Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: upo, up, eup, (e)up-s-   'under, (from) below, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): Low


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: gwas n boy, servant W7
Old English: (a)būfan, būfon adv above W7
būfan, būfon prep above ASD/W7
efes n.fem eaves W7
ufan adv above W7
ufe- pfx up LRC
ufe-weard adj upward LRC
ūp adv up, upwards LRC
uppe adv up, above LRC
yfel adj/n.neut evil IEW
Middle English: above adv/prep above W7
eves n eaves W7
evil adj/n evil W7
oft adv often W7
often adv often W7
open adj open W7
sub- pfx sub- W7
supyn adj supine W7
up adv upward W7
uppe adv on high W7
varlet n varlet, attendant W7
vassal n vassal W7
ypo- pfx hypo- W7
English: above adv/prep over(head), in(to) higher place W7
eaves lower borders of roof overhanging wall AHD/W7
eavesdrop vb to listen in secret AHD
evil adj ill, bad, wicked, pernicious W7
evil n wrong, mischief, wickedness LRC
hyp(o)- pfx low, down, under, beneath AHD/W7
hypogeal adj underground, beneath earth's surface AHD
hypolimnion n water layer below thermocline AHD
hypopnea n abnormally slow/shallow breathing AHD
hyposthenia n weakness, abnormal lack of strength AHD
hypothermia n abnormally low body temperature AHD
hyps(o)- pfx height AHD
oft adv often AHD/W7
often adv frequently, many times AHD/W7
opal n gemstone, silicon dioxide mineral AHD/W7
open adj permitting ingress/egress/passage AHD/W7
resupinate adj inverted, bent back to supine position AHD/W7
soutane n cassock with buttons down front AHD/W7
sub- pfx under, beneath, below, up to AHD/W7
subduction n forcing one below another AHD
subdue vb to conquer, vanquish, subjugate AHD
subfusc adj dull, dark, somber AHD
subter- pfx under TLL
supine adj lying on back, with face upward AHD/W7
up adv/prep in(to) higher level/position AHD/W7
Upbourn prop.n Rohan village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
upholster vb to furnish with upholstery W7
upholsterer n one who upholsters AHD
upholstery n materials used to make soft covering W7
upon prep up on LRC
valet n man's male personal servant AHD/W7
varlet n menial, attendant AHD/W7
vassal n feudal tenant, one under protection of feudal lord AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: evel adj/n.masc evil ASD
ose eaves, edges of roof ASD
up, op adv up ASD
Dutch: op prep on, upon TLL
opdat prep in order that TLL
Old Saxon: uƀil adj/n.masc evil ASD
up adv up ASD
uppa, uppe adv up, above, on high ASD
Old Low German: up adv up ASD
Old High German: obasa, opasa n portico ASD/W7
offan adj open W7
ofto adv often W7
ubil adj/adv/n.masc evil ASD/IEW
ūf adv/prep up, on W7
Middle High German: obese n.fem vestibule ASD
German: auf prep up, upon LRC
offen adj open LRC
oft adv often LRC
übel adj/adv evil LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: of prep over, across, through; around, about, concerning LRC
Old Icelandic: of prep on, in, over LRC
Icelandic: ofan adv from above ASD
upp(i) adv up, above, on high ASD
ups n.fem eaves ASD
Danish: paa prep on, upon TLL
Swedish: på prep on, upon TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: ubil n.masc evil ASD
ubils adj evil LRC
ubizwa n.fem hall, porch ASD
Latin: opalus n.masc opal W7
resupinatus vb.ptc resupinate W7
resupino, resupinare vb to bend back to supine position W7
sub prep under, up to LRC
subfuscus adj subfusc, brownish AHD
subitus, subita, subitum adj sudden LRC
subter prep/adv underneath; secretly W7
subtus prep underneath W7
supinus adj supine, upside-down W7
sus- pfx sub- W7
sustineō, sustinēre, sustinuī, sustentum vb to hold back LRC
Late Latin: hyp(o)- pfx hypo- W7
supinum n.neut supine W7
Medieval Latin: subtanus n.masc soutane W7
vassallus n.masc vassal, servant W7
vassellittus n.masc.dim little servant W7
vassus n.masc vassal, servant W7
Old French: ypo- pfx hypo- W7
Middle French: valet n.masc page, valet, young nobleman W7
varlet, vaslet n.masc varlet W7
vassal n.masc vassal, servant W7
French: audessous adv below TLL
sous prep below TLL
soutane n.fem soutane W7
Italian: sottana n.fem soutane W7
sottano vb.ptc being underneath W7
sotto prep below TLL
Old Church Slavonic: vysokъ adj high, tall LRC
Greek: ὑπάρχω vb.ptc belonging to LRC
ὑπό prep by, under LRC
Sanskrit: upala n stone, jewel W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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