҄ѭшта помилѹи нъі господи съінѹ давъідовъ |
  • народъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <народъ> crowd, multitude -- the multitude
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • запрѣти -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <запрѣтити, -штѫ, -тиши> threaten, rebuke -- rebuked
  • има -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <*и> he -- them
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- because
  • ѹмльчитє -- verb; 3rd person dual present of <ѹмлъчати, -чѫ, -чиши> be quiet, fall silent -- they should hold their peace
  • она -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <онъ> that -- they
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but
  • пачє -- adverb; <пачє> more, even more -- the more
  • въпьјаашєтє -- verb; 3rd person dual imperfect of <въпити, -пиѭ, -пиѥши> cry out -- cried
  • глагол҄ѭшта -- verb; present active participle <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saying
  • помилѹи -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <помиловати, -лѹѭ, -лѹѥши> pity, have mercy on -- have mercy on
  • нъі -- pronoun; accusative dual of <азъ> I -- us
  • господи -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <господь> lord, master -- O Lord
  • съінѹ -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <съінъ> son -- (thou) son
  • давъідовъ -- adjective; vocative singular masculine of <давъідовъ> of David, David's -- of David

и ставъ иисѹсъ възгласи ја и рєчє чьто хоштєта да сътвор҄ѭ вама | глаголастє ємѹ господи да отврьзєтє сѧ наю очи |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • ставъ -- verb; past active participle <стајати, стаѭ, стаѥши> stand -- stood still
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • възгласи -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <възгласити, -шѫ, -сиши> hail, cry out -- called
  • ја -- pronoun; accusative dual masculine of <*и> he -- them
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • чьто -- interrogative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <чьто> what -- what
  • хоштєта -- verb; 2nd person dual present of <хотѣти, хоштѫ, хоштєши> want, wish -- will ye
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • сътвор҄ѭ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <сътворити, -рѭ, -риши> do, make -- I shall do
  • вама -- pronoun; dative dual of <тъі> you, thou -- unto you
  • глаголастє -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- they say
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- unto him
  • господи -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <господь> lord, master -- Lord
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • отврьзєтє сѧ -- verb; 2nd person dual present reflexive of <отъврѣсти, -връзѫ, -връзєши> open -- may be opened
  • наю -- pronoun; dative dual of <азъ> I -- our
  • очи -- noun, neuter; nominative dual of <око> eye -- eyes

милосрьдовавъ жє иисѹсъ прикоснѫ сѧ очью има и абьє прозьрѣстє и по н҄ємь идєтє |
  • милосрьдовавъ -- verb; past active participle <милосрьдовати, -дѹѭ, -дѹѥши> take pity on -- had compassion (on them)
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- so
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • прикоснѫ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <прикоснѫти сѧ, -нѫ, -нєши> touch -- (and) touched
  • очью -- noun, neuter; locative dual of <око> eye -- eyes
  • има -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <*и> he -- their
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • абьє -- particle; <абьє> right away -- immediately
  • прозьрѣстє -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <прозрѣти, -зрѭ, -зриши> see, gain power of sight; forsee -- their eyes received sight
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • по -- preposition; <по> after; according to -- ...
  • н҄ємь -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • идєтє -- verb; 3rd person dual present of <ити, идѫ, идєши> go -- they followed

Lesson Text

и сє дъва слѣпьса сѣдѧшта при пѫти слъішавъша јако иисѹсъ мимо ходитъ възъпистє глагол҄ѭшта помилѹи нъі господи съінѹ давъідовъ | народъ жє запрѣти има да ѹмльчитє | она жє пачє въпьјаашєтє глагол҄ѭшта помилѹи нъі господи съінѹ давъідовъ | и ставъ иисѹсъ възгласи ја и рєчє чьто хоштєта да сътвор҄ѭ вама | глаголастє ємѹ господи да отврьзєтє сѧ наю очи | милосрьдовавъ жє иисѹсъ прикоснѫ сѧ очью има и абьє прозьрѣстє и по н҄ємь идєтє |

Translation

(30) And, behold, two blind men sitting by the way side, when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried out, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou son of David. (31) And the multitude rebuked them, because they should hold their peace: but they cried the more, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou son of David. (32) And Jesus stood still, called them, and said, What will ye that I shall do unto you? (33) They say unto him, Lord, that our eyes may be opened. (34) So Jesus had compassion on them, and touched their eyes: and immediately their eyes received sight, and they followed him.

Grammar

11 i-Stem and u-Stem Nouns
11.1 i-Stem Nouns

The nouns of the i-stem declension (sometimes called the simple nominal declension) are predominantly feminine, though there are some masculine nouns as well. Especially common is the i-stem ending -ость attached to adjectives to form abstract nouns, e.g. бѣлъ 'white' gives бѣлость 'whiteness'. Below are the paradigms for the feminine кость 'bone' and masculine пѫть 'road'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   кость   кости   кости
A   кость   кости   кости
G   кости   костью   костьи
L   кости   костью   костьхъ
D   кости   костьма   костьмъ
I   костьѭ   костьма   костьми
V   кости   кости   кости
    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   пѫть   пѫти   пѫтьє
A   пѫть   пѫти   пѫти
G   пѫти   пѫтью   пѫтьи
L   пѫти   пѫтью   пѫтьхъ
D   пѫти   пѫтьма   пѫтьмъ
I   пѫтьмь   пѫтьма   пѫтьми
V   пѫти   пѫти   пѫтьє

As always, the rules of strong/weak/tense jers apply to these forms. Hence, the form костьѭ, being equivalent to kostĭjǫ, has a tense jer, resulting in the alternate spelling костиѭ; likewise костьи (equivalent to kostĭjĭ) has the alternate spelling костии, and similarly for the other forms. The latter form may also be considered to have a strong-weak alternation of jers, so that full vocalization gives the variant костєи. Likewise костємъ occurs in place of костьмъ, and so on.

11.2 u-Stem Nouns

The u-stem nouns are a relatively small group of nouns which exhibit rather archaic endings. In many instances a given noun will not take all of its forms from this declension, but will also use certain endings from the o-stem declension. A common noun with many extant forms from this declension is съінъ 'son'. It is declined as follows.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   съінъ   съінъі   съіновє
A   съінъ   съінъі   съінъі
G   съінѹ   съіновѹ   съіновъ
L   съінѹ   съіновѹ   съінохъ (<*съінъхъ)
D   съінови   съінъма   съіномъ (<*съінъмъ)
I   съіномь   съінъма   съінъми
    (<*съінъмь)        
V   съінѹ   съінъі   съіновє

Even this noun in many texts shows endings of the o-declension: V. sg. съінє, G. sg. съіна, D. sg. съінѹ, L. sg. съінѣ; N.A.V. du. съіна, G. L. du. съінѹ; N. pl. съіни, G. pl. съінъ, I. pl. съінъі. At times the conflation of endings is more subtle, so that one finds N. pl. съінови, where the -и of the o-declension has replaced the -є. Another important noun showing a mixture of endings from this and the o-declension is домъ 'house'.

12 o- and a-Stem Adjectives

There are two types of adjective declension, the one taking essentially the same endings as the o-stem and a-stem nouns, the other taking these endings followed by corresponding forms of the pronoun 'he'. Here are discussed the o- and a-stem adjectives, also known as the simple twofold adjectives. These may be divided into hard and soft stems, like the corresponding nouns. The paradigms of the hard stem adjective добръ 'good' and the soft stem adjective ништь 'poor' are given below.

The hard stem, simple twofold declension is as follows.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   добръ   добро   добра
A   добръ   добро   добрѫ
G   добра   добра   добръі
L   добрѣ   добрѣ   добрѣ
D   добрѹ   добрѹ   добрѣ
I   добромь   добромь   доброѭ
V   добрє   добро   -
             
N Du.   добра   добрѣ   добрѣ
A   добра   добрѣ   добрѣ
G   добрѹ   добрѹ   добрѹ
L   добрѹ   добрѹ   добрѹ
D   доброма   доброма   добрама
I   доброма   доброма   добрама
V   добра   добрѣ   добрѣ
             
N Pl.   добри   добра   добръі
A   добръі   добра   добръі
G   добръ   добръ   добръ
L   добрѣхъ   добрѣхъ   добрахъ
D   добромъ   добромъ   добрамъ
I   добръі   добръі   добрами
V   добри   добра   добръі

The soft stem, simple twofold adjectives are formed as below.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   ништь   ништє   ништа
A   ништь   ништє   ништѫ
G   ништа   ништа   ништѧ
L   ништи   ништи   ништи
D   ништю   ништю   ништи
    ништѹ   ништѹ    
I   ништємь   ништємь   ништєѭ
V   -   ништє   -
             
N Du.   ништа   ништи   ништи
A   ништа   ништи   ништи
G   ништю   ништю   ништю
    ништѹ   ништѹ   ништѹ
L   ништю   ништю   ништю
    ништѹ   ништѹ   ништѹ
D   ништєма   ништєма   ништама
I   ништєма   ништєма   ништама
V   ништа   ништи   ништи
             
N Pl.   ништи   ништа   ништѧ
A   ништѧ   ништа   ништѧ
G   ништь   ништь   ништь
L   ништихъ   ништихъ   ништахъ
D   ништємъ   ништємъ   ништамъ
I   ништи   ништи   ништами
V   ништи   ништа   ништѧ

The usual sound change rules apply, so that velar consonants are palatalized before endings beginning with front vowels. Also, in stems ending with a glide, the -ь of the soft declension may combine with -j- to give -и. For example the stem божи- [božij-] 'God's, divine' has the masculine nominative singular form божии [božiji < božijĭ].

13 Pronominal Declension

The pronominal declension has been encountered in the paradigm of the third person pronoun 'he'. This pattern of declension also holds with minor modifications for a large number of demonstrative and possessive adjectives. In general these are all characterized by the suffix -го in the genitive singular for masculine and neuter genders. As with nouns and adjectives, these may be divided into hard and soft stems according as whether the -го is added to the base by the vowel -о- or -є-, respectively; likewise, whether the genitive plural ending -хъ is affixed via the vowel -ѣ- (hard) or -и- (soft).

The hard stem pronominal declension may be illustrated by the adjective онъ 'that one there, that one yonder'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   онъ   оно   она
A   онъ   оно   онѫ
G   оного   оного   оноѩ
L   ономь   ономь   онои
D   ономѹ   ономѹ   онои
I   онѣмь   онѣмь   оноѭ
             
N Du.   она   онѣ   онѣ
A   она   онѣ   онѣ
G   оною   оною   оною
L   оною   оною   оною
D   онѣма   онѣма   онѣма
I   онѣма   онѣма   онѣма
             
N Pl.   они   она   онъі
A   онъі   она   онъі
G   онѣхъ   онѣхъ   онѣхъ
L   онѣхъ   онѣхъ   онѣхъ
D   онѣмъ   онѣмъ   онѣмъ
I   онѣми   онѣми   онѣми

The demonstrative тъ 'that' also follows the above pattern, as well as correlative demonstratives: овъ... овъ 'this... that'; овъ... инъ 'this (here)... the other (there)'.

The soft stem pronominal declension is illustrated by the paradigm of сь 'this one'. This adjective also has a suppletive stem sij- which shows up in certain nominative and accusative forms.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   сь, сии   сє   си
A   сь   сє   сьѭ
G   сєго   сєго   сєѩ
L   сємь   сємь   сєи
D   сємѹ   сємѹ   сєи
I   симь   симь   сєѭ
             
N Du.   сија   си, сии   си
A   сија   си, сии   си
G   сєю   сєю   сєю
L   сєю   сєю   сєю
D   сима   сима   сима
I   сима   сима   сима
             
N Pl.   сии, си   си   сьѩ
A   сьѩ   си   сьѩ
G   сихъ   сихъ   сихъ
L   сихъ   сихъ   сихъ
D   симъ   симъ   симъ
I   сими   сими   сими

Following the same pattern as the soft declension are possessive adjectives such as мои 'my'. The stem is moj-, so that moj- > moji.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   мои   моѥ   моја
A   мои   моѥ   моѭ
G   моѥго   моѥго   моѥѩ
L   моѥмь   моѥмь   моѥи
D   моѥмѹ   моѥмѹ   моѥи
I   моимь   моимь   моѥѭ
             
N Du.   моја   мои   мои
A   моја   мои   мои
G   моѥю   моѥю   моѥю
L   моѥю   моѥю   моѥю
D   моима   моима   моима
I   моима   моима   моима
             
N Pl.   мои   моја   моѩ
A   моѩ   моја   моѩ
G   моихъ   моихъ   моихъ
L   моихъ   моихъ   моихъ
D   моимъ   моимъ   моимъ
I   моими   моими   моими

Some collective numerals also follow the soft declension: дъвоѥ 'the two, group of two'; обоѥ 'the both'; троѥ 'the three, group of three'.

Regarding the feminine forms of the possessive adjectives, in the G. L. D. I. sg. and G. L. du. typically the -ѥ- is contracted: моѩ, мои, моѭ, and so forth.

A further variant of these declensions, the mixed pronominal declension, is exemplified by the extremely common pronoun вьсь 'entire, every'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N. Sg.   вьсь   вьсє   вьса
A   вьсь   вьсє   вьсѫ
G   вьсєго   вьсєго   вьсєѩ
L   вьсємь   вьсємь   вьсєи
D   вьсємѹ   вьсємѹ   вьсєи
I   вьсѣмь   вьсѣмь   вьсєѭ
             
N Pl.   вьси   вьса   вьсѧ
A   вьсѧ   вьса   вьсѧ
G   вьсѣхъ   вьсѣхъ   вьсѣхъ
L   вьсѣхъ   вьсѣхъ   вьсѣхъ
D   вьсѣмъ   вьсѣмъ   вьсѣмъ
I   вьсѣми   вьсѣми   вьсѣми

For the form вьса of the feminine nominative singular and neuter nom./acc. plural may be found the variants вьсја and вьсѣ.

14 The Aorist System

The aorist denotes an action completed in the past and viewed without regard to the duration of the act. By contrast, the imperfect indicates a continual past action, or a habitual one. Thus 'I was saying' or 'I used to say' correspond to the imperfect, but 'I said' to the aorist. The imperfect is well suited for relating events backgrounded in relation to another action, whereas the aorist delimits the points at which an action is completed. Hence the aorist is used in relating events in a narrative sequence to indicate the proper order of successive events.

There are three types of aorist formations: asigmatic, sigmatic, and new. As the names imply, one was formed by the addition of -s- ("sigma" in Greek) to the base, while another was formed without this extension. These two continued the more archaic formation of the aorist and were later supplanted by a new innovative paradigm.

The starting point for arriving at aorist forms is the infinitive-aorist stem. To obtain this, one takes the infinitive, removes the infinitive marker -ти, and undoes any consonant changes that may have resulted from addition of the -ти in the first place. For example, taking the infinitive глаголати 'to say', removing the -ти yields глагола-. Since this underwent no changes when the -ти was added, this is the aorist stem for this verb. By contrast, if one takes рєшти 'to say', one must note that the -ш- devoloped from -к- palatalized before the infinitive ending. That the final consonant is indeed -к and no other is determined by comparison with other forms of the same verb, e.g. the present tense first person singular рєкѫ. Thus the aorist stem for рєшти is рєк-. Likewise, removing the infinitive ending from мошти 'to be able' yields мог-; here -шт- developed from the combination -г- + -т- (compare the present tense first person singular могѫ). Reconstruction of the proper aorist stem at times requires a little trial and error; it is useful to refer to Section 6 in Lesson 2 on palatalization.

14.1 Asigmatic Aorist

The asigmatic aorist, also called the root or simple aorist, is formed by a relatively small number of verbs. These are verbs either (1) whose infinitive-aorist stems end in a consonant, or (2) whose stems end in the infix -нѫ-, which is then dropped before adding the aorist endings. Although the verbs which exhibit this formation are quite common, many do not display all the forms of the full paradigm. The paradigms for мошти, могѫ, можєши 'be able'; ити, идѫ, идєши 'go'; and двигнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши 'move' are given below.

Stem   мог-   ид-   двиг-
    'be able'   'go'   'move'
             
1st Sg.   могъ   идъ   двигъ
2nd   можє   идє   движє
3rd   можє   идє   движє
             
1st Du.   моговѣ   идовѣ   двиговѣ
2nd   можєта   идєта   движєта
3rd   можєтє   идєтє   движєтє
             
1st Pl.   могомъ   идомъ   двигомъ
2nd   можєтє   идєтє   движєтє
3rd   могѫ   идѫ   двигѫ
14.2 Sigmatic Aorist

The sigmatic or s-aorist is yet another aorist formation which was in decline by the time of the OCS texts. Nevertheless, several common verbs formed the aorist in this manner. The suffix -s- is appended to the infinitive-aorist stem, and the endings are attached to this either directly or via the intervening vowel -o-.

The suffixation of -s- was the catalyst for any number of sound changes in the stem. Some of the most notable are as follows.

RUKI: When preceded by any of r, u, k, i, the -s- developed into -x-. This includes some stems ending in -y-, where it developed from long-u.

g and l: In stems ending in -g or -l, the suffixed -s- became -x-.

Vowel Lengthening: In verbs with monosyllabic stems ending in a consonant, the root vowel was subject to lengthening: o > a, e > , > i. (The terminology "lengthening" derives from the fact that OCS a continues IE long a and long o; continues IE long e and the diphthongs aj, oj; and i continues long i and the diphthong ej. OCS o, e and continue original short vowels.)

The verbs рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши 'say'; вєсти, вєдѫ, вєдєши 'lead'; and ѧти, имѫ, имєши 'take' illustrate this aorist formation.

Stem   рєк-   вєд-   ѧ-
    'say'   'lead'   'take'
             
1st Sg.   рѣхъ   вѣсъ   ѧсъ
2nd   рєчє   вєдє   ѧ, ѧтъ
3rd   рєчє   вєдє   ѧ, ѧтъ
             
1st Du.   рѣховѣ   вѣсовѣ   ѧсовѣ
2nd   рѣста   вѣста   ѧста
3rd   рѣстє   вѣстє   ѧстє
             
1st Pl.   рѣхомъ   вѣсомъ   ѧсомъ
2nd   рѣстє   вѣстє   ѧстє
3rd   рѣшѧ   вѣшѧ   ѧсѧ

The instances in which -s- > -x- were prevalent enough that at times forms with -x- are found where they would not be expected etymologically.

In certain verbs, mostly those with stems ending in r, ę, i, ě, an ending -тъ is added to the 2nd and 3rd persons singular. Thus питъ from пити 'to drink', начѧтъ from начѧти 'to begin', бъістъ from бъіти 'to be', дастъ from дати 'to give' (stem: дад-).

14.3 New Aorist

The new aorist, also termed the ox-aorist for reasons that will become evident below, was an innovative formation which eventually superceded the formations discussed above. This aorist is typically formed by those verbs whose infinitive-aorist stem ends in a consonant, or those with the -нѫ- infix that end in a consonant when the -нѫ- is dropped. The forms are a blend of the simple aorist forms and forms where -ох- intervenes between stem and ending.

For purposes of comparison, some paradigms are given for verbs which also form other types of aorist. Below are the paradigms of двигнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши 'move'; ити, идѫ, идєши 'go'; рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши 'say'; and вєсти, вєдѫ, вєдєши 'lead'.

Stem   двиг-   ид-   рєк-   вєд-
    'move'   'go'   'say'   'lead'
                 
1st Sg.   двигохъ   идохъ   рєкохъ   вєдохъ
2nd   движє   идє   рєчє   вєдє
3rd   движє   идє   рєчє   вєдє
                 
1st Du.   двигоховѣ   идоховѣ   рєкоховѣ   вєдоховѣ
2nd   двигоста   идоста   рєкоста   вєдоста
3rd   двигостє   идостє   рєкостє   вєдостє
                 
1st Pl.   двигохомъ   идохомъ   рєкохомъ   вєдохомъ
2nd   двигостє   идостє   рєкостє   вєдостє
3rd   двигошѧ   идошѧ   рєкошѧ   вєдошѧ

This aorist is not formed by those verbs whose stem ends in -a-, -n- or -r-.

15 Genitive Objects and Negation

One important syntactical feature, which is apparently an innovation within OCS, is the frequent use of the genitive for accusative with masculine substantives referring to male persons. That is to say, although typically the direct object is in the accusative, there is a strong tendency for nouns referring to a male person as direct object to be put in the genitive case. This is sometimes also used for animals, so that some of the literature on OCS speaks of an "animate" object case. For example, она жє абиѥ оставьша корабь и отьца своєго 'and those two having immediately left the ship and their father', where the inanimate корабь is in the accusative, the animate отьца своєго in the genitive. Also любл҄јаашє жє иисѹсъ марѳѫ и сєстрѫ єѧ и лазара 'and Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus', where the two nouns referring to females are in the accusative, the one referring to a male in the genitive. There seems to be very little tendency to place female substantives as direct object in the genitive.

Another prominent feature is the use of the genitive with negation. With a negated impersonal copula, 'there is/are not' or 'there is/are no', the predicate typically takes the genitive rather than nominative. Thus one would have богъ єстъ 'there is a god', but one finds бога нѣстъ 'there is no god', where бога is the genitive. Similarly и єштє мѣсто єстъ 'there is still room', in contrast with зан҄є нє бѣ има мѣста въ обитєли 'since there was no room for the two in the inn.' Also the direct object is usually put in the genitive rather than the accusative with a negated transitive verb . Thus нє имамь къдє събирати плодъ моихъ 'since I do not have somewhere to bestow my fruits'. Both of these uses of the genitive with negation occur regardless of the natural or grammatical gender of the substantive in question.

Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 4

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

After his brother's death, Methodius set out to continue their common work. In short order Kocel made a request to the Pope to allow Methodius to return to Moravia. In a letter addressed not only to Kocel, but also to the Princes Rostislav and Sventopluk, the Pope granted permission for the return and the use of the Slavonic liturgy on the condition that the Epistle and Gospel be read first in Latin before Slavonic.

After a brief stay in Pannonia, Methodius returned to Rome and was given papal authority to administer over Pannonia and Moravia. This had the undesirable consequence of enraging the Bavarian bishops in Passau and Salzburg who laid claim to the same territory. When Sventopluk, with the aid of the Franks, dethroned Rostislav in 870 or 871, Methodius was taken into custody and left to the mercy of the German bishops. As a result, Methodius was imprisoned for two and a half years. Finally Pope John VIII became aware of Methodius' plight and petitioned for his release. Methodius immediately returned to Moravia, this time under more favorable auspices, since Sventopluk had since driven out the German clergy. The tides briefly turned against Methodius when, in 879, Pope John VIII forbade the use of the Slavonic liturgy. But Methodius' diligence again gained a sympathetic ear, and the Pope subsequently ordered Sventopluk to reinstate the Slavonic liturgy in 880.

In the final years of his life Methodius endeavored to complete the task of translation started earlier with his brother. The two together seem to have translated the Psalter and New Testament, save Revelation. Methodius continued by translating the Old Testament to the exclusion of Maccabees, and other liturgical texts. Methodius finally passed away on 6 April 885.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The beginning of the story of the Death of Lazarus, John 11:1-23, follows below. This passage represents a climax in the miracles worked by Jesus, and the OCS translation consequently remains very close to the original. Dialogue features prominently within the passage, and its rendering in OCS reveals several questions about our knowledge of the OCS language. The attempt to reconstruct some approximation to the spoken language from its often meager representation in written documents is a task that occupies a central position in historical linguistics. On the surface this passage affords us a rare window into such spoken discourse. One finds herein several direct statements from Jesus, His disciples, and Martha.

Several mitigating factors, however, must inform one's analysis of the dialogue. First and foremost, the wording remains extremely close to the original Greek. For instance,

сє єгожє л҄юбиши болитъ 'Lo! whom you love is sick'

corresponds word for word to the Greek. The same holds true for the rest of the direct speech in this passage. Hence, as we attempt to tease out the colloquial speech habits of the Slavonic speaking community for whom this was written, we are reined in by the possibility that the sentence structure is dictated more by the Greek than the OCS. As always, one must bear in mind that the translation was made to be understood, and thus the phrasing must be reasonably close to what a native speaker would say; nevertheless such a statement might never be uttered by a native speaker.

In addition to the problem of rendering the mere speech encountered in the passage, the translator here was forced to cope with the problem of rendering vocal misunderstanding. To wit, Jesus tells his disciples that Lazarus "is asleep", yet the disciples misunderstand this as mere slumber instead of the intended euphemism for death. The Greek uses the word kekoimetai 'is asleep'; the basic sense is one of 'lying down', and therefore may be interpreted as lying down in slumber or in death. The Greek then states more precisely which interpretation the disciples chose, saying the disciples thought Jesus spoke of the koimeseos tou hypnou 'of the lying down of sleep'. The problem faced by the translator is to emulate this situation: first to use a phrase with a double meaning; then to resolve the ambiguity by means of another qualifying word or phrase.

The phrase chosen for this resolution is о ѹсъпєньи съна. The question remains as to how effectively this clears the ambiguity. Both words are clearly cognate to the word for 'sleep' -- is this phrase therefore any more specific than the original word ѹсъпє '(Our friend Lazarus) is asleep' which led to the initial confusion? Given the rarity of ѹсъпєньє in OCS texts, it is difficult to establish in English its distinction from сънъ. It is in fact unclear whether this rare word was actually a word in common use chosen to translate koimesis, or whether it was a coinage devised specifically for translational purposes.

What has happened, in fact, is that the translator has actually followed the morpho-syntactic structure of the Greek: the initial verb kekoimetai is subsequently elucidated by a cognate abstract noun koimesis with a qualifying genitive. Similarly in OCS, the verb ѹсъпє is subsequently elucidated by a cognate abstract noun ѹсъпєньє with a qualifying genitive. Such close following of the original Greek must give the historical linguist pause in drawing any concrete conclusions on the nature of the spoken OCS language as represented in the extant manuscripts.

бѣ жє болѧ єтєръ лазаръ отъ виѳаньѧ градьца марьина и марѳъі сєстръі єѧ | бѣ жє марьја помазавъшија господа мѵромъ и отьръши ноѕѣ єго власъі своими єѧжє братъ лазаръ болѣашє |
  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- was
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- now
  • болѧ -- verb; present active participle <болѣти, -лѫ, -лиши> be ill -- sick
  • єтєръ -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <єтєръ> one, a certain -- a certain (man)
  • лазаръ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Лазаръ> Lazarus -- (named) Lazarus
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- of
  • виѳаньѧ -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Виѳаньа> Bethany -- Bethany
  • градьца -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <градьць> town, garden -- the town
  • марьина -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <марьинъ> of Mary, Mary's -- of Mary
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • марѳъі -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Марѳа> Martha -- Martha
  • сєстръі -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <сєстра> sister -- sister
  • єѧ -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <*и> he -- her
  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- it was
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- ...
  • марьја -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- (that) Mary
  • помазавъшија -- verb; past active participle <помазати, -заѭ, -заѥши> anoint -- which anointed
  • господа -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <господь> lord, master -- the Lord
  • мѵромъ -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <мѵро> anointing-oil -- with ointment
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • отьръши -- verb; past active participle <отрѣти, -рѫ, -рєши> rub, wipe off -- wiped
  • ноѕѣ -- noun, feminine; accusative dual of <нога> foot -- feet
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- his
  • власъі -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <власъ> hair -- with... hair
  • своими -- possessive adjective; instrumental plural masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- her
  • єѧжє -- relative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <ижє> who, which -- whose
  • братъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • лазаръ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Лазаръ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • болѣашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <болѣти, -лѫ, -лиши> be ill -- was sick

посъластє жє сєстрѣ єго къ н҄ємѹ глагол҄ѭщи господи сє єгожє л҄юбиши болитъ | слъішавъ жє иисѹсъ рєчє си болѣзнь нѣстъ къ съмрьти нъ о славѣ божьи да прославитъ сѧ съінъ божьи єѭ |
  • посъластє -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <посълати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> send, summon -- sent
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- therefore
  • сєстрѣ -- noun, feminine; nominative dual of <сєстра> sister -- sisters
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- his
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • н҄ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • глагол҄ѭщи -- verb; present active participle <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saying
  • господи -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <господь> lord, master -- Lord
  • сє -- interjection; <сє> lo, behold -- behold
  • єгожє -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ижє> who, which -- he whom
  • л҄юбиши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <любити, -блѭ, -биши> love -- thou lovest
  • болитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <болѣти, -лѫ, -лиши> be ill -- is sick
  • слъішавъ -- verb; past active participle <слъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear -- (when)... heard (that)
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- ...
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- he said
  • си -- demonstrative adjective; nominative singular feminine of <сь> this -- this
  • болѣзнь -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <болѣзнь> sickness -- sickness
  • нѣстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <нє ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> not be -- is not
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • съмрьти -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <съмрьть> death -- death
  • нъ -- conjunction; <нъ> but -- but
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- for
  • славѣ -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <слава> fame, glory -- the glory
  • божьи -- possessive adjective; locative singular feminine of <божьи> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • прославитъ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person singular passive present of <прославити, -вл҄ѭ, -виши> praise, glorify -- might be glorified
  • съінъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <съінъ> son -- the Son
  • божьи -- possessive adjective; locative singular feminine of <божьи> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • єѭ -- pronoun; instrumental singular feminine of <*и> he -- thereby

любл҄јаашє жє иисѹсъ марѳѫ и сєстрѫ єѧ и лазара | єгда жє ѹслъіша јако болитъ тогда жє прѣбъістъ на н҄ємь жє бѣ мѣстѣ дъва дьни |
  • любл҄јаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <любити, -блѭ, -биши> love -- loved
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- now
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • марѳѫ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Марѳа> Martha -- Martha
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • сєстрѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <сєстра> sister -- sister
  • єѧ -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <*и> he -- her
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • лазара -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Лазаръ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • єгда жє -- relative adverb; <єгда жє> when -- when... therefore
  • ѹслъіша -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹслъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear, find out -- he had heard
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • болитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <болѣти, -лѫ, -лиши> be ill -- he was sick
  • тогда жє -- correlative adverb; <тогда жє> then -- ...
  • прѣбъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <прѣбъіти, -бѫдѫ, -бѫдєши> remain, abide -- he abode... (still)
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- in
  • н҄ємь жє -- relative pronoun; locative singular neuter of <ижє> who, which -- where
  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- he was
  • мѣстѣ -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <мѣсто> place -- the (same) place
  • дъва -- adjective; accusative dual masculine of <дъва, дъвѣ> two -- two
  • дьни -- noun, masculine; accusative dual of <дьнь> day -- days

по томь жє глагола ѹчєникомъ идѣмъ въ июдѣѭ пакъі | глаголашѧ ємѹ ѹчєници єго равви нъін҄ја искаахѫ тєбє камєньємь побити июдѣи и пакъі идєши тамо |
  • по -- preposition; <по> after; according to -- after
  • томь -- demonstrative pronoun; locative singular neuter of <тъ> that, that one -- that
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • глагола -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saith he
  • ѹчєникомъ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ѹчєникъ> student, disciple -- to (his) disciples
  • идѣмъ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <ити, идѫ, идєши> go -- let us go
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- into
  • июдѣѭ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Июдѣа> Judea -- Judea
  • пакъі -- adverb; <пакъі> back, again -- again
  • глаголашѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- say
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- unto him
  • ѹчєници -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ѹчєникъ> student, disciple -- disciples
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- his
  • равви -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <равви> rabbi, teacher -- master
  • нъін҄ја -- adverb; <нъін҄ја> now -- of late
  • искаахѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <искати, искаѭ, искаѥши> seek -- sought
  • тєбє -- pronoun; genitive singular of <тъі> you, thou -- thee
  • камєньємь -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <камєньє> stones -- ...
  • побити -- verb; infinitive of <побити, -биѭ, -биѥши> kill -- to stone
  • июдѣи -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <Июдѣи> Jew, Judean -- the Jews
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • пакъі -- adverb; <пакъі> back, again -- again
  • идєши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <идєти, идѫ, идєши> go -- goest thou
  • тамо -- adverb; <тамо> there, to that place, thither -- thither

отъвѣща иисѹсъ нє дъвѣ ли на дєсѧтє годинѣ єстє въ дьнє | ащє къто ходитъ въ дьнє нє потъкнєтъ сѧ јако свѣтъ мира сєго видитъ | ащє ли къто ходитъ нощьѭ потъкнєтъ сѧ јако свѣта нѣстъ о н҄ємь |
  • отъвѣща -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <отвѣштати, -таѭ, -таѥши> respond, answer -- answered
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • дъвѣ -- adjective; nominative dual feminine of <дъва, дъвѣ> two -- ...
  • ли -- interrogative particle; <ли> or; whether -- ...
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- ...
  • дєсѧтє -- number; locative singular feminine of <дєсѧть> ten -- twelve
  • годинѣ -- noun, feminine; nominative dual of <година> time, hour -- hours
  • єстє -- verb; 3rd person dual present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- are there
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • дьнє -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <дьнь> day -- the day
  • ащє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • къто -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <къто> someone -- any (man)
  • ходитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ходити, -ждѫ, -диши> walk, go -- walk
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • дьнє -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <дьнь> day -- the day
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • потъкнєтъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person singular present of <потъкнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> set up, prop up; strike -- he stumbleth
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- because
  • свѣтъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <свѣтъ> light -- the light
  • мира -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <миръ> world; peace -- of... world
  • сєго -- demonstrative adjective; genitive singular masculine of <сь> this -- this
  • видитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <видѣти, виждѫ, видиши> see -- he seeth
  • ащє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • ли -- interrogative particle; <ли> or; whether -- but
  • къто -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <къто> someone -- a (man)
  • ходитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ходити, -ждѫ, -диши> walk, go -- walk
  • нощьѭ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <ношть> night -- in the night
  • потъкнєтъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person singular present of <потъкнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> set up, prop up; strike -- he stumbleth
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- because
  • свѣта -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <свѣтъ> light -- light
  • нѣстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <нє ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> not be -- there is no
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- in
  • н҄ємь -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him

си рєчє и по сємь глагола имъ лазаръ дрѹгъ нашь ѹсъпє нъ идѫ да възбѹждѫ и | рѣшѧ жє ємѹ ѹчєници єго господи ащє ѹсъпє съпасєнъ бѫдєтъ |
  • си -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <сь> this -- these things
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said he
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • по -- preposition; <по> after; according to -- after
  • сємь -- demonstrative pronoun; locative singular neuter of <сь> this -- that
  • глагола -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saith
  • имъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*и> he -- unto them
  • лазаръ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Лазаръ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • дрѹгъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <дрѹгъ> friend -- friend
  • нашь -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <нашь> our, of us -- our
  • ѹсъпє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹсънѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> fall asleep -- sleepeth
  • нъ -- conjunction; <нъ> but -- but
  • идѫ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <идєти, идѫ, идєши> go -- I go
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • възбѹждѫ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <възбѹдити, -ждѫ, -диши> wake up, rouse -- I may awake... out of sleep
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • рѣшѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- ...
  • ѹчєници -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ѹчєникъ> student, disciple -- disciples
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- his
  • господи -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <господь> lord, master -- Lord
  • ащє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • ѹсъпє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹсънѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> fall asleep -- he sleep
  • съпасєнъ -- verb; past passive participle <съпасти, -сѫ, -сєши> save -- do well
  • бѫдєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- he shall

вѣща жє иисѹсъ о съмрьти єго они жє мьнѣшѧ јако о ѹсъпєньи съна глагол҄єтъ | тогда рєчє имъ иисѹсъ нє обинѹѧ сѧ лазаръ ѹмрѣтъ и радѹѭ сѧ васъ ради да вѣрѫ имєтє јако нє бѣхъ тѹ нъ идємъ къ н҄ємѹ |
  • вѣща -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <вѣштати, -таѭ, -таѥши> speak -- spake
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- howbeit
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- of
  • съмрьти -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <съмрьть> death -- death
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- his
  • они -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <онъ> that -- they
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but
  • мьнѣшѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <мьнѣти, -нѭ, -ниши> think, assume -- thought
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- of
  • ѹсъпєньи -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <ѹсъпєньє> lying down, going to sleep -- taking of rest
  • съна -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <сънъ> sleep -- in sleep
  • глагол҄єтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- he had spoken
  • тогда -- adverb; <тогда> then -- then
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • имъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*и> he -- unto them
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- ...
  • обинѹѧ сѧ -- verb; present reflexive participle <обинѫти сѧ, -нѫ, -нєши> avoid; restrain oneself -- plainly
  • лазаръ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Лазаръ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • ѹмрѣтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹмрѣти, -рѫ, -рєши> die -- is dead
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • радѹѭ сѧ -- verb; 1st person singular reflexive present of <радовати сѧ, -дѹѭ, -дѹѥши> rejoice, be glad -- I am glad
  • васъ -- pronoun; genitive plural of <тъі> you, thou -- your
  • ради -- postposition; <ради> for, for the sake of, because of -- for... sakes
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- to the intent
  • вѣрѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <вѣра> faith, belief -- ...
  • имєтє -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <ѩти, имѫ, имєши> take, seize -- ye may believe
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • бѣхъ -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- I was
  • тѹ -- adverb; <тѹ> there; then -- there
  • нъ -- conjunction; <нъ> but -- nevertheless
  • идємъ -- verb; 1st person plural present of <ити, идѫ, идєши> go -- let us go
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • н҄ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him

рєчє жє ѳома нарицаємъи близньць къ ѹчєникомъ идѣмъ мъі да ѹмьрємъ съ н҄имь | пришєдъ жє иисѹсъ въ виѳаньѭ обрѣтє и южє чєтъіри дьни имѫщь въ гробѣ |
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • ѳома -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ѳома> Thomas -- Thomas
  • нарицаємъи -- verb; past passive participle <нарицати, -цаѭ, -цаѥши> call, name -- which is called
  • близньць -- adjective used as substantive; nominative singular masculine of <близньць> twin -- didymus
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • ѹчєникомъ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ѹчєникъ> student, disciple -- (his fellow) disciples
  • идѣмъ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <ити, идѫ, идєши> go -- let us (also) go
  • мъі -- pronoun; nominative plural of <азъ> I -- ...
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • ѹмьрємъ -- verb; 1st person plural present of <ѹмрѣти, -рѫ, -рєши> die -- we may die
  • съ -- preposition; <съ> with -- with
  • н҄имь -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • пришєдъ -- verb; past active participle <прити, -идѫ, -идєши> come, arrive -- (when)... came
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- ...
  • виѳаньѭ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Виѳаньа> Bethany -- ...
  • обрѣтє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <обрѣшти, -рѧштѫ, -рѧштєши> find, discover -- he found (that)
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- he
  • южє -- adverb; <южє> already -- already
  • чєтъіри -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <чєтъірє, чєтъіри> four -- four
  • дьни -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <дьнь> day -- days
  • имѫщь -- verb; present active participle <ѩти, имѫ, имєши> take, seize -- had (lain)
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • гробѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <гробъ> grave, ditch -- the grave

бѣ жє виѳаньја близ иєрѹсалима јако пѧть на дєсѧтє стадии | мъноѕи жє отъ июдѣи бѣахѫ пришьли къ марѳѣ и марьи да ѹтѣшаѭтъ и о братрѣ єю |
  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- was
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- now
  • виѳаньја -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Виѳаньа> Bethany -- Bethany
  • близ -- preposition; <близь> near (to) -- nigh unto
  • иєрѹсалима -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Иєрѹсалимъ> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- about
  • пѧть -- number; accusative singular feminine of <пѧть> five -- five
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- ...
  • дєсѧтє -- number; locative singular feminine of <дєсѧть> ten -- teen
  • стадии -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <стадии> stade -- furlongs (off)
  • мъноѕи -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <мъногъ> much, many -- many
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- of
  • июдѣи -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural masculine of <Июдѣи> Jew, Judean -- the Jews
  • бѣахѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- ...
  • пришьли -- verb; past active participle <прити, -идѫ, -идєши> come, arrive -- came
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- to
  • марѳѣ -- proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Марѳа> Martha -- Martha
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • марьи -- proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- to
  • ѹтѣшаѭтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ѹтѣшати, -шаѭ, -шаѥши> comfort -- comfort
  • и -- pronoun; accusative dual feminine of <*и> he -- them
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- concerning
  • братрѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • єю -- pronoun; genitive dual feminine of <*и> he -- their

марѳа жє єгда ѹслъіша јако иисѹсъ грѧдєтъ сърѣтъ и а марьја дома сѣдѣашє | рєчє жє марѳа къ иисѹсѹ господи ащє би сьдє бъілъ нє би братръ мои ѹмрьлъ |
  • марѳа -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Марѳа> Martha -- Martha
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • єгда -- relative adverb; <єгда> when -- as soon as
  • ѹслъіша -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹслъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear, find out -- she heard
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • грѧдєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <грѧсти, грѧдѫ, грѧдєши> come, walk -- was coming
  • сърѣтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <сърѣсти, -рѧштѫ, -рѧштєши> meet -- (went and) met
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • а -- conjunction; <а> and, but; if -- but
  • марьја -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • дома -- adverb; <дома> at home -- in the house
  • сѣдѣашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <сѣдѣти, -ждѫ, -диши> sit, remain -- sat still
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • марѳа -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Марѳа> Martha -- Martha
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • иисѹсѹ -- proper noun, masculine; dative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • господи -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <господь> lord, master -- Lord
  • ащє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • би -- verb; 2nd person singular conditional-optative of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- thou hadst
  • сьдє -- adverb; <сьдє> here -- here
  • бъілъ -- verb; past active participle <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- been
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • би -- verb; 3rd person singular conditional-optative of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- had
  • братръ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • мои -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <мои> my -- my
  • ѹмрьлъ -- verb; past active participle <ѹмрѣти, -рѫ, -рєши> die -- died

нъін҄ја вѣмь јако єгожє колижьдо просиши ѹ бога дастъ тєбѣ богъ | глагола єи иисѹсъ въскрьсьнєтъ братръ твои |
  • нъін҄ја -- adverb; <нъін҄ја> now -- even now
  • вѣмь -- verb; 1st person singular present of <вѣдѣти, вѣмь, вѣси> see, know -- (but) ... I know
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • єгожє -- relative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <ижє> who, which -- what
  • колижьдо -- participle; <колижьдо> ever -- soever
  • просиши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <просити, -шѫ, -сиши> ask, demand -- thou wilt ask
  • ѹ -- preposition; <ѹ> near, by; from -- of
  • бога -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • дастъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <дати, дамь, даси> give -- will give (it)
  • тєбѣ -- pronoun; dative singular of <тъі> you, thou -- thee
  • богъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • глагола -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saith
  • єи -- pronoun; dative singular feminine of <*и> he -- unto her
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • въскрьсьнєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <въскръснѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> rise again, be resurrected -- shall rise again
  • братръ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • твои -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <твои> your, thy -- thy

Lesson Text

бѣ жє болѧ єтєръ лазаръ отъ виѳаньѧ градьца марьина и марѳъі сєстръі єѧ | бѣ жє марьја помазавъшија господа мѵромъ и отьръши ноѕѣ єго власъі своими єѧжє братъ лазаръ болѣашє | посъластє жє сєстрѣ єго къ н҄ємѹ глагол҄ѭщи господи сє єгожє л҄юбиши болитъ | слъішавъ жє иисѹсъ рєчє си болѣзнь нѣстъ къ съмрьти нъ о славѣ божьи да прославитъ сѧ съінъ божьи єѭ | любл҄јаашє жє иисѹсъ марѳѫ и сєстрѫ єѧ и лазара | єгда жє ѹслъіша јако болитъ тогда жє прѣбъістъ на н҄ємь жє бѣ мѣстѣ дъва дьни | по томь жє глагола ѹчєникомъ идѣмъ въ июдѣѭ пакъі | глаголашѧ ємѹ ѹчєници єго равви нъін҄ја искаахѫ тєбє камєньємь побити июдѣи и пакъі идєши тамо | отъвѣща иисѹсъ нє дъвѣ ли на дєсѧтє годинѣ єстє въ дьнє | ащє къто ходитъ въ дьнє нє потъкнєтъ сѧ јако свѣтъ мира сєго видитъ | ащє ли къто ходитъ нощьѭ потъкнєтъ сѧ јако свѣта нѣстъ о н҄ємь | си рєчє и по сємь глагола имъ лазаръ дрѹгъ нашь ѹсъпє нъ идѫ да възбѹждѫ и | рѣшѧ жє ємѹ ѹчєници єго господи ащє ѹсъпє съпасєнъ бѫдєтъ | вѣща жє иисѹсъ о съмрьти єго они жє мьнѣшѧ јако о ѹсъпєньи съна глагол҄єтъ | тогда рєчє имъ иисѹсъ нє обинѹѧ сѧ лазаръ ѹмрѣтъ и радѹѭ сѧ васъ ради да вѣрѫ имєтє јако нє бѣхъ тѹ нъ идємъ къ н҄ємѹ | рєчє жє ѳома нарицаємъи близньць къ ѹчєникомъ идѣмъ мъі да ѹмьрємъ съ н҄имь | пришєдъ жє иисѹсъ въ виѳаньѭ обрѣтє и южє чєтъіри дьни имѫщь въ гробѣ | бѣ жє виѳаньја близ иєрѹсалима јако пѧть на дєсѧтє стадии | мъноѕи жє отъ июдѣи бѣахѫ пришьли къ марѳѣ и марьи да ѹтѣшаѭтъ и о братрѣ єю | марѳа жє єгда ѹслъіша јако иисѹсъ грѧдєтъ сърѣтъ и а марьја дома сѣдѣашє | рєчє жє марѳа къ иисѹсѹ господи ащє би сьдє бъілъ нє би братръ мои ѹмрьлъ | нъін҄ја вѣмь јако єгожє колижьдо просиши ѹ бога дастъ тєбѣ богъ | глагола єи иисѹсъ въскрьсьнєтъ братръ твои |

Translation

Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of Bethany, the town of Mary and her sister Martha. (2) (It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick.) (3) Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. (4) When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby. (5) Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. (6) When he had heard therefore that he was sick, he abode two days still in the same place where he was. (7) Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us go into Judaea again. (8) His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again? (9) Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world. (10) But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him. (11) These things said he: and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep. (12) Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well. (13) Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep. (14) Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead. (15) And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go unto him. (16) Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, unto his fellow disciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him. (17) Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already. (18) Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off: (19) And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother. (20) Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat still in the house. (21) Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. (22) But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee. (23) Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again.

Grammar

16 Consonant Stem Nouns

The term consonant stem is used to designate a broad group of less frequent nouns which share a common set of declensional endings. Most may be viewed as original consonant stems back to the Indo-European period. Some, however, are only to be seen as consonant stems within the OCS language itself. The hallmark of this system of declension is the genitive ending -є. Sometimes one finds the genitive in -и by analogy with the i-stem nouns, and in the later stages of the language the distinction between the two declension types is lost.

16.1 v-Stem Nouns

This is a class of nouns not properly deemed "consonant stems" on historical grounds. Originally they were long-u-stems. However because OCS treats v as a consonant, and because the case endings are identical with other consonant stems, it is convenient to treat v-stems as consonant stems. The declension is exemplified by црькъі 'church'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   црькъі   црькъви   црькъви
A   црькъвь   црькъви   црькъви
G   црькъвє   црькъвѹ   црькъвъ
L   црькъвє   црькъвѹ   црькъвахъ
D   црькъви   црькъвама   црькъвамъ
I   црькъвьѭ   црькъвама   *црькъвами
V   *црькъі   *црькъви   *црькъви

At times on finds nouns in this category adopting some endings of the feminine i-stems. An example of this is the noun кръвь 'blood'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   кръвь   -   кръви
A   кръвь   -   кръви
G   кръвє, кръви   -   кръвьи, кръвъ
            кръвъі
L   кръви   -   кръвьхъ
D   кръви   -   кръвьмъ
I   кръвьѭ   -   кръвьми
V   *кръвь   -   *кръви

All nouns of this declension are feminine.

16.2 n-Stem Nouns

The masculine nouns in this declension have nominative in -ъі, the neuter nouns in -ѧ. The suffix -єн- intervenes between root and ending. Some o-stems in -ѣнинъ, -анинъ also follow this declension in the plural. Exemplars are the masculine nouns камъі 'stone' and дьнь 'day', and the neuter имѧ 'name'.

    Masculine   Masculine   Neuter
             
N Sg.   камъі   дьнь   имѧ
    камєнь        
A   камєнь   дьнь   имѧ
G   камєнє   дьнь   имєнє
    камєни   дьни    
L   камєнє   дьнє   имєнє
        дьни    
D   камєни   дьни   имєни
I   камєньмь   дьньмь   имєньмь
             
N Du.   камєни   дьни   имєнѣ, имєни
A   камєни   дьни   имєнѣ, имєни
G   *камєнѹ   дьнѹ, дьнью   *имєнѹ
L   *камєнѹ   дьнѹ, дьнью   *имєнѹ
D   камєньма   дьньма   имєньма
I   камєньма   дьньма   имєньма
             
N Pl.   *камєнє   дьнє, дьньѥ   имєна
A   камєни   дьни   имєна
G   камєнъ   дьнъ   имєнъ
L   камєньхъ   дьньхъ   имєньхъ
D   камєньмъ   дьньмъ   имєньмъ
I   камєньми   дьньми, дьнъі   имєнъі

The nominative singular in -ъі occurs only in камъі 'stone' and пламъі 'flame'. Forms without the є preceding н also occur, for example L sg. камни; likewise there are forms with ь replacing the є, as in G sg. камьньѣ for камєньѥ.

17 Compound Forms of Adjectives

The short form of adjectives has already been presented. For the most part, these simply follow the declension of the corresponding nouns. Thus добръ, добра, добро are the masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular forms of the adjective 'good'. However there is a second formation for adjectives known as the compound, long, or pronominal form of adjectives, which is derived from the short form by addition of the 3rd person pronoun (*jĭ). Thus the long forms corresponding to добръ, добра, добро are dobrŭ + jĭ, dobra + ja, dobro + je > добръі-и, добра-ја, добро-ѥ 'that good one'. The final pronominal element is sometimes clearly distinguished; however contraction and assimilation often occur, obscuring the elements constituting the ending.

As with the short forms, the long forms divide into hard and soft stems. Hard stem compound adjectives are declined like добръ 'good'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
             
N V Sg.   добръіи   добоѥ   добраја
A   добръіи   доброѥ   добрѫѭ
G   добраѥго   добраѥго   добръіѩ
L   добрѣѥмь   добрѣѥмь   добрѣи
D   добрѹѥмѹ   добрѹѥмѹ   добрѣи
I   добръіимь   добръіимь   добрѫѭ
             
N V Du.   добраја   добрѣи   добрѣи
A   добраја   добрѣи   добрѣи
G   добрѹю   добрѹю   добрѹю
L   добрѹю   добрѹю   добрѹю
D   добръіима   добръіима   добръіима
I   добръіима   добръіима   добръіима
             
N V Pl.   добрии   добраја   добръіѩ
A   добръіѩ   добраја   добръіѩ
G   добръіихъ   добръіихъ   добръіихъ
L   добръіихъ   добръіихъ   добръіихъ
D   добръіимъ   добръіимъ   добръіимъ
I   добръіими   добръіими   добръіими

It should be noted that assimilation and contraction often work to smooth the transition from the short adjective ending to the following pronoun. Thus there are variants such as N sg. masc. добръі, -ръи, -рои; fem. добраа; A sg. fem. добрѫ; G sg. masc./neut. добрааго, добраго; L sg. masc./neut. добѣѣмь, добрѣамь, добрѣмь; D sg. masc./neut. добрѹѹмѹ, добрѹмѹ; I sg. masc./neut. добръимь, добръімь; fem. доброѭ. Similarly for the dual and plural forms.

The soft stem compound adjectives are declined like ништь 'poor'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
             
N V Sg.   ништьи   ништєѥ   ништаја
A   ништьи   ништєѥ   ништѫѭ
G   ништаѥго   ништаѥго   ништѧѩ
L   ништиимь   ништиимь   ништии
D   ништюѥмѹ   ништюѥмѹ   ништии
I   ништиимь   миштиимь   ништѫѭ
             
N V Du.   ништаја   ништии   ништии
A   ништаја   ништии   ништии
G   ништюю   ништюю   ништюю
L   ништюю   ништюю   ништюю
D   ништиима   ништиима   ништиима
I   ништиима   ништиима   ништиима
             
N V Pl.   ништии   ништаја   ништѧѩ
A   ништѧѩ   ништаја   ништѧѩ
G   ништиихъ   ништиихъ   ништиихъ
L   ништиихъ   ништиихъ   ништиихъ
D   ништиимъ   ништиимъ   ништиимъ
I   ништиими   ништиими   ништиими

As with the hard stems, the soft stem forms also appear in assimilated and contracted variants. For example, N sg. masc. ништии (the result of tense postion of the jer, but thence) ништи; I sg. masc./neut. ништимь; fem. ништєѭ.

18 The l-Participle

The l-participle, sometimes called the resultative participle or second past active participle, is a simple formation derived from the aorist-infinitve stems of verbs. To the stem is added the suffix -лъ, which is then declined as a hard stem, short-form adjective. The participle is not used in an arbitrary adjectival role as are most other participles; rather this particular participle is used only in compound verbal constructions. As a result, it is only found in the nominative singular and plural. The following are examples from the various verbal conjugations.

Conjugation   Infinitive   N sg.
I   нєсти 'to carry'   нєс-лъ, -ла, -ло 'having carried'
II   двигнѫти 'to move'   двиг-лъ, -ла, -ло 'having moved'
III   знати 'to know'   зна-лъ, -ла, -ло 'having known'
IV   молити 'to beg'   моли-лъ, -ла, -ло 'having begged'
V   дати 'to give'   да-лъ, -ла, -ло 'having given'

Verbs of the first conjugation with stems in final -k or -r use a reduced grade of the root-vowel. Hence влѣшти 'to drag, pull', 1st. sg. влѣкѫ, part. влъклъ; трѣти 'to rub', 1st. sg. тьрѫ, part. трьлъ; мрѣти 'to die', 1st. sg. мьрѫ, part. мрьлъ. Stem-final t, d, j is dropped, so that плєсти 'to weave', 1st. sg. плєтѫ, part. плєлъ. The verb ити 'to go', 1st. sg. идѫ, uses the suppletive stem шьд-, hence part. шьлъ 'having gone'.

19 Prefixes and Prepostitions

The OCS language is replete with particles that may be affixed to verbs or nouns to color the root meaning. Likewise, despite having a rather full case system, OCS also make use of several prepositions to add further nuance. Some of the more frequent of these prefixes and prepositions are given below.

Among the particles used solely as prefixes are про- 'through', прѣ- 'over, through', раз- or рас- 'asunder'. Examples are рокъ 'fixed day', but пророкъ 'prophet'; драгъ 'dear', but прѣдрагъ 'very dear'; ѹмъ 'mind', but разѹмъ 'intellect'.

More common are particles which may function either as prefixes or as prepositions. In the instances where they function as prepositions, each one is used only with certain of the nominal cases. In general, the case or cases governed by a given preposition concur with the sense elicited, but at other times the relation between meaning and case is not obvious. The following are some of the more important examples.

въ 'in' with A. (denoting direction), e.g. въ тъ дьнь 'that day'; with L. (place), e.g. въ кѹпѣ 'together'.

въз or въс 'for, in exchange for' with A., e.g. въс кѫѭ 'why?'.

за 'for, after, behind' with A. (direction); with I. (place), e.g. ѩти за власъі 'to seize by the hair'; with G. (in the sense 'because').

из or ис 'from, out' with G., e.g. издрѫкъі < из рѫкъі 'from the hand'.

на 'on, to, upon' with A. (direction); with L. (place), e.g. излијашѧ огнь на зємьѭ 'they poured fire on earth'.

надъ 'on, upon, over' with A. (direction), e.g. надъ главѫ 'over the head'; with I. (place).

о or об 'over, round, about' with A. (direction), e.g. об ношть вьсѫ 'the whole night through'; with L. (place).

отъ 'from, away' with G., e.g. отъ нєбєсє 'from heaven'.

по originally 'under, below', later with A. (extension in space or time), e.g. по вьсѧ градъі 'through all towns'; with L. (temporal and local), e.g. по томь жє 'after that'; with D. (extension in space), e.g. по морѭ ходѧ 'walking over the sea'.

подъ 'under, beneath' with A. (direction), e.g. подъ ногъі 'under the feet'; with I. (situation), e.g. подъ ногама 'under the feet'.

при 'at, at the time' with L., e.g. при враѕѣхъ 'among the heathen'.

прѣдъ 'in front of, before' with A. (direction); with I. (situation), e.g. прѣдъ градомь 'in the vicinity of the city'.

съ 'for the extent of' with A., e.g. съ лакъть 'a cubit long'; 'from, off, away' with G., e.g. съ нєбєсє 'down from heaven'; 'with' with I. (association, not instrument), e.g. съ нимь 'with him'.

ѹ 'at' with G., e.g. ѹ двьрьць 'at the doors'.

20 Adjectives

The long and short forms of the adjective have distinct syntactical roles. In general the long form is used attributively, whereas the short form is predicative: чловѣкъ добръ 'a good man, man is good'; чловѣкъ добръіи 'the good man, the man who is good'. The short form is indefinite in meaning, 'man is good'. The combination of a short-form adjective with substantive is used when the signified entity is presented as new, without prior reference. Hence въ пєшть огн҄ьнѫ 'into a furnace, a fiery one'. The long form, by contrast, acts as a pointer and is definite, 'the good man'. The long-form adjective with substantive combination is used when the adjective presents a quality known to be associated with the substantive modified. Hence въ гєонѫ огн҄ьнѫѭ 'into hell the fiery'. The compound form is often rendered in English by a relative clause: 'into the hell which is fiery'.

Adjectives used as substantives are themselves subject to the long and short form distinction. Again the long form refers to a substantive previously introduced or assumed known. Thus привѣшѧ къ н҄ємѹ слѣпа... и имъ слѣпаєго за рѫкѫ 'they brought to him a blind man... and having taken the blind man by the hand...'.

In a sequence of coordinated participles, when used as substantives, it is typical for only the first to use the long form. The following substantives use the short form. Hence слъішѧи словєса моја и творѧ ја... 'he who hears my words and does them...'.

Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 5

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

Shortly after the death of Methodius, the German clergy once again gained prominence in the Moravian region. In conjunction with Pope Stephen V's decree to ban the Slavonic liturgy, a German Viching was placed as successor to Methodius. This contradicted Methodius' own wish to be succeeded by the native Moravian Gorazd. During this period of German dominance, the disciples of Methodius were persecuted relentlessly, some being driven from the country, others being sold into slavery. This effectively stamped out the last remnants of the original missionary work of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in the regions of their earliest travels. The OCS ecclesiastic tradition was only able to survive outside the reaches of the Moravian empire, in those areas where the disciples of the two saints were able to find refuge.

Initially the influence of the saints' work spread to Bohemia, Croatia, and Bulgaria. These regions were soon followed by Bosnia and Serbia. After Christian conversion took foothold in the region of Kyiv (Russian Kiev), Bulgarian missionaries brought the Slavonic liturgy to the Russian speaking peoples late in the tenth century. This liturgy even spread to non-Slavic Rumania, where it was in use in the churches until the sixteenth century. In the process of this expansion, the Church Slavonic language took on local attributes and ceased to be as homogeneous as it appears in our earliest texts. In most regions to which it spread, the Church Slavonic language became the basis for the earliest literary language of the respective regions. It is therefore not to be viewed simply as the language of the Church in Slavic-speaking areas, but as the common thread unifying the inchoate stages of several developing literary traditions.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following passage is Matthew 4:1-5, relating the temptation of Jesus in the desert. It is worth noting, in verse 4, that where English has a passive construction 'it is written', OCS employs an active verb пишєтъ 'he/it writes'. This translates a Greek passive perfect gegraptai 'it has been written'.

One will also notice the orthographic convention of using letters of the alphabet to denote numerals, as in verse 2. The system is based on the Greek method, whereby the first nine letters of the alphabet denote the units 1, 2, 3,... 9; the next nine denote the tens 10, 20, 30,... 90; the following letters the hundreds 100, 200, 300,... 900. Thus the number 11 is written by taking the letter for 10, and following it by the letter for 1. The situation, however, is complicated by the fact that the sequence of the Glagolitic and the Cyrillic alphabets differed slightly. Hence the Glagolitic symbol which к transcribes has the numerical value 40; however, within the Cyrillic alphabet, к has the value 20. The passage below is a Cyrillic rendering of an original Glagolitic manuscript, hence к denotes the number 40.

тогда иисѹсъ възвєдєнъ бъістъ дѹхомь въ пѹстъін҄ѭ іскѹсити сѧ отъ нєприѣзни | і пошть сѧ дьниі к і ноштиі к послѣдь възлака |
  • тогда -- adverb; <тогда> then -- then
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • възвєдєнъ -- verb; past passive participle <възвєсти, -вєдѫ, -вєдєши> lead, lead up -- led up
  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- was
  • дѹхомь -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <дѹхъ> spirit -- of the spirit
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- into
  • пѹстъін҄ѭ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <пѹстъін҄и> desert -- the wilderness
  • іскѹсити сѧ -- verb; infinitive reflexive of <іскѹсити, -шѫ, -сиши> try, prove, tempt -- to be tempted
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- of
  • нєприѣзни -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <нєпријазнь> the devil; wickedness -- the devil
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • пошть сѧ -- verb; past reflexive participle <постити с(, -штѫ, -стиши> fast -- when he had fasted
  • дьниі -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <дьнь> day -- days
  • к -- number; accusative plural feminine of <чєтъірє дєсѧтє> forty -- forty
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • ноштиі -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <ношть> night -- nights
  • к -- number; accusative plural feminine of <чєтъірє дєсѧтє> forty -- forty
  • послѣдь -- adverb; <послѣдь> then, afterward -- afterward
  • възлака -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <възлакати, -лачѫ, -лачєши> become hungry -- he was... an hungered

і пристѫпи къ н҄ємѹ диѣволъ іскѹшаѧ и і рєчє аштє съінъ єси божіи рьци да камєниє сє хлѣби бѫдѫтъ |
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and when
  • пристѫпи -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <пристѫпити, -пл҄ѭ, -пиши> come up to, step up -- came
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- to
  • н҄ємѹ -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • диѣволъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <дьѣволъ> devil -- (the devil)
  • іскѹшаѧ -- verb; present active participle <іскѹшати, -шаѭ, -шаѥши> tempt, try -- the tempter
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- (him)
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- (and)
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- he said
  • аштє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • съінъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <съінъ> son -- the Son
  • єси -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- thou be
  • божіи -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <божьи> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • рьци -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- command
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • камєниє -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <камєньє> stones -- stones
  • сє -- demonstrative adjective; nominative singular neuter of <сь> this -- these
  • хлѣби -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <хлѣбъ> bread, loaf of bread -- bread
  • бѫдѫтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- be made

онъ жє отъвѣштавъ рєчє пишєтъ нє о хлѣбѣ єдиномь поживєтъ чловѣкъ нъ о всємь глаголѣ ісходѧштиімь іѕ ѹстъ божіи |
  • онъ -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <онъ> that -- he
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but
  • отъвѣштавъ -- verb; past active participle <отвѣштати, -таѭ, -таѥши> respond, answer -- answered
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- (and) said
  • пишєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <пьсати, пьшѫ, пьшєши> write -- it is written
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- by
  • хлѣбѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <хлѣбъ> bread, loaf of bread -- bread
  • єдиномь -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <єдинъ> one, only -- alone
  • поживєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <пожити, -живѫ, -живєши> live -- shall... live
  • чловѣкъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <чловѣкъ> man, human -- man
  • нъ -- conjunction; <нъ> but -- but
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- by
  • всємь -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- every
  • глаголѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <глаголъ> word, speech -- word
  • ісходѧштиімь -- verb; present active participle <исходити, -ждѫ, -диши> exit from, go out of -- that proceedeth
  • іѕ -- preposition; <иц> from, out of -- out of
  • ѹстъ -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <ѹста> mouth, lips -- the mouth
  • божіи -- adjective; genitive plural neuter of <божьи> divine, of god, god's -- of God

тогда поѧтъ и диѣволъ вь свѧтъі градъ і постави і на крилѣ црък҄бьнѣємь |
  • тогда -- adverb; <тогда> then -- then
  • поѧтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <поѧти, -имѫ, -имєши> take -- taketh... up
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • диѣволъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <дьѣволъ> devil -- the devil
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- into
  • свѧтъі -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <свѧтъ> holy, blessed -- the holy
  • градъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <градъ> city -- city
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • постави -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <поставити, -вл҄ѭ, -виши> establish, place, set -- setteth
  • і -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- on
  • крилѣ -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <крило> wing; pinnacle -- a pinnacle
  • црък҄бьнѣємь -- adjective; locative singular neuter of <цръкъвьнъ> church, churchly -- of the temple

і глагола ємѹ аштє съінъ єси божьи пѹсти сєбє долѹ | пишєтъ бо ѣко аћєломъ своимъ заповѣстъ о тєбѣ і на рѫкахъ възъмѫтъ тѧ да нє когда прѣтъкнєши о камєнь ногѫ своѭ |
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • глагола -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saith
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- unto him
  • аштє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • съінъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <съінъ> son -- the Son
  • єси -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- thou be
  • божьи -- possessive adjective; locative singular feminine of <божьи> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • пѹсти -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <пѹстити, -штѫ, -стиши> allow, let, free; send (away) -- cast
  • сєбє -- reflexive pronoun; genitive singular of <сєбє> self -- thyself
  • долѹ -- adverb; <долѹ> down(wards), below -- down
  • пишєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <пьсати, пьшѫ, пьшєши> write -- it is written
  • бо -- conjunction; <бо> for -- for
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- ...
  • аћєломъ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <аггєлъ> angel -- angels
  • своимъ -- reflexive adjective; dative plural masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- his
  • заповѣстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <заповѣдѣти, -вѣмь, -вѣси> command -- give... charge
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- concerning
  • тєбѣ -- pronoun; locative singular of <тъі> you, thou -- thee
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- in
  • рѫкахъ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <рѫка> hand -- (their) hands
  • възъмѫтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <възѧти, -зьмѫ, -зьмєши> pick up, take -- shall they bear... up
  • тѧ -- pronoun; accusative singular of <тъі> you, thou -- thee
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- ...
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- lest
  • когда -- interrogative adverb; <когда> when; sometime -- at any time
  • прѣтъкнєши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <прѣтъкнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> hit, stumble -- thou dash
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- against
  • камєнь -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <камєньє> stones -- a stone
  • ногѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <нога> foot -- foot
  • своѭ -- reflexive adjective; accusative singular feminine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- thy

рєчє жє ємѹ иисѹсъ пакъі пишєтъ нє іскѹсиши господа бога своєго |
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- ...
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- unto him
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • пакъі -- adverb; <пакъі> back, again -- again
  • пишєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <пьсати, пьшѫ, пьшєши> write -- it is written
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • іскѹсиши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <искѹсити, -шѫ, -сиши> try, prove, tempt -- thou shalt... tempt
  • господа -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <господь> lord, master -- the Lord
  • бога -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • своєго -- reflexive adjective; genitive singular masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- thy

пакъі поѣтъ єго нєприѣзнь на горѫ въісокѫ ѕѣло і показа ємѹ вьсѣ цѣсарьстбиѣ мира і цлавѫ єго |
  • пакъі -- adverb; <пакъі> back, again -- again
  • поѣтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <поѧти, -имѫ, -имєши> take -- taketh... up
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • нєприѣзнь -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <нєпријазнь> the devil; wickedness -- the devil
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- into
  • горѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <гора> mountain -- mountain
  • въісокѫ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <въісокъ> high, tall -- an... high
  • ѕѣло -- adverb; <зѣло> very -- exceeding
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • показа -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <показати, -заѭ, -заѥши> show, instruct, correct, chasten -- sheweth
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • вьсѣ -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • цѣсарьстбиѣ -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <цѣсарьствьє> kingdom -- the kingdoms
  • мира -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <миръ> world; peace -- of the world
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • цлавѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <цлава> glory -- the glory
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- of them

і глагола ємѹ вьсѣ си дамь ти аштє падъ поклониши ми сѧ |
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • глагола -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saith
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- unto him
  • вьсѣ -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • си -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <ць> this -- these things
  • дамь -- verb; 1st person singular present of <дати, дамь, даси> give -- will I give
  • ти -- pronoun; dative singular of <тъі> you, thou -- thee
  • аштє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • падъ -- verb; past active participle <пасти, падѫ, падєши> fall -- (thou wilt) fall
  • поклониши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <поклонити, -н҄ѭ, -ниши> bow, incline -- (and) worship
  • ми -- pronoun; dative singular of <азъ> I -- me
  • сѧ -- reflexive pronoun; accusative singular of <сєбє> self -- ...

тогда глагола ємѹ иисѹсъ отиди диѣвол҄є | пишєтъ бо господю богѹ своємѹ поклониши сѧ і томѹ єдиномѹ послѹжиши |
  • тогда -- adverb; <тогда> then -- then
  • глагола -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saith
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- unto him
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • отиди -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <отити, -идѫ, -идєши> go out, depart -- get thee hence
  • диѣвол҄є -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <дьѣволъ> devil -- Satan
  • пишєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <пьсати, пьшѫ, пьшєши> write -- it is written
  • бо -- conjunction; <бо> for -- for
  • господю -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <господь> lord, master -- the Lord
  • богѹ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • своємѹ -- reflexive adjective; dative singular masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- thy
  • поклониши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <поклонити, -н҄ѭ, -ниши> bow, incline -- thou shalt worship
  • сѧ -- reflexive pronoun; accusative singular of <сєбє> self -- ...
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • томѹ -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- him
  • єдиномѹ -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <єдинъ> one, only -- only
  • послѹжиши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <послѹжити, -жѫ, -жиши> serve -- shalt thou serve

тогда остави єго диѣволъ і сє аћєли пристѫпишѧ і слѹжаахѫ ємѹ |
  • тогда -- adverb; <тогда> then -- then
  • остави -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <оставити, -вл҄ѭ, -виши> let, leave, neglect, forget -- leaveth
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • диѣволъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <дьѣволъ> devil -- the devil
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • сє -- interjection; <сє> lo, behold -- behold
  • аћєли -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <аггєлъ> angel -- angels
  • пристѫпишѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <пристѫпити, -пл҄ѭ, -пиши> come up to, step up -- came
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • слѹжаахѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <слѹжити, -жѫ, -жиши> minister (to), serve -- ministered
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- unto him

Lesson Text

тогда иисѹсъ възвєдєнъ бъістъ дѹхомь въ пѹстъін҄ѭ іскѹсити сѧ отъ нєприѣзни | і пошть сѧ дьниі к і ноштиі к послѣдь възлака | і пристѫпи къ н҄ємѹ диѣволъ іскѹшаѧ и і рєчє аштє съінъ єси божіи рьци да камєниє сє хлѣби бѫдѫтъ | онъ жє отъвѣштавъ рєчє пишєтъ нє о хлѣбѣ єдиномь поживєтъ чловѣкъ нъ о всємь глаголѣ ісходѧштиімь іѕ ѹстъ божіи | тогда поѧтъ и диѣволъ вь свѧтъі градъ і постави і на крилѣ црък҄бьнѣємь | і глагола ємѹ аштє съінъ єси божьи пѹсти сєбє долѹ | пишєтъ бо ѣко аћєломъ своимъ заповѣстъ о тєбѣ і на рѫкахъ възъмѫтъ тѧ да нє когда прѣтъкнєши о камєнь ногѫ своѭ | рєчє жє ємѹ иисѹсъ пакъі пишєтъ нє іскѹсиши господа бога своєго | пакъі поѣтъ єго нєприѣзнь на горѫ въісокѫ ѕѣло і показа ємѹ вьсѣ цѣсарьстбиѣ мира і цлавѫ єго | і глагола ємѹ вьсѣ си дамь ти аштє падъ поклониши ми сѧ | тогда глагола ємѹ иисѹсъ отиди диѣвол҄є | пишєтъ бо господю богѹ своємѹ поклониши сѧ і томѹ єдиномѹ послѹжиши | тогда остави єго диѣволъ і сє аћєли пристѫпишѧ і слѹжаахѫ ємѹ |

Translation

(Matthew 4:1) Then was Jesus led up of the spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil. (2) And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungered. (3) And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. (4) But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. (5) Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple, (6) And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands shall they bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. (7) Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. (8) Again the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; (9) And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. (10) Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. (11) Then the devil leaveth him, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him.

Grammar

21 Further Consonant Stem Nouns

Section 16 of Lesson 4 discussed v- and n-stem nouns. There are three other types of consonant stems: s, nt, r. These all share the characteristic genitive ending -є. As with the other consonant stem nouns, the endings of the i-declension often replace these endings, and in the later stages of OCS the i-declension replaces the e-declension.

21.1 s-Stem Nouns

All s-stem nouns are neuter, with the N/A/V sg. ending -о. Because this ending coincides with o-stem neuters, the two declensions are confused. Many nouns display forms from both declensions. In the remaining oblique cases of the s-stem declension, the affix -єс- joins root to ending. слово 'word' illustrates the declension.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   слово   словєсѣ   словєса
A   слово   словєсѣ   словєса
G   словєсє   словєсѹ   словєсъ
L   словєсє   словєсѹ   словєсьхъ
D   словєси   *словєсьма   словєсьмъ
I   словєсьмь   *словєсьма   словєсъі
V   слово   словєсѣ   словєса

Jers in strong position may be promoted to full vowels, so that one finds alternate forms I sg. словєсємь, D pl. словєсємъ, L pl. словєсєхъ. Conflation with the i-declension produces the forms G L sg. словєси. The forms D sg. словѹ and N/A/V pl. слова result from interference with the o-stem neuters.

The nouns око 'eye' and ѹхо 'ear' are members of this declension. The -є- of the affix -єс- causes the changes к > ч and х > ш of the root-final consonants: G sg. очєсє, ѹшєсє. Plural forms are rare, and they more often form the dual according to the i-declension.

    око   ѹхо
N A V Du.   очи   ѹши
G L   очью   ѹшью
D I   очима   ѹшима
21.2 nt-Stem Nouns

The nt-stem nouns are diminutives referring to living beings. All the nouns of this type are neuter. The affix intervening between root and ending is -ѧт < -ent-, which in the nominative simplifies to -ѧ. The paradigm for отрочѧ 'child' is given below. Many of the forms, however, are not attested.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   отрочѧ   *отрочѧтѣ   *отрочѧта
A   отрочѧ   *отрочѧтѣ   *отрочѧта
G   отрочѧтє   *отрочѧтѹ   отрочѧтъ
L   отрочѧтє   *отрочѧтѹ   отрочѧтьхъ
D   *отрочѧти   *отрочѧтьма   *отрочѧтьмъ
I   *отрочѧтьмь   *отрочѧтьма   *отрочѧтъі
V   отрочѧ   *отрочѧтѣ   *отрочѧта

Some nouns ending in -ть and properly belonging to the i-declension show case endings from this declension: дєсѧть 'ten' has L sg. дєсѧтє, N pl. дєсѧтє, G pl. дєсѧтъ, I pl. дєсѧтъі.

21.3 r-Stem Nouns

Only two feminine nouns belong to the r-stem declension: мати 'mother' and дъшти 'daughter'. мати will illustrate the declension.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   мати   *матєри   матєри
A   матєрь   *матєри   матєри
G   матєрє   *матєрѹ   матєръ
L   *матєри   *матєрѹ   *матєрьхъ
D   матєри   *матєрьма   матєрьмъ
I   матєрьѭ   *матєрьма   матєрьми
V   мати   *матєри   матєри

The form матєрє also appears for the A sg. The I sg. матєрьѭ shows conflation with the i-declension. The G sg. матєри is also found.

The numeral чєтъірє is a member of this declension:

    Masc.   Neut.   Fem.
N Pl.   чєтъірє   чєтъіри   чєтъіри
A   чєтъіри   чєтъіри   чєтъіри
G   чєтъіръ   чєтъіръ   чєтъіръ
L   чєтъірєхъ   чєтъірєхъ   чєтъірєхъ
D   чєтъірємъ   чєтъірємъ   чєтъірємъ
I   чєтъірьмь   чєтъірьмь   чєтъірьмь

One finds the alternate G pl. form чєтъірь.

22 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

The comparative adjective has both short and long forms. The short form derives from the earlier suffix *-jĭs, cf. Lat. mag-is. The long from adds a preceding --, resulting in *-ějĭs. The , which derived from an original short-i, subjects the s in both forms to the RUKI law, yielding -jĭš and -ějĭš.

The nominative singular masculine form loses the final , leaving -jĭ and -ějĭ. The long form -ějĭ is written -ѣи in the Cyrillic script. The short form nominative, however, is used only as a definite (long-form) adjective, where the pronoun jĭ is added. This results in the ending -jĭjĭ, which is written -ии, with palatalization of the preceding consonant resulting from the jot.

22.1 Short Form of the Comparative

The short form adds the suffix -jĭš to the base of the word, to which are appended the usual adjective endings. The nominative adds -jĭjĭ. In all forms the presence of the -j- results in palatalization of the preceding consonant. Many adjectives ending in -ьк-, -ък-, or -ок- form the comparative by means of the short form suffix, before which the -ьк-, -ък-, or -ок- are dropped. For example, въісокъ 'high' uses the comparative base въіш- 'higher'. The paradigm is as follows.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   въішии   въішє   въішьши
A   въішии   въішє   въішьшѫ
    въішьшь        
G   въішьша   въішьша   въішьшѧ
L   въішьши   въішьши   въішьши
D   въішьшѹ   въішьшѹ   въішьши
    въішьшю   въішьшю    
I   въішьшємь   въішьшємь   въішьшєѭ
             
N V Du.   въішьша   въішьши   въішьши
A   въішьша   въішьши   въішьши
G   въішьшѹ   въішьшѹ   въішьшѹ
    въішьшю   въішьшю   въішьшю
L   въішьшѹ   въішьшѹ   въішьшѹ
    въішьшю   въішьшю   въішьшю
D   въішсьшєма   въішьшєма   въішьшама
I   въішсьшєма   въішьшєма   въішьшама
             
N V Pl.   въішьшє   въішьша   въішьшѧ
    въішьши        
A   въішьшѧ   въішьша   въішьшѧ
G   въішьшь   въішьшь   въішьшь
L   высьшихъ   въішьшихъ   въішьшахъ
D   въішьшємъ   въішьшємъ   въішьшамъ
I   въішьши   въішьши   въішьшами
22.2 Long Form of the Comparative

The long form adds the suffix -ějĭš- to the word base. The here derives from an original long-e, so that a preceding velar consonant is palatalized according to the rules of First Palatalization. In this situation the suffix -ějĭš- is then replaced by -ajĭš-. For example, стар-ъ 'old' forms the comparative star-ějĭš-, but ѹбог-ъ 'poor' forms ubož-ajĭš- < *ubož-ějiš- < *aubag-e:-jĭš-. The comparative of старъ 'old' illustrates the declension.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   старѣи   старѣѥ   старѣиши
A   старѣи   старѣѥ   старѣишѫ
    старѣиша   старѣишє   старѣишѭ
G   старѣиша   старѣиша   старѣишѧ
L   старѣиши   старѣиши   старѣиши
D   старѣишѹ   старѣишѹ   старѣиши
    старѣишю   старѣишю    
I   старѣишємь   старѣишємь   старѣишєѭ
             
N V Du.   старѣиша   старѣиши   старѣиши
A   старѣиша   старѣиши   старѣиши
G   старѣишѹ   старѣишѹ   старѣишѹ
    старѣишю   старѣишю   старѣишю
L   старѣишѹ   старѣишѹ   старѣишѹ
    старѣишю   старѣишю   старѣишю
D   старѣишєма   старѣишєма   старѣишама
I   старѣишєма   старѣишєма   старѣишама
             
N V Pl.   старѣишє   старѣиша   старѣишѧ
    старѣиши        
A   старѣишѧ   старѣиша   старѣишѧ
G   старѣишь   старѣишь   старѣишь
L   старѣишихъ   старѣишихъ   старѣишахъ
D   старѣишємъ   старѣишємъ   старѣишамъ
I   старѣиши   старѣиши   старѣишами
22.3 Comparatives without Positive Bases

Several comparatives derive from stems whose positive form had fallen into disuse by the time of the OCS documents. The corresponding positive adjective forms were taken from other stems. The following are common examples.

    Positive   Comparative Masc.   Neut.   Fem.
    вєлии, вєликъ   бол҄ии 'bigger'   бол҄є   бол҄ьши
    'big'            
    мъногъ 'many'   вѧштии 'larger, more'   вѧштє   вѧштьши
    малъ 'small'   мьн҄ии 'smaller'   мьн҄є   мьн҄ьши
    благъ, добръ   лѹчии 'better'   лѹчє   лѹчьши
    'good'            
        ѹн҄ии 'better'   ѹнѥ   ѹн҄ьши
            ѹнѣѥ    
        сѹл҄ии 'better'   сѹлѥ   сѹл҄ьши
        сѹлѣи   сѹлѣѥ   сѹлѣиши
        рачии 'better'   рачѥ   рачьши
    зълъ 'bad'   гор҄ии 'worse'   горѥ   гор҄ьши
22.4 The Superlative

The superlative of adverbs is formed by adding the prefix нан- to the comparative, e.g. пакъі 'again', пачє 'more', нанпачє 'the most'. The superlative of adjectives is most often expressed by means of the comparative in conjunction with a genitive denoting the point of reference for the comparison: вьсѣхъ бол҄ии 'biggest of all'. An absolute superlative is formed by use of the adverb ѕєло 'very' with the positive degree of the adjective, or by means of the prefix прѣ- added to the positive: свѧтъ 'holy', прѣсвѧтъ 'holiest'.

23 Relatives, Interrogatives, and Indefinites
23.1 The Relative Pronoun

The relative pronoun is formed by appending the enclitic жє 'but, and' to the forms of the third person pronoun 'he'. The pronoun is declined, while the enclitic remains invariable. In contrast to the third person pronoun, the nominative forms of the relative pronoun do occur.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   ижє   ѥжє   јажє
A   ижє   ѥжє   ѭжє
G   ѥгожє   ѥгожє   ѥѩжє
L   ѥмі/жє   ѥмьжє   ѥижє
D   ѥмѹжє   ѥмѹжє   ѥижє
I   имьжє   имьжє   ѥѭжє
             
N A Du.   јажє   ижє   ижє
G L   ѥюжє   ѥюжє   ѥюжє
D I   имажє   имажє   имажє
             
N Pl.   ижє   јажє   ѩжє
A   ѩжє   јажє   ѩжє
G   ихъжє   ихъжє   ихъжє
L   ихъжє   ихъжє   ихъжє
D   имъжє   имъжє   имъжє
I   имижє   имижє   имижє

As with the third person pronoun, a prothetic n- occurs when used with prepositions, e.g. въ н҄ьжє 'in which'.

23.2 The Interrogative Pronoun and Adjective

The interrogative pronoun is declined only in the singular. The masculine and feminine forms are the same, while the neuter has a separate stem.

    Masc./Fem.   Neut.
N   къто   чьто
A   кого   чьто
G   кого   чєсо
L   комь   чємь
D   комѹ   чєсомѹ
I   цѣмь   чимь

къто means 'who?', referring to masculine or feminine substantives; чьто means 'what?'. чьто has variant forms for some of the oblique cases: G чєсого, чьсо, чьсого; D чьсомѹ, чємѹ, L чєсомь.

The interrogative adjective is къіи, коѥ, каја 'which?, what sort of?'. The declension is given below.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   къіи   коѥ   каја
A   къіи   коѥ   кѫѭ
G   коѥго   коѥго   коѥѩ
L   коѥмь   коѥмь   коѥи
D   коѥмѹ   коѥмѹ   коѥи
I   къіимь   къіимь   коѥѭ
             
N A Du.   (каја)   -   -
G L   (коѥю)   (коѥю)   (коѥю)
D I   къіима   къіима   къіима
             
N Pl.   ции   каја   къіѩ
A   къіѩ   каја   къіѩ
G   къіихъ   къіихъ   къіихъ
L   къіихъ   къіихъ   къіихъ
D   къіимъ   къіимъ   къіимъ
I   къіими   къіими   къіими

There are variant forms: N sg. masc. къі, G sg. fem. коѩ, D sg. fem. кои, A sg. fem. коѭ, I sg. fem. коѭ, and G pl. коихъ.

The possessive interrogative adjective чии, чија, чиѥ 'whose' follows the same declension.

23.3 Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives

In addition to the meaning 'who?, what?', the pronouns къто, чьто may have the indefinite meanings 'anybody, anything', respectively.

The prefix нѣ- imparts indefinite meaning to the word to which it is attached. къто 'who?' becomes нѣкъто 'someone', чьто 'what?' becomes нѣчьто 'something'. Similarly, the prefix ни- imparts a negative meaning: никъто 'no one', ничьто 'no thing'. These prefixes were still flexible in OCS, so that prepositions may come between prefix and base word: нѣ ѹ кого 'with someone', ни о комьжє нєродиши 'you care for no one'.

24 Compound Tense Formation

Past tenses other than the imperfect and aorist were formed by means of periphrastic constructions. These were based on the l-participle used in conjunction with a corresponding tense of 'to be'. The future was also at times expressed with constructions using an auxiliary verb.

24.1 The Perfect

The IE perfect formation survives in OCS only in the form вѣдѣ 'I know' < *voidai, corresponding to Lat. vidi, Grk. (w)oida, Skt. veda. The perfect of other verbs is formed in OCS by using the corresponding l-participle of the verb plus the present tense of 'to be', that is, finite forms built from the stem єс-. The participle takes its gender and number from the subject. For example, the perfect of нєсти, -сѫ, -сєши 'carry' is as follows.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
1st Sg.   нєслъ   нєсло   нєсла ѥсмь 'I carried'
2   нєслъ   нєсло   нєсла ѥси 'you carried'
3   нєслъ   нєсло   нєсла ѥстъ 'he/it/she carried'
             
1st Du.   нєсла   нєслѣ   нєслѣ ѥсвѣ 'we two carried'
2   нєсла   нєслѣ   нєслѣ ѥста 'you two carried'
3   нєсла   нєслѣ   нєслѣ ѥстє 'they two carried'
             
1st Pl.   нєсли   нєсла   нєслъі ѥсмъ 'we carried'
2   нєсли   нєсла   нєслъі ѥстє 'you carried'
3   нєсли   нєсла   нєслъі сѫтъ 'they carried'

The exact difference between the OCS perfect and aorist is still a matter of scholarly debate. Many state that the perfect in OCS denotes a past action whose result is still relevant in the present. This is distinct from the aorist, which denotes a past action without regard to the time of the speaker. The oft-quoted example in support of this distinction comes from the story of Jairus' daughter in Mark 5:22-43. The messengers tell Jairus дъшти твоѣ ѹмрѣтъ 'your daughter has died', where ѹмрѣтъ is the third singular aorist form. However Jesus later says нѣстъ ѹмръла нъ съпитъ 'she is not dead, but sleeps', where нѣстъ (= нє ѥстъ) ѹмръла is the perfect, and съпитъ is present. One must be cautious, however, in asserting that such a distinction was felt in OCS, because here both the aorist ѹмрѣтъ and the perfect (ѥстъ) ѹмръла translate the Greek aorist apethanen. The fact that the OCS perfect often translates the Greek aorist, together with the fact that later Slavic languages use the l-participle construction for the simple past, suggest that the OCS perfect may have expressed the past generally and without reference to the present time of the speaker.

24.2 The Pluperfect

The pluperfect denotes an action which occurred prior to a point of time in the past. It is formed analogously to the perfect, replacing the present tense of the auxiliary 'be' with its imperfect or aorist form. нєсти, -сѫ, -сєши 'carry' serves as an example.

    Participle   Auxiliary (Imperf./Aor.)    
1st Sg.   нєслъ, -ло, -ла   бѣахъ / бѣхъ   'I had carried'
2   нєслъ, -ло, -ла   бѣашє / бѣ   'you had carried'
3   нєслъ, -ло, -ла   бѣашє / бѣ   'he/it/she had carried'
             
1st Du.   нєсла, -лѣ, -лѣ   бѣаховѣ / бѣховѣ   'we two had carried'
2   нєсла, -лѣ, -лѣ   бѣашєта / бѣста   'you two had carried'
3   нєсла, -лѣ, -лѣ   бѣашєтє / бѣстє   'they two had carried'
             
1st Pl.   нєсли, -ла, -лъі   бѣахомъ / бѣхомъ   'we had carried'
2   нєсли, -ла, -лъі   бѣашєтє / бѣстє   'you had carried'
3   нєсли, -ла, -лъі   бѣахѫ / бѣшѧ   'they had carried'

The auxiliary 'be' is also found in the perfect: нєслъ бъілъ ѥсмь 'I had carried'.

24.3 The Future

Future time was usually expressed using the present tense form of the verb. Another construction existed, however, which involved the infinitive used in conjunction with a finite form of one of the verbs въчѧти, начѧти 'to begin', имѣти 'to have', хотѣти 'to will'. For example, one finds глаголати иматъ 'he will speak', нєнавидѣти сѧ начьнѫтъ 'they will despise one another'.

A periphrastic future construction is occasionally formed by using the present participle with a form of бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши 'be, become'. For example the verb мльчати, -чѫ, -чиши 'be silent' forms a future бѫдєши мльчѧ 'you will be silent'; and жити, живѫ, живєши 'live' forms the future живъ бѫдєши 'you will live'.

24.4 The Future Perfect

The present tense also fills the function of the future perfect. There is, however, a periphrastic formation of the future perfect given by the l-participle in conjunction with a finite form of бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши 'be'. For example, читати, -аѭ, -аѥши 'read' forms a future perfect читалъ бѫдѫ 'I will have read'; the future perfect of родити, -ждѫ, -диши 'give birth' is found in то въскѫѭ сѧ и родили бѫдємъ 'then for what shall we be born?'

25 The Nominative and Vocative Cases

The nominative is the case of the subject and of adjectives or substantives predicated to the subject. Thus in бѣашєтє бо ръібарја 'for they two were fishermen', the predicate ръібарја is in the nominative. The nominative is also used abosolutely for naming. This includes titles such as євангєлиє отъ лѹкъі 'the Gospel according to Luke', as well as predicates with verbs of naming: сь вєлии нарєчєтъ сѧ 'he will be called great', where вєлии 'great' is nominative in agreement with the subject.

The vocative is the case used for direct address. For example, дѹшє 'soul!' is vocative in the phrase рєкѫ дѹши моєи дѹшє 'I will say to my soul, Soul!...'. Distinct forms for the vocative are found only in the singular of masculine and feminine nouns. In other numbers the form is the same as the nominative. The nominative is in fact often found in instances where a distinct vocative form would be expected.

Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 6

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

An important key to unlocking the thread of development of the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition is determining the source of the writing systems for the early OCS corpus. Tradition assigns to St. Cyril authorship of 'the' Slavic alphabet. The question lies before scholars as to just which alphabet is 'the' Slavic alphabet, for the early documents of OCS are written in either the Glagolitic or the Cyrillic alphabet. It is generally assumed that one of these is 'the' alphabet composed by Cyril himself, and the other a later revision of the former. The quest, then, is to determine which alphabet is the more archaic.

The general concensus among scholars is that the Glagolitic alphabet (not represented in these lessons for reasons of practicality) is the more archaic. This conclusion stems from the following:

(1) The language encountered in the Glagolitic manuscripts is typically felt to preserve more archaic features than the Cyrillic counterpart. This impression comes from the higher frequency in the Glagolitic manuscripts of uncontracted long forms of adjectives, and from the relative paucity of forms of the secondary sigmatic aorist. It is assumed that greater frequency of archaic linguistic features indicates earlier production of the manuscripts.

(2) There is a definite Glagolitic scribal tradition in the Czech and Slovak (Moravian) regions, where Cyril is assumed to have travelled first in his missionary work. In particular the Kiev (Kyiv) Missal, deemed oldest of our OCS documents on linguistic and palaeographic grounds, displays some phonological and morphological affinities with a Czech-speaking region. Some words of the Glagoltic corpus are felt to be distinctly of Czech origin. In addition, German and Latin loanwords into OCS would presumably have entered the language from the west through Moravian territory; some of these words are found only in Glagolitic manuscripts.

(3) In Istria and Croatia a Glagolitic manuscript tradition is also found, and this too lies in the Western reaches of the Slavic world. The Glagolitic tradition in fact still continues into the modern era.

(4) It is generally assumed that phrases such as složi pismena and the Latin litteras... sclaviniscas denoting 'slavic writing' would not have been used for the Cyrillic alphabet. The Cyrillic remains so obviously close to the Greek alphabet that it would not have been seen as a separate writing system.

(5) There are examples of palimpsests, where a Glagolitic original has been overwritten with the Cyrillic script; yet there are no examples of the reverse procedure. In addition, some Cyrillic manuscripts contain isolated Glagolitic letters, or individual words written in Glagolitic.

On the other side, some propose that Cyril in fact created what we term the Cyrillic alphabet. The Glagolitic is assumed to be a secondary creation, brought about in the period after the deaths of Sts. Cyril and Methodius. The presumption is that, after the Saints had passed away and the Pope issued orders forbidding the Slavonic liturgy, their disciples felt the need to devise an alphabet dissimilar from the Greek. The close ties between Moravia and the Western Church led to anti-Greek sentiment in the region, and the obvious resemblance of the Cyrillic alphabet to the Greek would have been a hindrance to their missionary efforts.

One even finds references which lead one to believe Cyril might not have been the originator of the alphabet at all. For example, in a Life of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, there is the following passage concerning Cyril's stay in the city of Chersonese in the Crimea about the year 860:

Обрѣтє жє тѹ єваггєліє и ѱалтырь рѹсьскыми писмєнъі писано, и чловѣка ѡбрѣтъ глаголюща тою бєсѣдою, и бєсѣдова с нимъ, и силѹ рѣчи пріимъ, своєи бєсѣдѣ прикладаа различнаа писмєна, гласнаа съгласнаа, и къ богѹ молитвъі творѧ, въскорѣ начѧтъ чєсти и сказати, и мноѕи сѧ ємѹ дивлѧхѹ, бога хвалѧщє.

"And he found there the Evangel and Psalter written with Russian letters, and upon finding a man who spoke the language, talked with him; and perceiving the power of the speech, he added various letters for his own language, consonant vocal sounds; and praying to God, immediately began to compose and reveal, and many marvelled at him, glorifying God."

As can be seen, although arguments in favor of the priority of Glagolitic are strong, they are by no means iron-clad. It is clear that, at the present moment, the question of which alphabet St. Cyril himself composed must remain an open one.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following selection begins the Beatitudes, Matthew 5:1-13. These verses are particularly noteworthy for their illustration of the distinction between short and long forms of the adjective. For example блажєни ништиі renders 'blessed are the poor'. The definite substantive 'the poor' requires use of the long adjective form ништиі, whereas the predicate to this definite substantive merely takes the short form блажєни.

ѹзьрѣвъ жє народъі вьзидє на горѫ і ѣко сѣдє пристѫпишѧ къ н҄ємѹ ѹчєници єго |
  • ѹзьрѣвъ -- verb; past active participle <ѹзьрѣти, -р҄ѭ, -риши> see, perceive -- seeing
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • народъі -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <народъ> crowd, multitude -- the multitudes
  • вьзидє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <възити, -идѫ, -идєши> go up -- he went up
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- into
  • горѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <гора> mountain -- a mountain
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- when
  • сѣдє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <сѣсти, сѣдѫ, -дєши> sit down -- he was set
  • пристѫпишѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <пристѫпити, -пл҄ѭ, -пиши> come up to, step up -- came
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • н҄ємѹ -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • ѹчєници -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ѹчєникъ> student, disciple -- disciples
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*и> he -- his

і отвръзъ ѹста своѣ ѹчаашє ѧ глагол҄ѩ |
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • отвръзъ -- verb; past active participle <отъврѣсти, -връзѫ, -връзєши> open -- he opened
  • ѹста -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ѹста> mouth, lips -- mouth
  • своѣ -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- his
  • ѹчаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <ѹчити, ѹчѫ, ѹчиши> teach -- (he) taught
  • ѧ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- them
  • глагол҄ѩ -- verb; present active participle <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saying

блажєни ништиі дѹхомь ѣко тѣхъ єстъ цѣсарьство нєбєсьскоє |
  • блажєни -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <блажєнъ> blessed -- blessed (are)
  • ништиі -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ништь, ништє, ништа> poor, beggarly -- (the) poor
  • дѹхомь -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <дѹхъ> spirit -- in spirit
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • тѣхъ -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- theirs
  • єстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- is
  • цѣсарьство -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <цѣсарьство> kingdom -- the kingdom
  • нєбєсьскоє -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <нєбєсьскъ> heavenly, of heaven -- of heaven

блажєни плачѫштєи ѣко ти ѹтѣшѧтъ сѧ |
  • блажєни -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <блажєнъ> blessed -- blessed (are)
  • плачѫштєи -- verb; present active participle <плакати, плачѫ, -чєши> weep, mourn -- they that mourn
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • ти -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- they
  • ѹтѣшѧтъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person plural present of <ѹтѣшити, -шѫ, -шиши> comfort -- shall be comforted

блажєни кротьци ѣко ти нашєдѧтъ зємл҄ѭ |
  • блажєни -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <блажєнъ> blessed -- blessed (are)
  • кротьци -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <кротъиъ> mild, tame -- the meek
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • ти -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- they
  • нашєдѧтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <наслѣдити, -ждѫ, -диши> inherit -- shall inherit
  • зємл҄ѭ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <зємл҄ја> earth, land -- the earth

блажєни ал҄чѫштиі і жаждѫштиі правъдъі ради ѣко ти насъітѧтъ сѧ |
  • блажєни -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <блажєнъ> blessed -- blessed (are)
  • ал҄чѫштиі -- verb; present active participle <алкати, алчѫ, алчєши> hunger -- they which do hunger
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • жаждѫштиі -- verb; present active participle <жѧдати, -ждѫ, -ждєши> thirst, desire -- thirst
  • правъдъі -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <правьда> justice -- righteousness
  • ради -- postposition; <ради> for, for the sake of, because of -- after
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • ти -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- they
  • насъітѧтъ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural present reflexive of <насъітити, -штѫ, -тиши> satisfy, sate -- shall be filled

блажєни милостивиі ѣко ти помиловани бѫдѫтъ |
  • блажєни -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <блажєнъ> blessed -- blessed (are)
  • милостивиі -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <милостивъ> compassionate, full of grace -- the merciful
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • ти -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- they
  • помиловани -- verb; past passive participle <помиловати, -лѹѭ, -лѹѥши> pity, have mercy on -- obtain mercy
  • бѫдѫтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- shall

блажєни чистиі сръдцємь ѣко ти бога ѹзьрѧтъ |
  • блажєни -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <блажєнъ> blessed -- blessed (are)
  • чистиі -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <чистъ> pure, clean -- the pure
  • сръдцємь -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <срьдьцє> heart -- in heart
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • ти -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- they
  • бога -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • ѹзьрѧтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ѹзьрѣти, -р҄ѭ, -риши> see, perceive -- shall see

блажєни съмирѣѭштиі ѣко ти съіновє божіи нарєкѫтъ сѧ |
  • блажєни -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <блажєнъ> blessed -- blessed (are)
  • съмирѣѭштиі -- verb; present active participle <съмирјати, -јаѭ, -јаѩши> make peace -- the peacemakers
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • ти -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- they
  • съіновє -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <съінъ> son -- the children
  • божіи -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <божьи> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • нарєкѫтъ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural present reflexive of <нарєшти, -рєкѫ, -рєчєши> call, name -- shall be called

блажєни ізгънани правъдъі ради ѣко тѣхъ єстъ цѣсарьство нєбєсьскоє |
  • блажєни -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <блажєнъ> blessed -- blessed (are)
  • ізгънани -- verb; past passive participle <изгънати, иждєнѫ, -нєши> drive out -- they which are persecuted
  • правъдъі -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <правьда> justice -- righteousness'
  • ради -- postposition; <ради> for, for the sake of, because of -- for... sake
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • тѣхъ -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- theirs
  • єстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- is
  • цѣсарьство -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <цѣсарьство> kingdom -- the kingdom
  • нєбєсьскоє -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <нєбєсьскъ> heavenly, of heaven -- of heaven

блажєни єстє єгда поносѧтъ вамъ і иждєнѫтъ въі і рєкѫтъ вьсѣкъ зълъ глаголъ на въі лъжѫштє мєнє ради |
  • блажєни -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <блажєнъ> blessed -- blessed
  • єстє -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- are ye
  • єгда -- relative adverb; <єгда> when -- when
  • поносѧтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <поносити, -шѫ, -сиши> upbraid -- (men) shall revile
  • вамъ -- pronoun; dative plural of <тъі> you, thou -- you
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • иждєнѫтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <изгънати, иждєнѫ, -нєши> drive out -- persecute
  • въі -- pronoun; accusative plural of <тъі> you, thou -- you
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • рєкѫтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- shall say
  • вьсѣкъ -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <вьсѣкъ> each, every -- all manner of
  • зълъ -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <зълъ> evil, bad -- evil
  • глаголъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <глаголъ> word, speech -- ...
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- against
  • въі -- pronoun; accusative plural of <тъі> you, thou -- you
  • лъжѫштє -- verb; present active participle <лъгати, лъжѫ, -жєши> lie, speak falsely -- falsely
  • мєнє -- pronoun; genitive singular of <азъ> I -- my
  • ради -- postposition; <ради> for, for the sake of, because of -- for... sake

радѹитє сѧ і вєсєлитє сѧ ѣко мъзда ваша многа єстъ на нєбєсєхъ | тако бо ізгънашѧ пророкъі іжє бѣшѧ прѣждє васъ |
  • радѹитє сѧ -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative reflexive of <радовати сѧ, -дѹѭ, -дѹѥши> rejoice, be glad -- rejoice
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • вєсєлитє сѧ -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative reflexive of <вєсєлити, -л҄ѭ, -лиши> entertain; (refl.) rejoice -- be (exceeding) glad
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • мъзда -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <мъзда> reward, pay -- reward
  • ваша -- possessive adjective; nominative singular feminine of <вашь> of you, your -- your
  • многа -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <мъногъ> much, many -- great
  • єстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- is
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- in
  • нєбєсєхъ -- noun, neuter; locative plural of <нєбо> heaven, sky -- heaven
  • тако -- adverb; <тако> thus, in this way -- so
  • бо -- adverb; <бо> for -- for
  • ізгънашѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <изгънати, иждєнѫ, -нєши> drive out -- persecuted they
  • пророкъі -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <пророкъ> prophet -- the prophets
  • іжє -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • бѣшѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- were
  • прѣждє -- preposition; <прѣждє> before -- before
  • васъ -- pronoun; genitive plural of <тъі> you, thou -- you

въі єстє соль зєми аштє жє соль обѹѣєтъ чимь осолитъ сѧ | ничьсомѹжє бѫдєтъ къ томѹ да ісъіпана бѫдєтъ вънъ і попираєма чловѣкъі |
  • въі -- pronoun; nominative plural of <тъі> you, thou -- ye
  • єстє -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- are
  • соль -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <соль> salt -- the salt
  • зєми -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <зємл҄ја> earth, land -- of the earth
  • аштє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but
  • соль -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <соль> salt -- the salt
  • обѹѣєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <обѹјати, -јаѭ, -јаѥши> become stupid; become tasteless -- have lost his savour
  • чимь -- interrogative pronoun; instrumental singular neuter of <чьто> what -- wherewith
  • осолитъ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person singular present reflexive of <осолити, -л҄ѭ, -лиши> salt -- shall it be salted
  • ничьсомѹжє -- pronoun; dative singular neuter of <ничьтожє> nothing -- for nothing
  • бѫдєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- it is (thenceforth good)
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- ...
  • томѹ -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- (but)
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- to
  • ісъіпана -- verb; past passive participle <исъіпати, -пл҄ѭ, -пл҄ѥши> shake out, pour out -- cast
  • бѫдєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- be
  • вънъ -- adverb; <вънъ> out, outside -- out
  • і -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • попираєма -- verb; present passive participle <попирати, -аѭ, -аѥши> tread on -- to be trodden (under foot of)
  • чловѣкъі -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural of <чловѣкъ> man, human -- men

Lesson Text

ѹзьрѣвъ жє народъі вьзидє на горѫ і ѣко сѣдє пристѫпишѧ къ н҄ємѹ ѹчєници єго | і отвръзъ ѹста своѣ ѹчаашє ѧ глагол҄ѩ | блажєни ништиі дѹхомь ѣко тѣхъ єстъ цѣсарьство нєбєсьскоє | блажєни плачѫштєи ѣко ти ѹтѣшѧтъ сѧ | блажєни кротьци ѣко ти нашєдѧтъ зємл҄ѭ | блажєни ал҄чѫштиі і жаждѫштиі правъдъі ради ѣко ти насъітѧтъ сѧ | блажєни милостивиі ѣко ти помиловани бѫдѫтъ | блажєни чистиі сръдцємь ѣко ти бога ѹзьрѧтъ | блажєни съмирѣѭштиі ѣко ти съіновє божіи нарєкѫтъ сѧ | блажєни ізгънани правъдъі ради ѣко тѣхъ єстъ цѣсарьство нєбєсьскоє | блажєни єстє єгда поносѧтъ вамъ і иждєнѫтъ въі і рєкѫтъ вьсѣкъ зълъ глаголъ на въі лъжѫштє мєнє ради | радѹитє сѧ і вєсєлитє сѧ ѣко мъзда ваша многа єстъ на нєбєсєхъ | тако бо ізгънашѧ пророкъі іжє бѣшѧ прѣждє васъ | въі єстє соль зєми аштє жє соль обѹѣєтъ чимь осолитъ сѧ | ничьсомѹжє бѫдєтъ къ томѹ да ісъіпана бѫдєтъ вънъ і попираєма чловѣкъі |

Translation

(Matthew 5:1) And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him: (2) And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying, (3) Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (4) Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. (5) Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. (6) Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. (7) Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. (8) Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. (9) Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. (10) Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteouness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (11) Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. (12) Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. (13) Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.

Grammar

26 The Present Active Participle

The present active participle follows the twofold nominal declension, except in the nominative and accusative singular and plural. In the oblique cases, the suffix -ęšt- or -ǫšt- is added to the verbal stem, and the case endings are added to this suffix. Those verbs with third person plural present ending in -ętŭ take the suffix -ęšt-, those with -ǫtŭ take -ǫšt-. In the nominative singular masculine, the suffix -ęšt- yields -; the suffix -ǫšt- yields - or -y. Soft stem verbs take -, hard stems take -y.

According to the classification of verbs into five conjugations, the above means that verbs of conjugations I, II, and V have nominative singular masculine -y, and suffix -ǫšt-. Verbs of conjugation III have nominative singular masculine - and suffix -ǫšt-; verbs of conjugation IV have nominative singular masculine - and suffix -ęšt-.

Verbs of conjugations I, II, and V follow the paradigm of ити, идѫ, идєши 'go'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   идъі   идъі   идѫшти
A   идѫшть   идѫштє   идѫштѫ
G   идѫшта   идѫшта   идѫштѧ
L   идѫшти   идѫшти   идѫшти
D   идѫштѹ   идѫштѹ   идѫшти
I   идѫштємь   идѫштємь   идѫштєѭ
             
N A Du.   идѫшта   идѫшти   идѫшти
G L   идѫштѹ   идѫштѹ   идѫштѹ
D I   идѫштєма   идѫштєма   идѫштама
             
N Pl.   идѫштє   идѫшта   идѫштѧ
A   идѫштѧ   идѫшта   идѫштѧ
G   идѫшть   идѫшть   идѫшть
L   идѫштихъ   идѫштихъ   идѫштахъ
D   идѫштємъ   идѫштємъ   идѫштамъ
I   идѫшти   идѫшти   идѫштами

Verbs of conjugation III follow the paradigm of знати, знаѭ, знаѥши 'know'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   знаѩ   знаѩ   знаѭшти
A   знаѭшть   знаѭштє   знаѭштѫ
G   знаѭшта   знаѭшта   знаѭштѧ
L   знаѭшти   знаѭшти   знаѭшти
D   знаѭштѹ   знаѭштѹ   знаѭшти
I   знаѭштємь   знаѭштємь   знаѭштєѭ
             
N A Du.   знаѭшта   знаѭшти   знаѭшти
G L   знаѭштѹ   знаѭштѹ   знаѭштѹ
D I   знаѭштєма   знаѭштєма   знаѭштама
             
N Pl.   знаѭштє   знаѭшта   знаѭштѧ
A   знаѭштѧ   знаѭшта   знаѭштѧ
G   знаѭшть   знаѭшть   знаѭшть
L   знаѭштихъ   знаѭштихъ   знаѭштахъ
D   знаѭштємъ   знаѭштємъ   знаѭштамъ
I   знаѭшти   знаѭшти   знаѭштами

Verbs of conjugation IV follow the paradigm of молити, мол҄ѭ, молиши 'beg'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   молѧ   молѧ   молѧшти
A   молѧшть   молѧштє   молѧштѫ
G   молѧшта   молѧшта   молѧштѧ
L   молѧшти   молѧшти   молѧшти
D   молѧштѹ   молѧштѹ   молѧшти
I   молѧштємь   молѧштємь   молѧштєѭ
             
N A Du.   молѧшта   молѧшти   молѧшти
G L   молѧштѹ   молѧштѹ   молѧштѹ
D I   молѧштєма   молѧштєма   молѧштама
             
N Pl.   молѧштє   молѧшта   молѧштѧ
A   молѧштѧ   молѧшта   молѧштѧ
G   молѧшть   молѧшть   молѧшть
L   молѧштихъ   молѧштихъ   молѧштахъ
D   молѧштємъ   молѧштємъ   молѧштамъ
I   молѧшти   молѧшти   молѧштами

Note in particular the accusative singular masculine ending -ь and the nominative plural masculine ending -є.

The definite (long) forms are constructed by appending the corresponding form of the third person pronoun. ити, идѫ, идєши 'go' illustrates the forms.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   идъіи   идѫштєѥ   идѫштија
A   идѫштьи   идѫштєѥ   идѫштѫѭ
G   идѫштаѥго   идѫштаѥго   идѫштѧѩ
L   идѫштиимь   идѫштиимь   идѫштии
D   идѫштѹѥмѹ   идѫштѹѥмѹ   идѫштии
I   идѫштиимь   идѫштиимь   идѫштєѭ
             
N A Du.   идѫштаја   идѫштии   идѫштии
G L   идѫштѹю   идѫштѹю   идѫштѹю
D I   идѫштиима   идѫштиима   идѫштиима
             
N Pl.   идѫштєи   идѫштаја   идѫштѧѩ
A   идѫштѧѩ   идѫштаја   идѫштѧѩ
G   идѫштиихъ   идѫштиихъ   идѫштиихъ
L   идѫштиихъ   идѫштиихъ   идѫштиихъ
D   идѫштиимъ   идѫштиимъ   идѫштиимъ
I   идѫштиими   идѫштиими   идѫштиими

The nominative singular neuter does not correspond to the indefinite (short) form, but instead shows the full stem -ęšt- / -ǫšt-. The tense jer of the accusative singular masculine may be vocalized as и, producing идѫштии. The genitive singular masculine form may be contracted to yield идѫштааго or идѫштаго. The instrumental singular feminine shows the variant идѫштѫѭ.

The verb 'be' forms participles съі, сѫшти 'being', built from the ѥс- stem, and бѫдъі, бѫдѫшти 'future, that to come', from the same stem as бѫдѫ 'I become'. One finds in later Russian Church Slavonic texts the form бъішѧшт-, e.g. нє бъішащи водѣ 'because there will not be water'.

27 The Conditional of бъіти and the Conditional-Optative Mood

The verb бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши 'be' has modal forms unattested for other verbs. No dual forms survive.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
1st   бимь   *бивѣ   бимъ, бихомъ
2nd   би   *биста   *битє, бистє
3rd   би   *бистє   бѫ, бишѧ

The expected second person plural form is *bite. The alternate forms in the plural are generated by analogy with the aorist. The aorist of бъіти often replaced the above forms in the conditional role: singular бъіхъ, бъі, бъі; dual бъіховѣ, бъіста, бъістє; plural бъіхомъ, бъістє, бъішѧ.

These forms are used in the conditional-optative, which is a modal formation derived from the l-participle used in conjunction with the conditional forms of бъіти. For example мошти, могѫ, можєши 'be able' yields могли бимъ 'we would be able'; бъіти gives бъілъ, бимь 'I would be, I would like to be'. The conditional-optative is often used in contrary-to-fact statements: аштє сѧ би нє родилъ 'if he had not been born'. This construction was also be used in purpose clauses: слѹгъі ѹбо моѧ подвиѕалъі сѧ бишѧ да нє прѣданъ бимь июдѣомъ 'then my servants would fight, that I not be handed over to the Jews.' In the last clause, бимь is found with the past passive participle прѣданъ, rather than a past active l-participle. Such clauses with да stood alone indicating a wish: јарѹ да бъі обрѣлъ лютѣшѧ 'Oh, if he had found more cruel people!' The form of бъіти was sometimes dropped altogether, leaving only the participle: ѥша и нє събрали събора 'if they had not been able to bring together the council'.

28 The First Conjugation

The first conjugation contains those verbs whose present tense stem ends in є and whose infinitive stem is

(a) the root without suffix, e.g. нєс-ти 'to carry', 2 sg. pres. нєс-є-ши

or

(b) enlarged by the suffix а, e.g. зъв-а-ти 'to call', 2 sg. pres. зов-є-ши.

The conjugation is illustrated by the verbs нєсти, нєсѫ, нєсєши 'carry'; рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши 'tell'; зъвати, зовѫ, зовєши 'call'; пѧти, пьнѫ, пьнєши 'stretch'. The forms of the asigmatic aorist are supplied for the verb мошти, могѫ, можєши 'be able'.

Present   нєс-   рєк-   зов-   пьн-
                 
1st Sg.   нєсѫ   рєкѫ   зовѫ   пьнѫ
2nd   нєсєши   рєчєши   зовєши   пьнєши
3rd   нєсєтъ   рєчєтъ   зовєтъ   пьнєтъ
                 
1st Du.   нєсєвѣ   рєчєвѣ   зовєвѣ   пьнєвѣ
2nd   нєсєта   рєчєта   зовєта   пьнєта
3rd   нєсєтє   рєчєтє   зовєтє   пьнєтє
                 
1st Pl.   нєсємъ   рєчємъ   зовємъ   пьнємъ
2nd   нєсєтє   рєчєтє   зовєтє   пьнєтє
3rd   нєсѫтъ   рєкѫтъ   зовѫтъ   пьнѫтъ
                 
Imperative                
1st Sg.   -   -   -   -
2nd   нєси   рьци   зови   пьни
3rd   нєси   рьци   зови   пьни
                 
1st Du.   нєсѣвѣ   рьцѣвѣ   зовѣвѣ   пьнѣвѣ
2nd   нєсѣта   рьцѣта   зовѣта   пьнѣта
3rd   -   -   -   -
                 
1st Pl.   нєсѣмъ   рьцѣмъ   зовѣмъ   пьнѣмъ
2nd   нєсѣтє   рьцѣтє   зовѣтє   пьнѣтє
3rd   -   -   -   -
                 
Pres. Act. Part.                
Masc/Neut. N   нєсъі   рєкъі   зовъі   пьнъі
Fem. N   нєсѫшти   рєкѫшти   зовѫшти   пьнѫшти
                 
Pres. Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   нєсомъ   рєкомъ   зовомъ   пьномъ
                 
Imperfect                
1st Sg.   нєсѣахъ   рєчаахъ   зовѣахъ   пьнѣахъ
2nd   нєсѣашє   рєчаашє   зовѣашє   пьнѣашє
3rd   нєсѣашє   рєчаашє   зовѣашє   пьѣашє
                 
1st Du.   нєсѣаховѣ   рєчааховѣ   зовѣаховѣ   пьнѣаховѣ
2nd   нєсѣашєта   рєчаашєта   зовѣашєта   пьнѣашєта
3rd   нєсѣашєтє   рєчаашєтє   зовѣашєтє   пьнѣашєтє
                 
1st Pl.   нєсѣахомъ   рєчаахомъ   зовѣахомъ   пьнѣахомъ
2nd   нєсѣашєтє   рєчаашєтє   зовѣашєтє   пьнѣашєтє
3rd   нєсѣахѫ   рєчаахѫ   зовѣахѫ   пьнѣахѫ
                 
Asigmatic Aorist                
1st Sg.   могъ   -   -   -
2nd   можє   -   -   -
3rd   можє   -   -   -
                 
1st Du.   моговѣ   -   -   -
2nd   можєта   -   -   -
3rd   можєтє   -   -   -
                 
1st Pl.   могомъ   -   -   -
2nd   можєтє   -   -   -
3rd   могѫ   -   -   -
                 
Sigmatic Aorist                
1st Sg.   нѣсъ   рѣхъ   зъвахъ   пѧсъ
2nd   нєсє   рєчє   зъва   пѧ
3rd   нєсє   рєчє   зъва   пѧ
                 
1st Du.   нѣсовѣ   рѣховѣ   зъваховѣ   пѧсовѣ
2nd   нѣста   рѣста   зъваста   пѧста
3rd   нѣстє   рѣстє   зъвастє   пѧстє
                 
1st Pl.   нѣсомъ   рѣхомъ   зъвахомъ   пѧсомъ
2nd   нѣстє   рѣстє   зъвастє   пѧстє
3rd   нѣсѧ   рѣшѧ   зъвашѧ   пѧсѧ
                 
New Aorist                
1st Sg.   нєсохъ   рєкохъ   -   -
2nd   нєсє   рєчє   -   -
3rd   нєсє   рєчє   -   -
                 
1st Du.   нєсоховѣ   рєкоховѣ   -   -
2nd   нєсоста   рєкоста   -   -
3rd   нєсостє   рєкостє   -   -
                 
1st Pl.   нєсохомъ   рєкохомъ   -   -
2nd   нєсостє   рєкостє   -   -
3rd   нєсошѧ   рєкошѧ   -   -
                 
Past Act. Part.                
Masc/Neut. N   нєсъ   рєкъ   зъвавъ   пьнъ
Fem. N   нєсъши   рєкъши   зъвавъши   пьнъши
                 
Resultative Part.                
Masc. N   нєслъ   рєклъ   зъвалъ   пѧлъ
                 
Past Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   нєсєнъ   рєчєнъ   зъванъ   пѧтъ
                 
Infinitive   нєсти   рєшти   зъвати   -пѧти
                 
Supine   нєстъ   рєштъ   зъватъ   пѧтъ
                 
Verbal Noun   нєсєньѥ   (на)рєчєньѥ   -   (рас)пѧтьѥ

зъвати has alternate imperfect forms зъваахъ, зъваашє, etc. The common verb начѧти, начьнѫ, начьнєши 'begin' follows the paradigm of пѧти.

29 The Accusative Case

The accusative case is used for the direct object of transitive verbs (unless negated), e.g. иродъ ... съвѧза <і>и и въсади <і>и въ тьмьницѫ 'Herod... bound him and threw him in prison'. Some verbs may take a double accusative, for example сътворѭ <і>ва ловьца чловѣкомъ 'I will make you two fishers of men'. The accusative is used for objects of participles, e.g. исѹсъ жє слъішавъ слово глагол҄ємоє 'Jesus, having heard the word being spoken...'. It may also denote the object of the infinitive, as in хотѧ <і>и ѹбити 'wanting to kill him'; or of a verbal noun: по приѧтии ... даръ 'after receiving... the gift'.

The accusative may express duration in time or extent in space, much like the English use of 'for' in the phrases 'for seven days' or 'for seven miles'. One finds examples тогда жє прѣбъістъ на н҄ємь жє бѣ мѣстѣ дъва дьни 'then He remained in the place in which He was for two days.' Since numbers greater than four are treated as nouns rather than adjectives, phrases of extent may show only the numeral in the accusative, while the noun quantified is in the genitive: і пошть сѧ дьниі (чєтъіри дєсѧти) і ноштиі (чєтъіри дєсѧти) 'and having fasted for forty (of) days and for forty (of) nights'. Here, чєтъіри is the feminine accusative plural adjective modifying дєсѧти. Another example is бѣ жє виѳаньја близ иєрѹсалима јако пѧть на дєсѧтє стадии 'Bethany was near Jerusalem, about fifteen (of) stades.' The noun пѧть 'five' is in the accusative, denoting extent or distance; стадии 'of stades' is in the genitive.

With prepositions the accusative often denotes the object or goal of directed motion. Examples are идєтъ на гробъ 'she is going to the grave' and вьзидє на горѫ 'He went upon the mountain'. An extension of this use to a metaphysical context is found in вьси вѣрѫ имѫтъ въ нъ 'All will have faith in Him'.

30 Participles

OCS makes frequent use of participles, favoring participles in instances where English would typically employ a dependent clause with a finite verb form. Generally speaking, present participles denote actions ongoing at the time of the main verb, while past participles describe actions begun and usually completed by the time of the main verb. For example, in рєчє жє притъчѫ к н҄имъ глагол҄ѧ... 'He told a parable to them, saying...', the present participle глагол҄ѧ describes an action contemporaneous with the past action рєчє. The main verb may itself be a participle, as in the case of исѹсъ жє слъішавъ слово глагол҄ємоє... 'And Jesus, having heard (slyšavŭ) the word being said (glagol'emoe)...'. Participles employed both short (e.g. слъішавъ) and long (e.g. глагол҄ємоє) adjective endings. The long forms were more common in cases other than nominative and accusative.

Disrupting the simple interpretation of how the time-frame of present and past participles relates to that of the main verb is the fact that OCS inherits from Common Slavic a new manner of distinguishing aspect which differs from the parent PIE system. Within OCS, certain verbs are inherently completive or incompletive. Thus the present participle of a completive verb will denote an action in a completed state by the time of or shortly after the time of the main verb. Similarly, the past participle of an incompletive verb will denote an action not necessarily finished by the time of the main verb. Completive verbs are often marked by prefixes. Take as an example и єжє аггєлъі похвалимъ дръжитъ сѧ скврънавъіима рѫкама 'one praised by angels is held by dirty hands'. The present participle похвалимъ has completive aspect.

A participle is often used alongside a finite verb where English would have two finite verbs. For example, сѧдѣтє сьдє доньдєжє шьдъ помол҄ѫ сѧ 'sit here while, having gone, I pray' may be rendered more smoothly as 'sit here while I go and pray'.

Some passive participles have lost some of their verbal force. Present passive participles often denote the possibility of the verbal root, e.g. видимъ 'visible', нєразоримъ 'indestructable'. Past passive participles often lose the verbal force altogether, e.g. прокажєнъ 'leprous', съмѣр҄єнъ 'humble'.

The resultative participle is special, being used only in compound tense formations with an accompanying form of бъіти 'be'. It occurs almost exclusively in the nominative short form.

Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 7

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

The basic corpus of OCS, centered around the 10th-11th centuries, is very limited in scope. The primary Glagolitic manuscripts are:

(i) The Kiev Missal, from the mid 10th cent. This consists of seven folia containing prayers for Mass according to the Roman rite. The language displays West Slavic characteristics: CS tj, dj > c, z rather than št, žd; CS stj > šč rather than št; the instr. sg. masc. o-stem ending is -ŭmĭ rather than -omĭ. The vocabulary shows numerous elements from the West: prěfacija < Lat. praefatio; oplatŭ < Lat. oblata; poganĭskŭ < Lat. paganus.

(ii) The Codex Zographensis, from the 11th cent. This has 303 folia, most of which furnish an incomplete version of the four Gospels; the rest are in Cyrillic and provide a list of Saints' days with the accompanying Gospel reading for that day. The language is characterized by assimilation of jers: > before a front vowel, > before a back vowel.

(iii) The Codex Marianus, from the late 10th, early 11th cent. This consists of 174 folia containing an incomplete version of the four Gospels. This is assigned to the Serbo-Croat area on the basis of the following linguistic characteristics: > u; y > i; gen. sg. sego > sega; vŭ- > u-.

(iv) The Glagolita Clozianus. This contains 14 folia recording a collection of Saints' Lives and homilies to be read during festivals of the ecclesiastical year. This is characterized by the linguistic shifts > u and y > i.

(v) The Codex Assemanianus. This contains 158 folia collecting gospel passages read in the liturgy, followed by a calendar of Saints' days. The large proportion of Macedonian saints in the calendar leads one to assume a Macedonian provenance.

(vi) The Psalterium Sinaiticum, from the 11th cent. This has 177 folia with translations of the Greek Psalms 1-137.

(vii) The Euchologium Sinaiticum, from the 11th cent. This comprehends 109 folia containing a collection of prayers for different occasions.

The major Cyrillic documents are the following:

(viii) Savvina Kniga, from the 11th cent. This consists of 166 folia, containing an incomplete evangelistary and list of Saints' days. The name derives from mention within the document that it was written by popŭ Savva. Thought to be of Bulgarian provenance based on the fact that is not strengthened to o.

(ix) The Codex Suprasliensis, from the 11th cent. This consists of 285 folia giving a menology for the month of March, that is, a collection of readings ecclesiastical festivals of March. There are twenty-four saints' lives and legends, twenty-three homilies, and one prayer. The back jer is not strengthened to o, nor to e; the text is assumed to come from the Bulgarian region.

(x) The Inscription of Tsar Samuel, dated 993. This is a marble inscription commissioned by the Tsar over Macedonia and Western Bulgaria from 976 to 1014. It commemorates his deceased parents and brother.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following passage is the beginning of the Nativity, Luke 2:1-20. The first line is the introduction to the passage at hand, and not part of the Gospel. Noteworthy is the frequent use of ѣ where а or ја is to be expected, e.g. кєсарѣ for кєсар҄ја. In the second verse, one also finds scribal confusion, where кѵріиієѭ is written for the more proper dative кѵріію agreeing with the participle владѫщѹ. That this could be mere conflation of and u is mitigated by the fact that is correctly used elsewhere. This rather seems a case of attraction to the preceding сѹрієѭ, brought on by lack of familiarity with foreign names. Note also the use of adjectival forms of names, e.g. давъідовъ, to denote possession or relation, rather than a simple genitive form.

мѣсѧца дєкѧбр҄ја иг въ навєчєриѥ рождьства хрьстова єванћєлиѥ отъ лѹкъі глава в
  • мѣсѧца -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <мѣсѧць> moon, month -- of the month
  • дєкѧбр҄ја -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <дєк҄ѧбр҄ь> December -- December
  • иг -- number adjective; nominative singular neuter of <дъвадєсѧтьнъіи и чєтврътъіи, чєтврътьѥѥ, чєтврътьјаја> twenty-fourth -- 24th
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- on
  • навєчєриѥ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <навєчєрьѥ> eve, evening before -- the eve
  • рождьства -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <рождьство> birth -- of the birth
  • хрьстова -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <хрьстовъ> of Christ, Christ's -- of Christ
  • єванћєлиѥ -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <єванћєльѥ> gospel, evangel -- gospel
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- according to
  • лѹкъі -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Лѹка> Luke -- Luke
  • глава -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <глава> head; chapter -- chapter
  • в -- number adjective; nominative singular feminine of <въторъіи, -роѥ, -раја> second -- 2nd

въ оно врѣмѧ изідє заповѣдь отъ кєсарѣ авгоста напісаті в҄сѫ вьсєлєнѫѭ |
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • оно -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <онъ> that -- those
  • врѣмѧ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <врѣмѧ> time -- days
  • изідє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <изіти, -идѫ, -идєши> go out -- there went out
  • заповѣдь -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <заповѣдь> command, commandment -- a decree
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- from
  • кєсарѣ -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Кєсар҄ь> Caesar -- Caesar
  • авгоста -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Авгостъ> Augustus -- Augustus
  • напісаті -- verb; infinitive of <напісаті, -шѫ, -шєши> write (down), inscribe -- should be taxed
  • в҄сѫ -- pronoun adjective; accusative singular feminine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • вьсєлєнѫѭ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular feminine of <въсєлєнъ> inhabited -- the world

сє напісаніє пръвоє бъістъ владѫщѹ сѹрієѭ и кѵрінієѭ |
  • сє -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <сь> this -- this
  • напісаніє -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <напісаньѥ> writing (down), inscription -- taxing
  • пръвоє -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <прьвъ> first, primary -- first
  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- was made
  • владѫщѹ -- verb; present active participle <власти, владѫ, -дєши> rule (+ instrumental ) -- when... was governor of
  • сѹрієѭ -- proper noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <Сѹріја> Syria -- Syria
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- ...
  • кѵрінієѭ -- proper noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <Кѵринии> Cyrenius, Quirinius -- Cyrenius

и идѣахѫ вьсі напісатъ сѧ кьждо въ свои градъ |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • идѣахѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ити, идѫ, идєши> go -- went up
  • вьсі -- demonstrative adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • напісатъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; supine of <напісаті, -шѫ, -шєши> write (down), inscribe -- to be taxed
  • кьждо -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <къждо> every, everyone -- every one
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • свои -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- his own
  • градъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <градъ> city -- city

вьзідє жє иосіфь отъ галілєѧ и града назарєтьска вь июдєѭ вь градъ давъідовъ іжє наріцаєтъ сѧ віѳлєємь занє бѣашє отъ домѹ и отьчьствіѣ давъідова |
  • вьзідє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <възити, -идѫ, -идєши> go up -- went up
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and also
  • иосіфь -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иосіфъ> Joseph -- Joseph
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- from
  • галілєѧ -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Галілєја> Galilee -- Galilee
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • града -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <градъ> city -- the city
  • назарєтьска -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <Назарєтьскъ> Nazarene, of Nazareth -- of Nazareth
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- into
  • июдєѭ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Июдѣа> Judea -- Judea
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- unto
  • градъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <градъ> city -- the city
  • давъідовъ -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <давъідовъ> of David, David's -- of David
  • іжє -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • наріцаєтъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person singular present of <наріцати, -цаѭ, -цаѥши> call, name -- is called
  • віѳлєємь -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Виѳлєємъ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • занє -- conjunction; <зан҄є> because -- because
  • бѣашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- he was
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- of
  • домѹ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <домъ> house -- the house
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • отьчьствіѣ -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <отьчьствьє> own country, lineage, kindred -- lineage
  • давъідова -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <давъідовъ> of David, David's -- of David

напісатъ сѧ съ марієѭ обрѫчєнѫѭ ємѹ жєноѭ сѫштєѭ нєпраздъноѭ |
  • напісатъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; supine of <напісаті, -шѫ, -шєши> write (down), inscribe -- to be taxed
  • съ -- preposition; <съ> with -- with
  • марієѭ -- proper noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • обрѫчєнѫѭ -- verb; past passive participle <обрѫчити, -чѫ, -чиши> affiance, betrothe -- espoused
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*и> he -- his
  • жєноѭ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <жєна> woman, wife -- wife
  • сѫштєѭ -- verb; present active participle <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- being
  • нєпраздъноѭ -- adjective; instrumental singular feminine of <нєпраздьнъ> pregnant -- great with child

бъістъ жє єгда бъістє тѹ исплънишѧ сѧ дєниє да родітъ | и роді съінъ свои пръвѣнєць и обитъі и и положі и въ ѣслєхъ занє нє бѣ има мѣста въ обитѣли |
  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- (so) it was (that)
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • єгда -- relative adverb; <єгда> when -- while
  • бъістє -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- they were
  • тѹ -- adverb; <тѹ> there; then -- there
  • исплънишѧ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist reflexive of <испльнити, -н҄ѭ, -ниши> fill up, fulfill -- were accomplished
  • дєниє -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <дьнь> day -- the days
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • родітъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <родити, -ждѫ, -диши> bear, produce -- she should be delivered
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • роді -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <родити, -ждѫ, -диши> bear, produce -- she brought forth
  • съінъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <съінъ> son -- son
  • свои -- possessive adjective; accusative singular masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- her
  • пръвѣнєць -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <прьвѣньць> firstborn child -- firstborn
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • обитъі -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <обити, -ьѭ, -ьѥши> wrap, bind in -- wrapped... in swaddling clothes #
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • положі -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <положити, -жѫ, -жиши> lay down, set down -- laid
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*и> he -- him
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • ѣслєхъ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <јасли> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger
  • занє -- conjunction; <зан҄є> because -- because
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- no
  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- there was
  • има -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <*и> he -- for them
  • мѣста -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <мѣсто> place -- room #
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • обитѣли -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <обитѣль> inn, lodging, monastery -- the inn

и пастъирі бѣахѫ въ тоиждє ст҄ранѣ бъдѧщє и стрѣгѫщє стражѫ нощьнѫѭ о стадѣ своємъ |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • пастъирі -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <пастъир҄ь> shepherd -- shepherds
  • бѣахѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- there were
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • тоиждє -- adverb; <тѹиждє> there; there where -- the same
  • ст҄ранѣ -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <страна> country; area, region; (pl) heathen -- country
  • бъдѧщє -- verb; present active participle <бъдѧти, бъждѫ, бъждиши> be awake, stay awake -- abiding (in the field)
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- ...
  • стрѣгѫщє -- verb; present active participle <стрѣшти, стрѣгѫ, стрѣгєши> watch, guard, protect -- keeping
  • стражѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <стража> guard -- watch
  • нощьнѫѭ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <ноштьнъ> nocturnal -- by night
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- over
  • стадѣ -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <стадо> herd -- flock
  • своємъ -- possessive adjective; locative singular neuter of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- their

и сє анћєлъ господьнь ста вь нихъ и слава господьнѣ осіѣ ѧ и ѹбоѣшѧ сѧ ст҄рахомъ вєлиємъ |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • сє -- interjection; <сє> lo, behold -- lo
  • анћєлъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <аггєлъ> angel -- the angel
  • господьнь -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <господьн҄ь> lord's -- of the Lord
  • ста -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <стати, станѫ, станєши> stand -- came
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- upon
  • нихъ -- pronoun; locative plural masculine of <*и> he -- them
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • слава -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <слава> fame, glory -- the glory
  • господьнѣ -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <господьн҄ь> lord's -- of the Lord
  • осіѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <осьјати, -јаѭ, -јаѥши> illumine, shine about, overshadow -- shone round about
  • ѧ -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <*и> he -- them
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • ѹбоѣшѧ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ѹбојати сѧ, -боѭ, -боиши> fear, become afraid -- they were... afraid
  • ст҄рахомъ -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <страхъ> terror -- ...
  • вєлиємъ -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <вєлии> big, great -- sore

и рєчє имъ анћєлъ нє боитє сѧ сє бо благовѣщаѭ вамъ радость вєліѭ ѣжє бѫдєт бьсѣмь людємъ |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • имъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*и> he -- unto them
  • анћєлъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <аггєлъ> angel -- the angel
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • боитє сѧ -- reflexive verb; 2nd person plural imperfect of <бојати сѧ, боѭ, боиши> fear -- fear
  • сє -- interjection; <сє> lo, behold -- behold
  • бо -- conjunction; <бо> for -- for
  • благовѣщаѭ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <благовѣштати, -таѭ, -таѥши> proclaim (the Good News) -- I bring you good tidings of
  • вамъ -- pronoun; dative plural of <тъі> you, thou -- you
  • радость -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <радость> joy -- joy
  • вєліѭ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <вєлии> big, great -- great
  • ѣжє -- relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • бѫдєт -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- shall be
  • бьсѣмь -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- to all #
  • людємъ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <людъ> people -- people

ѣко роді сѧ вамъ съпасъ іжє єстъ христъ господь въ градѣ давъідовѣ | и сє вамъ з҄намєниє обрѧстєтє младьнєць повітъ и лєжѧшть вь ѣслєхъ |
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • роді сѧ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist reflexive of <родити, -ждѫ, -диши> bear, produce -- is born (this day)
  • вамъ -- pronoun; dative plural of <тъі> you, thou -- unto you
  • съпасъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <съпасъ> savior -- a Savior
  • іжє -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • єстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- is
  • христъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Христъ> Christ -- Christ
  • господь -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <господь> lord, master -- the Lord
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • градѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <градъ> city -- the city
  • давъідовѣ -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <давъідовъ> of David, David's -- of David
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • сє -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <сь> this -- this (shall be)
  • вамъ -- pronoun; dative plural of <тъі> you, thou -- unto you
  • з҄намєниє -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <знамєньѥ> sign -- a sign
  • обрѧстєтє -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <обрѣшти, -рѧштѫ, -рѧштєши> find, discover -- ye shall find
  • младьнєць -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <младьньць> child -- the babe
  • повітъ -- verb; past passive participle <повити, -вьѭ, -вьѥши> wind, wrap -- wrapped in swaddling clothes
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- ...
  • лєжѧшть -- verb; present active participle <лєжати, -жѫ, -жиши> lie, recline -- lying
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • ѣслєхъ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <јасли> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger

и вънєзаапѫ бъістъ съ ангѣломъ м҄ножьство вои нєбєснъіих хвалѧштиихъ бога и глаголѭшть |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • вънєзаапѫ -- adverb; <вънєзаапѫ> suddenly -- suddenly
  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- there was
  • съ -- preposition; <съ> with -- with
  • ангѣломъ -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <аггєлъ> angel -- the angel
  • м҄ножьство -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <мъножьство> multitude -- a multitude
  • вои -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <вои> (plural form) troops, army -- host
  • нєбєснъіих -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <нєбєсьнъ> heavenly, of heaven -- of the heavenly
  • хвалѧштиихъ -- verb; present active participle <хвалити, -л҄ѭ, -лиши> praise -- praising
  • бога -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • глаголѭшть -- verb; present active participle <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saying

сла въ въішніих богѹ и на зєми миръ въ чловѣцѣхъ благоволєниє |
  • сла -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <слава> fame, glory -- glory #
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • въішніих -- adjective used as substantive; locative plural neuter of <въішн҄ьи, -н҄єє, -н҄јаја> on high, highest -- the highest
  • богѹ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <богъ> god -- to God
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- on
  • зєми -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <зємл҄ја> earth, land -- earth #
  • миръ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <миръ> world; peace -- peace
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- toward
  • чловѣцѣхъ -- noun, masculine; locative plural of <чловѣкъ> man, human -- men
  • благоволєниє -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <благовол҄єньє> good-will; good -- good will

и бъістъ ѣко отідѫ оть ніхъ анћєлі на нєбо и чловѣци пастъирі рѣшѧ дрѹгь кь дрѹгѹ прѣидѣмъ ѹбо до віѳлєома и відімъ глаголь сь бъівьшіи єгожє господь съказа нам |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- it came to pass
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- as
  • отідѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <отити, -идѫ, -идєши> go out, depart -- were gone away
  • оть -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- from
  • ніхъ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <*и> he -- them
  • анћєлі -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <аггєлъ> angel -- the angels
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- into
  • нєбо -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <нєбо> heaven, sky -- heaven
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • чловѣци -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <чловѣкъ> man, human -- ...
  • пастъирі -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <пастъир҄ь> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • рѣшѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • дрѹгь -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <дрѹгъ> one, another -- one
  • кь -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- to
  • дрѹгѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <дрѹгъ> one, another -- another
  • прѣидѣмъ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <прѣити, -идѫ, -идєши> go, go forth -- let us now go
  • ѹбо -- conjunction; <ѹбо> but, even, now, therefore -- even
  • до -- preposition; <до> to, up to; (with numerals) about -- unto
  • віѳлєома -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Виѳлєємъ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • відімъ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <видѣти, виждѫ, видиши> see -- see
  • глаголь -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <глаголъ> word, speech -- thing
  • сь -- demonstrative adjective; accusative singular masculine of <сь> this -- this
  • бъівьшіи -- verb; past active participle <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- which is come to pass
  • єгожє -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • господь -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <господь> lord, master -- the Lord
  • съказа -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <съказати, -заѭ, -заѥши> announce, explain, make known -- hath made known
  • нам -- pronoun; dative plural of <азъ> I -- unto us

и прѣидѫ под҄вігьшє сѧ и обрѣтѫ маріѭ и иосифа и младьнєць лєжѧшть вь ѣслєхъ |
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • прѣидѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <прѣити, -идѫ, -идєши> go, go forth -- they came
  • под҄вігьшє сѧ -- verb; past active participle <подвигнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> move, arouse -- with haste
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • обрѣтѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <обрѣшти, -рѧштѫ, -рѧштєши> find, discover -- found
  • маріѭ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • иосифа -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Иосифъ> Joseph -- Joseph
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • младьнєць -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <младьньць> child -- the babe
  • лєжѧшть -- verb; present active participle <лєжати, -жѫ, -жиши> lie, recline -- lying
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • ѣслєхъ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <јасли> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger

видѣвъшє жє ськазашѧ о глаголѣ глаголанѣмь о отрочѧті сємъ | и въсі слъішавъшє дівішѧ сѧ о глаголанъіихъ отъ пастъирь кь німъ |
  • видѣвъшє -- verb; past active participle <видѣти, виждѫ, видиши> see -- when they had seen (it)
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • ськазашѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <съказати, -заѭ, -заѥши> announce, explain, make known -- they made known abroad
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- ...
  • глаголѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <глаголъ> word, speech -- the saying
  • глаголанѣмь -- verb; past passive participle <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- which was told (them)
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- concerning
  • отрочѧті -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <отрочѧ> child -- child
  • сємъ -- demonstrative adjective; locative singular neuter of <сь> this -- this
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • въсі -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all they
  • слъішавъшє -- verb; past active participle <слъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear -- that heard (it)
  • дівішѧ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <дівіти сѧ, -в'л҄ѭ, -виши> wonder, marvel -- wondered
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- at
  • глаголанъіихъ -- verb; past passive participle <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- those things which were told
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- by
  • пастъирь -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <пастъир҄ь> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • кь -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- ...
  • німъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*и> he -- them

маріѣ жє вьсѧ съблюдаашє глаголъі сіи въ срьдьци своємъ | и възвратішѧ сѧ пастъірі славѧштє и хвалѧштє бога о в҄сѣхъ ѣжє слъішашѧ и відѣшѧ ѣкожє глаголано бъисть кь нимъ |
  • маріѣ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but
  • вьсѧ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • съблюдаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <съблюдати, -аѭ, -аѥши> protect, keep -- kept... (and pondered them)
  • глаголъі -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <глаголъ> word, speech -- things
  • сіи -- demonstrative adjective; accusative plural masculine of <сь> this -- these
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • срьдьци -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <срьдьць> heart -- heart
  • своємъ -- possessive adjective; locative singular neuter of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- her
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • възвратішѧ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <възвратити, -штѫ, -тиши> give back; (refl.) come back -- returned
  • пастъірі -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <пастъир҄ь> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • славѧштє -- verb; present active participle <славити, -вл҄ѭ, -виши> glorify -- glorifying
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • хвалѧштє -- verb; present active participle <хвалити, -л҄ѭ, -лиши> praise -- praising
  • бога -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- for
  • в҄сѣхъ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural neuter of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all the things
  • ѣжє -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <ижє> who, which -- that
  • слъішашѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <слъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear -- they had heard
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • відѣшѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <видѣти, виждѫ, видиши> see -- seen
  • ѣкожє -- conjunction; <јакожє> as, like, than, so as to -- as
  • глаголано -- verb; past passive participle <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- told
  • бъисть -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- it was
  • кь -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • нимъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*и> he -- them

Lesson Text

мѣсѧца дєкѧбр҄ја иг въ навєчєриѥ рождьства хрьстова єванћєлиѥ отъ лѹкъі глава в въ оно врѣмѧ изідє заповѣдь отъ кєсарѣ авгоста напісаті в҄сѫ вьсєлєнѫѭ | сє напісаніє пръвоє бъістъ владѫщѹ сѹрієѭ и кѵрінієѭ | и идѣахѫ вьсі напісатъ сѧ кьждо въ свои градъ | вьзідє жє иосіфь отъ галілєѧ и града назарєтьска вь июдєѭ вь градъ давъідовъ іжє наріцаєтъ сѧ віѳлєємь занє бѣашє отъ домѹ и отьчьствіѣ давъідова | напісатъ сѧ съ марієѭ обрѫчєнѫѭ ємѹ жєноѭ сѫштєѭ нєпраздъноѭ | бъістъ жє єгда бъістє тѹ исплънишѧ сѧ дєниє да родітъ | и роді съінъ свои пръвѣнєць и обитъі и и положі и въ ѣслєхъ занє нє бѣ има мѣста въ обитѣли | и пастъирі бѣахѫ въ тоиждє ст҄ранѣ бъдѧщє и стрѣгѫщє стражѫ нощьнѫѭ о стадѣ своємъ | и сє анћєлъ господьнь ста вь нихъ и слава господьнѣ осіѣ ѧ и ѹбоѣшѧ сѧ ст҄рахомъ вєлиємъ | и рєчє имъ анћєлъ нє боитє сѧ сє бо благовѣщаѭ вамъ радость вєліѭ ѣжє бѫдєт бьсѣмь людємъ | ѣко роді сѧ вамъ съпасъ іжє єстъ христъ господь въ градѣ давъідовѣ | и сє вамъ з҄намєниє обрѧстєтє младьнєць повітъ и лєжѧшть вь ѣслєхъ | и вънєзаапѫ бъістъ съ ангѣломъ м҄ножьство вои нєбєснъіих хвалѧштиихъ бога и глаголѭшть | сла въ въішніих богѹ и на зєми миръ въ чловѣцѣхъ благоволєниє | и бъістъ ѣко отідѫ оть ніхъ анћєлі на нєбо и чловѣци пастъирі рѣшѧ дрѹгь кь дрѹгѹ прѣидѣмъ ѹбо до віѳлєома и відімъ глаголь сь бъівьшіи єгожє господь съказа нам | и прѣидѫ под҄вігьшє сѧ и обрѣтѫ маріѭ и иосифа и младьнєць лєжѧшть вь ѣслєхъ | видѣвъшє жє ськазашѧ о глаголѣ глаголанѣмь о отрочѧті сємъ | и въсі слъішавъшє дівішѧ сѧ о глаголанъіихъ отъ пастъирь кь німъ | маріѣ жє вьсѧ съблюдаашє глаголъі сіи въ срьдьци своємъ | и възвратішѧ сѧ пастъірі славѧштє и хвалѧштє бога о в҄сѣхъ ѣжє слъішашѧ и відѣшѧ ѣкожє глаголано бъисть кь нимъ |

Translation

24th of the month December, on the eve of the birth of Christ. Gospel according to Luke, 2nd chapter:
(1) And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. (2) (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) (3) And all went up to be taxed, every one in his own city. (4) And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) (5) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. (6) And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. (7) And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn. (8) And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. (9) And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. (10) And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. (11) For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ the Lord. (12) And this shall be a sign unto you: Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. (13) And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, (14) Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. (15) And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. (16) And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger. (17) And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child. (18) And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds. (19) But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart. (20) And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.

Grammar

31 Past Participles
31.1 Past Participle Active

There are two types of past active participle in OCS. One of these, the resultative or l-participle, has been discussed in Section 18. This section discusses what most grammars term the past active participle.

The past active participle is formed by attaching the suffix -ŭš- or -vŭš- to the stem of the verb. To this suffix are added the endings of the soft twofold nominal (cf. Section 12) or compound (cf. Section 17) adjectives, with special forms of the nominative and accusative. The ending -ŭš- is suffixed to verbal stems ending in -i or a consonant -- in this situation, -j and -ov- do not count as consonants. -nǫ- verbs which drop the -nǫ- also take the suffix -ŭš-. All other stems, i.e. -ov, -j, -nǫ, -, -a, take the suffix -vŭš-.

Before -ŭš-, -i becomes -j, with accompanying palatalization of the preceding consonant and fronting of the following -- to --. просити, прошѫ, просиши 'ask' furnishes an example: the nominative singular feminine form is pros-i+ŭš+i > prosj-ĭši > prošĭši 'having asked'. Before -vŭš-, final -j is deleted and -ov- becomes -u. дѣлати, дѣлаѭ, дѣлаѥши 'do' has the stem dělaj-, so that the nominative singular feminine is dělaj+vŭš+i > děla-vŭši > dělavŭši 'having done'. Similarly, отъплѹти, -пловѫ, -пловєши 'sail away' has otŭplov+vŭš+i > otŭplu-vŭši > otŭpluvŭši 'having sailed away'.

Verbs whose stem ends in -i occasionally have alternate forms with the suffix -vŭš-. For example, молити, мол҄ѭ, мол҄ѥши 'beg' shows the forms мол҄ьши and моливъши. The nominative singular masculine and neuter ending is zero, so that OCS deletion of final consonants gives -, - (in front environments), or -vŭ.

In terms of the conjugational classifications of these lessons, the suffixes -ŭš- and -vŭš- are added to the infinitive stem of the verb. The suffix -ŭš- is appended to hard stems ending in a consonant; -vŭš- is added to hard stems ending in a vowel. Verbs of conjugation II drop the -nǫ- / -ne- suffix before forming the past active participle. Verbs of conjugation IV take the suffix -ĭš-; in later texts they appear with -ivŭš-.

The verb нєсти, нєсѫ, нєсєши 'carry' illustrates the declension of the past active participle. The short forms are as follows.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   нєсъ   нєсъ   нєсъши
A   нєсъшь   нєсъшє   нєсъшѫ
G   нєсъша   нєсъша   нєсъшѧ
L   нєсъши   нєсъши   нєсъши
D   нєсъшѹ   нєсъшѹ   нєсъши
I   нєсъшємь   нєсъшємь   нєсъшєѭ
             
N A V Du.   нєсъша   нєсъши   нєсъши
G L   нєсъшѹ   нєсъшѹ   нєсъшѹ
D I   нєсъшєма   нєсъшєма   нєсъшама
             
N V Pl.   нєсъшє   нєсъша   нєсъшѧ
A   нєсъшѧ   нєсъша   нєсъшѧ
G   нєсъшь   нєсъшь   нєсъшь
L   нєсъшихъ   нєсъшихъ   нєсъшихъ
D   нєсъшємъ   нєсъшємъ   нєсъшамъ
I   нєсъши   нєсъши   нєсъшами

The long forms are given below.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   нєсъшъіи   нєсъшєѥ   нєсъшија
A   нєсъшьи   нєсъшєѥ   нєсъшѫѭ
G   нєсъшаѥго   нєсъшаѥго   нєсъшѧѩ
L   нєсъшиимъ   нєсъшиимь   нєсъшии
D   нєсъшѹѥмѹ   нєсъшѹѥмѹ   нєсъшии
I   нєсъшиимь   нєсъшиимь   нєсъшєѭ
             
N A V Du.   нєсъшаја   нєсъшии   нєсъшии
G L   нєсъшѹю   нєсъшѹю   нєсъшѹю
D I   нєсъшиима   нєсъшиима   нєсъшиима
             
N V Pl.   нєсъшєи   нєсъшаја   нєсъшѧѩ
A   нєсъшѧѩ   нєсъшаја   нєсъшѧѩ
G   нєсъшиихъ   нєсъшиихъ   нєсъшиихъ
L   нєсъшиихъ   нєсъшиихъ   нєсъшиихъ
D   нєсъшиимъ   нєсъшиимъ   нєсъшиимъ
I   нєсъшиими   нєсъшиими   нєсъшиими

There are assimilated forms, e.g. feminine I sg. нєсѫѭ and masculine G sg. нєсааго, and contracted forms, e.g. masculine G sg. нєсаго. The masculine and neuter N sg. form for participles in -ь is -ьи, where the tense jer sometimes gives -ии. In the oblique cases, all the same endings are attached to the suffix -ьш-.

31.2 Past Participle Passive

The past passive participle is formed by means of the suffixes -tŭ (cf. English (finely) wrought), -nŭ, or -enŭ (cf. English eaten). The suffixes are added to the infinitve stem and declined as twofold short or long adjectives.

The -тъ suffix is used only in a restricted class of verbs. Verbs with present stem ending in - + nasal employ this suffix. It is added to the infinitive stem, which ends in -. Thus ѧти, имѫ, имєши 'take' (present stem ĭm-) forms ѧтъ 'taken'; пѧти, пьнѫ, пьнєши 'stretch' forms пѧтъ 'stretched'.

Other verbs with different stems form the past passive participle by means of -тъ: извѣдѣти, -вѣмь, -вѣси 'know' forms извѣстъ 'known'; отъврѣсти, -връзѫ, -връзєши 'open' forms отъврьстъ 'opened'.

The -nŭ suffix is used for verbs whose present stems end in -a, -aj, -, -ěj. These lose the final -j in the infinitive stem, to which the suffix is added. For example, сѣјати, сѣѭ, сѣѥши 'sow' yields сѣјанъ 'sown'; разѹмѣти, -мѣѭ, -мѣѥши 'understand' forms разѹмѣнъ 'understood'.

All other stems form the past passive participle by means of the -enŭ suffix. This includes verbs whose stems end in consonants, in particular -нѫ- verbs which drop this suffix in the past tense: двигнѫти, двигнѫ, двигнєши 'move' yields движєнъ 'moved'. Verbs which retain the -нѫ- suffix in the past tense form the participle in -nov-enŭ, e.g. отъринѫти, -ринѫ, -ринєши yields отъриновєнъ. This intervening -v- is also found in the participles of roots ending in a back vowel followed by -j, e.g. кръвєнъ 'covered' from кръіти, кръіѭ, кръіѥши 'cover'. In this situation, -yj- is the tense reflex of -ŭj-. In some instances stem-final -i yields -j, which produces palatalization: просити, прошѫ, просиши 'beg' gives прошєнъ.

Some verbs form participles by means of both the nasal suffix and the mute suffix. For example, бити, бьѭ, бьѥши 'beat' has participles битъ and бьѥнъ 'beaten'. сѣти, сѣѭ, сѣѥши 'sow' shows prefixed participles осѣтъ and осѣнъ 'sown'. Some verbs with root-final -l show formations with both -nŭ and -enŭ, e.g. клати, кол҄ѭ, кол҄ѥши 'stab' forms both кланъ and колєнъ.

32 Present Participle Passive

The present passive participle is formed from the present tense stem by the addition of the endings -imŭ, -emŭ, or -omŭ. These are declined as twofold short or long adjectives. Verbs whose present tense stems end in -и take the ending -имъ. Other soft stems take the ending -ємъ. The remaining consonant stems and -нѫ- verbs take the ending -омъ. The following are examples according to declension.

Conjugation   Verb   Participle   Translation
I   нєсти, нєсѫ, нєсєши   нєсомъ   'being carried'
II   двигнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши   двигомъ   'being moved'
III   знати, знаѭ, знаѥши   знаѥмъ   'being known'
IV   молити, мол҄ѭ, мол҄ѥши   молимъ   'being asked'
V   дати, дамь, даси   дадомъ   'being given'

The verb видѣти, виждѫ, видиши 'see', being originally athematic, forms the participle видомъ alongside the expected видимъ. Similarly, алкати (лакати), алчѫ (лачѫ), алчєши (лачєши) 'hunger' has the participle лакомъ.

The present passive participle may be used with forms of the verb 'be' to create a periphrastic passive voice, e.g. нєсомъ ѥсмь 'I am being carried', нєсоми бъіхомъ 'we were being carried'.

33 Second Conjugation

The verbs of the second declension display the affix -ne- between root and ending. The affix -nǫ- appears in the infinitive. Preceding the affix may be either a stem-final consonant or stem-final vowel. Some roots drop the affix in certain verbal forms. For example, двигнѫти, двигнѫ, двигнєши 'move' forms the aorist двигъ directly from the root, while минѫти, минѫ, минєши 'pass by' retains the affix -нѫ- in the aorist минѫхъ.

The conjugation is illustrated by the verbs двигнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши 'move'; стати, станѫ, станєши 'stand'; ринѫти, ринѫ, ринєши push'; минѫти, -нѫ, -нєши 'pass by'. Many forms are unattested. The verb дръзнѫти, дръзнѫ, дръзнєши 'dare' supplies some forms where they are lacking in the other paradigm verbs.

Present   двиг-нє-   ста-нє-   ри-нє-   ми-нє-
                 
1st Sg.   двигнѫ   станѫ   ринѫ   минѫ
2nd   двигнєши   станєши   ринєши   минєши
3rd   двигнєтъ   станєтъ   ринєтъ   минєтъ
                 
1st Du.   двигнєвѣ   станєвѣ   ринєвѣ   минєвѣ
2nd   двигнєта   станєта   ринєта   минєта
3rd   двигнєтє   станєтє   ринєтє   минєтє
                 
1st Pl.   двигнємъ   станємъ   ринємъ   минємъ
2nd   двигнєтє   станєтє   ринєтє   минєтє
3rd   двигнѫтъ   станѫтъ   ринѫтъ   минѫтъ
                 
Imperative                
1st Sg.   -   -   -   -
2nd   двигни   стани   рини