Old Russian Online

Russian: Base Form Dictionary

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

<а> and, but; if -- <абьє> right away -- <авъгѹстъ> Augustus; (the month of) August -- <аглянє, анъглянє> (pl.) the Angles (a Western Germanic tribe) -- <азъ> I -- <акꙑ> as, like -- <ангєльскъ> of an angel, angel's, angelic -- <апостольскъ> of the apostle, apostle's, apostolic -- <Асколдъ, Осколдъ> Askold, Askuldr (Scandinavian name) -- <Асмудъ> Asmud, Asmund, Asmundr (Scandinavian name) -- <аштє> if, whether -- <бєз (бєс, бє)> (w. gen.) without -- <бєзлобьѥ> innocence -- <блажєнъ> blessed -- <бльштати сѧ, -штѫ сѧ, -штиши сѧ> shine, glisten; shine, be bright -- <бо> for -- <богородица> mother of God -- <богъ> god -- <бол҄ьи> bigger, more -- <Борисъ> Boris (name of a prince, brother of Svjatopolk, Jaroslav, Gleb, and Predslava) -- <боричєвъ> of Boris, relating to Boris; (subst. m.) the Borichev (a trail between upper and lower reaches of Kiev) -- <борьѥ> (usu. collective) pine; cypress; cedar; (any) tree; woods, forest -- <боꙗринъ> noble, aristocrat, bojar, boyar -- <брати, борѭ, борѥши> fight -- <братонєвавидьникъ> hostile to one's brother -- <братръ, братъ> brother -- <братьꙗ> (collective) brothers, brethren -- <брѣшти, брѣгѫ, брѣжєши> be an object of care or thought, be a concern; (with negation) have no care for, be neglectful of, be careless, be negligent; look down upon, despise -- <бързъ> rapid, quick -- <бꙑвати, -ваѭ, -ваѥши> be -- <бꙑти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- <Бѣло Ѥзєро> Belo-ozero, Beloozero (literally 'White Lake', name of a lake and the surrounding region) -- <бѣлъ> white -- <в> two -- <варѧгъ> Varangian, of the Varangian tribe (name of a particular group of Scandinavians); bodyguard (of Viking descent, often applied to members of the Byzantine Emperor's personal guard) -- <варѧжьскъ> Varangian, of the Varangians -- <Василий> Vasili, Vasilii, Vasilij, Basil (name of a saint) -- <вашь> of you, your (pl.) -- <вєликъ> big, large, great -- <вєличати, -чаѭ, -чаѥши> raise; (refl.) be raised, be exalted, be elated, be conceited -- <вєличьѥ> greatness, pride -- <вєльми> greatly, very; clearly -- <вєльможа> member of the nobility, member of the aristocracy, noble, aristocrat -- <вєсєлити, -л҄ѭ, -лиши> entertain; (refl.) rejoice -- <вєсло> oar -- <вєсти, вєдѫ, вєдєши> lead; lead off, lead away; carry; drag, draw -- <весь> (collective) the Ves, Vepsians (a Finnish tribe between Lakes Ladoga and Belo-ozero) -- <видѣти, виждѫ, видиши> see -- <владѣти, -дѣѭ, -дѣѥши> (freq. w. instr.) rule, rule over, hold power (over) -- <власть> rule, power, authority; despotic rule, tyranny -- <влъкъ> wolf -- <внѣ> (w. gen.) outside (of) -- <вода> water -- <водитєль> leader, commander -- <воєвода> (military) commander, vojevoda -- <возъ> chariot, wagon, cart -- <вой> fighter; (pl.) troops, army -- <Волга> Volga, (Turkic) Itil, Atil (name of a river flowing into the Caspian Sea) -- <воѥвати, воюѭ, воюѥши> fight, wage war -- <врабий> sparrow -- <врагъ> enemy -- <врѣмѧ> time -- <въ> (w. loc.) in; (w. acc.) into -- <въвадити, -важдѫ, -вадиши> join; (refl.) introduce oneself, enter -- <възварити, -рѭ, -риши> cook -- <възвати, -зовѫ, -зовєши> call, summon -- <възвратити, -штѫ, -тиши> give back; (refl.) come back -- <възвратити, -штѫ, -тиши> return; turn away; (refl.) leave -- <възгарати, -раѭ, -раѥши> burn; boil over -- <възгорѣти, -рѭ, -риши> burn, burn up -- <въздолѣ> (w. gen.) below, at the bottom of -- <въздрадовати сѧ, -дѹѭ сѧ, -дѹѥши сѧ> be happy, rejoice -- <въздрасти, -стѫ, -стєши> be nourished, grow -- <въздрастъ> age -- <въздъхнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> groan, sigh -- <въздꙑханьѥ> respiration, breathing; sigh, groan -- <възложити, -жѫ, -жиши> throw upon, cast upon; impose -- <възнєсти, -сѫ, -сєши> carry, transport, transfer -- <възрѣти, -зрѫ, -зриши> look closely at, gaze at; look up at (w. prep.) -- <възъпити, -пиѭ, -пиѥши> cry out -- <възьмати, -ємл҄ѭ, -ємл҄ѥши> take, take up -- <възѧти, -зьмѫ, -зьмєши> pick up, take -- <вълѣсти, -лѣзѫ, -лѣзєши> enter; descend (into) -- <вънєзаапѫ> suddenly -- <вънити, -идѫ, -идєши> go into, enter -- <въринѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> thrust in; throw, throw in; cast away -- <въскланꙗти, -нꙗѭ, -нꙗѥши> recline; emerge, bring forth, raise up -- <въсприѩти, -имѫ, -имєши> take up, receive -- <въспѧть> back, toward the back, in reverse, in return -- <въстати, -станѫ, -станєши> stand up, break out -- <въсхотѣти, -хоштѫ, -хоштєши> want, wish, desire -- <въсхꙑтати, -таѭ, -таѥши> seize, snatch -- <въсѣсти, -сѧдѫ, -сѧдєши> sit, sit down; come down -- <въторꙑи, -роѥ, -раꙗ> second, following -- <вꙑносити, -шѫ, -сиши> carry off, make off with -- <Вꙑшєградъ> citadel, castle; (as proper name) Vyshegrad, Vyshgorod (name of a city) -- <вьсь> all, every; whole -- <вѣвєрица> squirrel -- <вѣдѣти, вѣмь, вѣси> see, know -- <вѣжа> cellar for storage; kitchen; tent -- <вѣньць> crown, diadem -- <вѣсть> announcement, report; rumor; fame -- <вꙗтичи> (pl.) the Vjatichi, Viatichi, Vyatichi (a Slavic tribe) -- <г> three -- <гасити, -шѫ, -сиши> extinguish, put out -- <глава> head; chapter -- <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- <глаголъ> word, speech -- <гладъ> hunger, famine -- <гласъ> voice, sound, word -- <Глѣбъ> Gleb (name of a prince, brother of Svjatoslav, Jaroslav, Boris and Predslava) -- <глѫбокъ> deep -- <гнѣздо> couch, bed; nest -- <голѫбникъ> dovecote, pigeon loft -- <голѫбь> dove, pigeon -- <гора> mountain -- <гордꙗтинъ> of Gordjata, of Gordyata -- <горькъ> bitter, pungent, unpleasant -- <горѣти, -рѭ, -риши> burn; (refl.) produce smoke, be black with smoke -- <господинъ> lord, master -- <господь> lord, master -- <гость> guest -- <готинъ> Goth, Gothic, of the Goths (likely the inhabitants of Gotland, not the East Germanic tribe) -- <грабити, -блѭ, -биши> seize, snatch -- <градъ> walled structure, walled fortification; garden, enclosed park; home, dwelling, household; city -- <градъкъ> town, city, walled enclosure -- <грєти, грєбѫ, грєбєши> scrape; comb; row; take the helm, steer (a ship) -- <гривьна> collar, necklace -- <гробъ> grave, ditch -- <гръдити сѧ, -ждѫ, -диши> be haughty, be arrogant -- <Гюрги> Georgias, George -- <д> four -- <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- <дань> tribute -- <дати, дамь, даси> give -- <даꙗти, даѭ, даѥши> give, provide -- <дворъ> court, courtyard; home, household -- <двьрь> door, front door, entrance -- <дєвятꙑи> ninth, 9th -- <деместиковъ> of the domesticus, relating to the domesticus (originally within Byzantine tradition a term denoting the leader of certain guard units; later a term applied to certain civil and ecclesiastica -- <Дєрєвꙑ> Dereva (placename) -- <Диръ> Dir (Scandinavian name) -- <диꙗволь> of the devil, belonging to the devil, diabolical -- <Днѣпръ> Dnieper, (Russ.) Dnepr, (Belor.) Dnjapro, (Ukr.) Dnipro, (classical) Danapris (name of a river flowing into the Black Sea) -- <до> (w. gen.) to, up to; (with numerals) about -- <доброта> goodness; beauty; virtue -- <добръ> good -- <добꙑти, -бѫдѫ, -бѫдєши> get, attain -- <домъ> house -- <досѣдѣти, -ждѫ, -диши> bring about by sitting, achieve through encamping or remaining in the field -- <драгъ> dear, precious -- <дрѹгъ> other -- <дрѹжина> retinue, band of retainers, troop -- <дръжати, -жѫ, -жиши> hold, have power over, rule -- <дръзновєньѥ> daring, audacity; trust, confidence, reliance -- <дрѣвлянинъ> Derevlian, from Dereva -- <дрѣвьскъ> of Dereva, related to Dereva, Derevlian -- <дѹша> soul -- <дъва, дъвѣ> two -- <дъвадєсѧтьнъ и чєтврътъ> twenty-fourth, 24th -- <дꙑмъ> smoke; hearth, home -- <дьнь> day -- <дѣлати, -лаѭ, -лаѥши> work, toil; till; quarry -- <дѣть> children; (often pl.) infants, children -- <дѣтьскъ> childish -- <дѣтѧ> infant; breast, teat; child -- <дѣꙗти, дѣѭ, дѣѥши> do, commit -- <є> five; five thousand -- <єдинъ> one, only -- <єщє> still -- <жалостьнъ> sad -- <жє> and, but -- <жєлати, -лаѭ, -лаѥши> desire, want, wish for -- <жєна> woman, wife -- <живъ> alive, living -- <жити, -живѫ, -живєши> live -- <житьѥ> life -- <жьзлъ> staff, walking stick -- <ѕ> six; six thousand -- <з> seven -- <за> (w. acc.) after, by, because of, for; (w. instr.) behind; (w. gen.) because of -- <зажєшти, -жєгѫ, -жєжєши> set on fire, ignite, burn -- <заморьѥ> a transmarine region, (any) region across the sea -- <запрѣти, -прѫ, -прєши> close, shut -- <засꙑпати, -плѭ, -плѥши> cover, cover over, hide, bury -- <затворити, -рѭ, -риши> close, shut -- <звати, зовѫ, зовєши> cry out; call, summon -- <звѣрь> (wild) animal -- <зємл҄ꙗ> earth, land -- <злобьѥ> malice -- <зрѣти, -зрѫ, -зриши> look at, behold; see -- <зълъ> evil, bad -- <зьрѣимо> visible horizon, distance of eyesight; short distance -- <зѣло> very -- <и> eight -- <и> and; also, too, even -- <*и> he -- <игорєвъ> of Igor, Igor's, relating to Igor -- <Игорь> Igor, Ingvar (Scandinavian name) -- <идє> where; since; however -- <ижє> who, which -- <из> (w. gen.) from, out of -- <избити, -биѭ, -биѥши> kill -- <Изборьскъ> Izborsk -- <избрати, -бєрѫ, -бєрєши> elect, select, choose -- <изгнати, иждєнѫ, иждєнєши> cast out, cast away; drive out, drive away -- <изгорѣти, -рѭ, -риши> burn up -- <изгꙑбати, -баѭ -блѭ, -баѥши -блѥши> perish, be destroyed -- <изимати, ѥмлѭ, ѥмлѥши> take, take up; acquire; capture -- <изити, -идѫ, -идєши> go out -- <измрѣти, -мрѫ, -мрєши> die -- <измꙑти, -мꙑѭ, -мꙑѥши> bathe, wash -- <изнємошти, -могѫ, -можєши> be unable; be weak; become wearied, be exhausted -- <изодѣꙗти сѧ, -одѣѭ сѧ, -одѣѥши сѧ> be dressed up, be adorned -- <имати, ѥмлѭ, ѥмлѥши> take, take up; acquire -- <имѣньє> having, possession, property -- <имѣти, имамь, имаши> have, hold -- <имѣти, имѣѭ, имѣѥши> have, possess -- <имѧ> name -- <искати, -штѫ, -штєши> seek, search for -- <ископати, -паѭ, -паѥши> dig, dig out, excavate -- <Искоростѣнь> Iskorosten (name of a city) -- <искочити, -чѫ, -чиши> leap up, leap out, start -- <испасти, -падѫ, -падєши> fall out, turn out, fall down, slip out, escape -- <исправити, -вл҄ѭ, -виши> accomplish -- <испросити, -жѫ, -сиши> seek, search (for); gain by asking -- <испѹстити, -штѫ, -стиши> loose, free; send forth, send out, send away, emit -- <истъбъка> tent, hut; bathhouse -- <исѣшти, сѣкѫ, сѣчєши> cut down; kill, slaughter -- <ити, идѫ, идєши> go -- <июлии, июль> (the month of) July -- <к> twenty -- <казатєль> corrector, reprover -- <како> how, how is it that -- <каланъди> (plural) calends, kalends, first day of the month -- <камꙑ> stone, rock -- <класъ> ear of corn -- <клѣть> house; household; basement, cellar; shed -- <кнѧжити, -жѫ, -жиши> rule, be king, have power -- <когда> when; sometime -- <козаринъ> Khazar, of the Khazars (a Turkic tribe located along the Volga) -- <кола, колєсє> wheel -- <конь> horse -- <коньць> a coming to pass, performance, consummation; highest or farthest point; end, limit, boundary; pivot, axis -- <копьѥ> spear, lance; sword -- <корабльць> caravel, (a type of) boat -- <кривичи> (pl.) the Krivitchians (a Slavic tribe) -- <кромѣ> (adv., prep. w. gen.) outside, far away, on the side, against -- <кръвопийца> blood-drinking, bloodthirsty -- <кръмильць> tutor, teacher, pedagogue -- <крѣпъкъ> (adj.) healthy, strong, powerful; (adv.) strenuously, vigorously -- <крѣсити, -шѫ, -сиши> rouse, wake, raise -- <къ> (w. dat.) to, toward -- <къдє> where, when -- <къждо> every, everyone -- <къи, коє, коꙗ> which?, what?; some, any -- <кънѧгꙑни> princess -- <кънѧжь> of a prince, relating to a prince, princely -- <кънѧзь> prince -- <къто> who -- <Кꙑєвъ> Kiev, Kyiv (name of a city) -- <Кꙑи> Kyi, Kii (legendary founder of Kiev) -- <кꙑꙗнинъ> of Kiev, of Kyiv, Kievan -- <Кыѥвъ> Kiev, Kyiv -- <кыѥвьскъ> of Kiev, of Kyiv, Kievan -- <лєтѣти, -штѫ, -тиши> fly; run -- <лєшти, лѧгѫ, лѧжєши> lie down, recline -- <ли> or; whether -- <лицє> face, form -- <лодья> boat -- <лоза> twig, branch; grape-vine -- <лѹчьи, лѹчє, лѹчьши> better -- <льгъко> easily -- <льзѣ> permitted, allowable; (w. 'to be') be possible -- <лѣто> year, summer -- <любити, -блѭ, -биши> love -- <любъ> dear; pleasing; choice, chosen -- <людьѥ> (pl.) men, people; population, (a) people -- <лютъ> terrible, wild -- <Малъ> Mal (name of a prince) -- <малъ> small, young -- <мєдъ, мєдѹ> honey -- <меря> (collective) the Merians (a Finnish tribe, in the region of Jaroslavl and Rostov, along the Volga river) -- <мєчь> sword -- <милость> grace, loving kindness -- <милъ> wretched, pitiable; excusable -- <мимо> past, by -- <миръ> world; peace -- <мистишинъ> of Mistisha, relating to Mistisha, Mistisha's -- <младєньствовати, -вѹѭ, -вѹѥши> be a child -- <млѣко> milk -- <мовь> a washing, bath -- <могꙑла> grave, tomb, burial mound -- <мои, моє, моꙗ> my, mine -- <молити, -лѭ, -лиши> beseech, ask; pray -- <мор҄є> sea -- <мошти, могѫ, можєши> be able, can -- <мурома> the Muroma (a Finnish tribe inhabiting the region along the Oka river) -- <Муромъ> Murom (name of a city) -- <мъногъ> much, many -- <мꙑти, мꙑѭ, мꙑѥши> bathe, wash -- <мьнѣти, мьнѭ, мьниши> believe, think, assume -- <мьштати, -таѭ, -таѥши> defend against, revenge, avenge -- <мѣсѧць> moon, month -- <мѫжь> man, husband -- <н> fifty -- <на> (w. acc.) onto, against, for, to the extent; (w. loc.) on, at -- <нагъ> naked -- <надъ> (w. acc. or instr.) over, above -- <наказати, -заѭ, -заѥши> chastise; instruct; admonish, warn -- <наломити, -млѭ, -миши> break, fracture -- <нарочитъ> established, well established, noteworthy, notable, noble -- <нарѧдъ> order -- <насєльникъ> inhabitant, resident; native; immigrant -- <насилити, -лѭ, -лиши> do violence to, force, oppress (w. dat.) -- <наѹтрьѥ> morning, morrow, tomorrow -- <начѧти, -чьнѫ, -чьнєши> begin -- <нашь> our, of us -- <нє> not -- <нєбо> heaven, sky -- <нєволꙗ> need, necessity -- <нєистовити сѧ, -влѭ сѧ, -виши сѧ> be mad, be furious -- <нємилостивъ> unmerciful -- <нєсти, -сѫ, -сєши> bring -- <нєѹвѧдаѥмъ> unfading -- <ни> and not, nor, no; (repeated) neither... nor -- <н҄ива> field, ground -- <никифоровъ> of Nicephorus -- <никътожє> no one, nobody -- <нитъка> thread -- <Новъ Градъ> Novgorod (literally 'Newtown') -- <новъгородькъ> Novgorodian, of Novgorod -- <нога> foot -- <носити, -шѫ, -сиши> carry; have -- <ноходьникъ> invader -- <нѹрманє> (pl.) the Normans, the Northmen, the Norse, Norwegians (a Scandinavian tribe) -- <нъ> but -- <нꙑн҄ꙗ, нꙑнѣ> now -- <о> seventy -- <о> (vocative particle followed by voc. or nom.) o!; (exclamatory particle followed by nom. or gen., less often dat.) oh! -- <о (об)> (w. loc.) around; about, concerning; for; by; (w. instr.) at, by, along; (w. acc.) against -- <оба, обѣ, обѣ> both -- <обврътꙑвати, -ваѭ, -ваѥши> wrap, tuck; wind, twist -- <обида> injustice, outrage, injury -- <обильнъ> copious, abundant, large -- <обладати, -даѭ, -даѥши> (freq. w. instr.) rule, rule (over), lead, reign -- <облиꙗти, -лѣѭ, -лѣѥши> pour over -- <обрадовати, -дѹѭ, -дѹѥши> show grace; rejoice, be merry -- <обрътѣти, -штѫ, -тиши> wrap up, envelop, involve; return -- <обънажити, -жѫ, -жиши> uncover; strip, deprive; spread apart, expand -- <овъ, ово, ова> this, this one; (repeated) the one... the other -- <овьца> sheep -- <одєжда> garment, clothing, clothes -- <одрина> loft; stable -- <оканьнъ> wretched -- <око> eye -- <окрѫгъ> (adv., prep. w. gen.) around, near -- <Ольга> Olga, Helga (Scandinavian name) -- <ользинъ> of Olga, related to Olga -- <омачати, -чаѭ, -чаѥши> moisten, wet -- <омрачати, -чаѭ, -чаѥши> grow dark, darken -- <омрътвѣти, -вѣѭ, -вѣѥши> die -- <онъ, оно, она> that, that one -- <опѧть> back -- <орѫжьє> weapon, sword -- <осада> siege -- <оставити, -вл҄ѭ, -виши> let, leave, neglect, forget -- <остати, останѫ, останєши> stay behind, remain -- <отити, -идѫ, -идєши> go out, depart -- <оторопъ> hurry, haste -- <отрокъ> boy, servant -- <отъ> (w. gen.) of, from; by -- <отъврѣшти, -врьгѫ, -врьгєши> throw away, renounce -- <отъдаꙗти, -даѭ, -даѥши> donate, give, give as a give; give in exchange, give in return -- <отъпѹстити, -штѫ, -стиши> allow, let, free; send (away) -- <отъсѣкнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> cut off -- <отъчаꙗти, -чаѭ, -чаѥши> give up hope, despair -- <отъчѹждити, -дѫ, -диши> separate, remove -- <отьнь> (poss. adj.) of the father, father's -- <отьць> father -- <пагѹба> capture; destruction, ruin; disease; corruption -- <пачє> more, even more -- <пєчаль> sadness, affliction -- <пити, пиѭ, пиѥши> drink -- <плакати, плачѫ, -чєши> weep, mourn -- <платити, -штѫ, -тиши> loose, free, set free, pay -- <платъкъ> cloth, garment -- <плачь> weeping, tears -- <плємѧ> seed; sprout, shoot; generation; breed, species, type; tribe, group -- <плодъ> fruit -- <плѹти, пловѫ, пловєши> flow; navigate, sail -- <плъкъ> crowd; people, population; cohort, troop -- <по> (w. dat.) on, about (motion on surface); (w. acc.) on, after, on account of; (w. loc.) after, following, for -- <побѣгнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> flee, take flight -- <побѣдити, -ждѫ, -диши> conquer; fight, fight against; set in motion, hasten, incite; sally out -- <повєлѣти, -лѭ, -лиши> give a command, command -- <повєсти, -зѫ, -зєши> tow, drag -- <повьрзꙑвати, -ваѭ, -ваѥши> tie, bind; fasten, attach -- <повѣдѣти, -вѣмь, -вѣси> announce, report, recount -- <погрєти, -грєбѫ, -грєбєши> bury -- <погѹбити, -блѭ, -биши> destroy -- <подольѥ> valley, vale; base, foundation -- <подъ> (w. acc.) under, below (object of motion); (w. instr.) under, below (location) -- <пожєшти, -гѫ, -жєши> set on fire, kindle, ignite -- <пожити, -живѫ, -живєши> live -- <пожѧти, -жьнѭ, -жьнѥши> mow, reap, cut off, gather, crop, harvest -- <познати, -аѭ, -аѥши> know -- <поимати, -ѥмл҄ѭ, -ѥмл҄ѥши> take, take away -- <поити, -идѫ, -идєши> go, set out; go back, return -- <поклонъ> bow; worship; salutation, greeting -- <покорити, -рѭ, -риши> place under, submit, subject; be obedient, obey -- <полєтѣти, -штѫ, -тиши> fly -- <положити, -жѫ, -жиши> lay down, set down -- <Полотьскъ> Polotsk (name of a city) -- <полъ, полѹ> side, bank, shore; sex; half -- <польскъ> Poljan, Polian, Poljanian, Polianian, of the Poljan tribe (a Slavic tribe living along the Dnieper) -- <полꙗнинъ> Polan, Polian, Polianian, of the Polianians (a Slavic tribe located along the Dnieper river) -- <помиловати, -лѹѭ, -лѹѥши> pity, have mercy on -- <помолити, -лѭ, -лиши> beseech, ask; pray -- <понєсти, -сѫ, -сєши> carry, transport -- <понѣ> or, whether, or then; save, at least, anyhow -- <порѣзати, -заѭ, -заѥши> cut off (from life) -- <послѹшати, -аѭ, -аѥши> hear, listen -- <послѣдь> then, afterward -- <посълати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> send, summon -- <посꙑпати, -плѭ, -плѥши> cover, cover over, hide, bury -- <потъкнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> stick in or on, fix in or on, fasten together, bind; set up, prop up; strike -- <потѧгнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> work, be useful, strive, be strong, be able -- <походити, -ждѫ, -диши> go, go around -- <почѹдити сѧ, -ждѫ сѧ, -диши сѧ> marvel at, wonder -- <почьстити, -штѫ, -стиши> cultivate, care for, honor -- <почѧти, -чьнѫ, -чьнєши> begin, commence -- <поѩти, -имѫ, -имєши> take, seize -- <правъ> just, right, proper -- <правьда> justice -- <привѧзꙑвати, -зѹѭ, -зѹѥши> fasten, bind -- <примꙑслити, -шлѭ, -слиши> devise, contrive, invent; add to, increase -- <принєсти, -сѫ, -сєши> bring, carry -- <приникнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> stoop to look, peer, look -- <приспѣти, -спѣѭ, -спѣѥши> come; approach, near; hasten -- <пристати, -станѫ, -станєши> stand near; be near, be present; come, arrive -- <пристроити, -строѭ, -строиши> prepare, make ready, arrange -- <пристѫпити, -пл҄ѭ, -пиши> come up to, step up -- <присълати, -лѭ, -лѥши> send -- <прити, -идѫ, -идєши> come, arrive -- <приѩти, приимѫ, приимєши> take, seize -- <пробости, -дѫ, -дєши> wound, injure -- <прозвати, -зовѫ, -зовєши> call, summon -- <прокъ> remaining, left over; (subst.) the remnants, the rest -- <проньзнѫти, -нѫ, -неши> pierce, pierce through, transfix -- <просити, -шѫ, -сиши> ask, demand -- <простирати, -аѭ, -аѥши> extend -- <противъ, противѫ> (adv.) opposite; (prep. w. dat.) according to; to meet -- <прочєѥ> therefore, but, finally; afterward -- <прочьи, -чьѥ, -чьꙗ> the rest, next, remaining -- <пръвъ> first -- <прѣгъбъ> (meaning unclear) a bending; a bending backward, vain glory, pomposity; a piece of cloth, decorative cloak with bejeweled clasp; cross-bench (of a Viking ship) -- <прѣдати, -дамь, -даси> hand over, commend -- <прѣдъ> (w. acc. or instr.) before, in front of -- <Прѣдъслава> Peredslava, Predslava (name of a princess, sister of Svjatopolk, Jaroslav, Boris, and Gleb) -- <прѣждє> before -- <прѣжєшти, -жєгѫ, -жєжєши> burn -- <прѣльстьнъ> deceitful, illusive, fraudful, flattering -- <пѹстити, -штѫ, -стиши> allow, let, free; send (away) -- <пѹштий> more pitiable, more wretched -- <пъртꙑ> (pl.) dress, clothes, garments -- <пѣшь> on foot, foot-borne, standing -- <работа> ministry; servitude -- <рабъ> servant -- <равьнъ> level, even -- <ради> (w. gen.) for, for the sake of, because of -- <радъ> glad, happy -- <раздаꙗти, -даѭ, -даѥши> distribute, give out -- <разливати, -аѭ, -аѥши> pour out -- <размꙑслити, -шлѭ, -слиши> think, consider -- <разѹмъ> understanding, sense, opinion, basic thought -- <разѹмѣти, -ѣѭ, -ѣѥши> come to know, find out, know; understand -- <распасти, -сѫ, -сєши> pasture, feed -- <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- <ровъ> ditch, hole -- <родъ> race, kind, sort; generation; birth -- <Ростовъ> Rostov (name of a city) -- <рѹсь> (collective) the Rus, Rus' (a Scandinavian tribe); the land of the Rus, Russia -- <рѹсьскъ> Rus (Rus'), of the Rus, relating to the Rus, Rusian, Russian -- <рѣчь> speech -- <Рюрикъ> Rjurik, Ryurik, Rurik, Hroerekr (Scandinavian name) -- <рѫка> hand -- <самъ> self, oneself -- <свєрѣпъ> wild -- <свийнъ> Swedish, of Sweden (a Scandinavian tribe) -- <свои, своє, своꙗ> own, one's own -- <Свѣньлдъ> Sveinald (Scandinavian name) -- <свѣньлжь> of Sveinald, relating to Sveinald, Sveinald's -- <свѣтъ> light -- <Свѧтоплъкъ> Svjatopolk, Svyatopolk, Sviatopolk (name of a prince, brother of Jaroslav, Boris, Gleb, and Predslava) -- <Свѧтославъ> Svjatoslav, Svyatoslav, Sviatoslav (name of a prince) -- <свѧтъ> holy, blessed -- <сє> lo, behold -- <сєбє> -self, oneself -- <сєликъ> of this size, such -- <Синєѹсъ> Sineus, Signjutr (Scandinavian name) -- <сицє> thus, so -- <сиць, сицє, сица> such, like this -- <скакати, -чѫ, -чєши> dance; spring vigorously, to leap or jump up, exult, revel, boast -- <сквозѣ, скозѣ> (w. acc.) through -- <скора> bark, shell; pine; skin, hide, pelt, leather -- <слава> fame, glory -- <слово> word -- <словѣнинъ> Slovene, of the Slovene tribe (located on Lake Ilmen near Novgorod) -- <слѹга> servant -- <слѹжити, -жѫ, -жиши> minister (to), serve -- <слѹжьба> service, forced service, slavery; liturgy; ministry -- <слъза> tear, teardrop -- <слꙑшати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear -- <слѣпъ> blind -- <Смольньскъ> Smolensk (name of a city located along the Dnieper river) -- <Смядина> Smjadina, Smiadina, Smyadina; Smjadin, Smiadin, Smjadyn, Smiadyn (name of a river, affluent of the Dnieper) -- <срьдьцє> heart -- <ставити, -влѭ, -виши> set, establish -- <стадо> herd -- <старость> old age -- <старъ> old -- <старѣйшинъ> leader; prince -- <стати, станѫ, станєши> stand -- <стєнати, -нѭ, -нѥши> groan, moan -- <стоꙗти, стоѭ, стоиши> stand, stay in place -- <страсть> suffering, woe; passion, martyrdom -- <страхъ> shaking; terror -- <стръдьчинъ> of the heart, related to the heart, heart's -- <стрѣха> roof; projecting part of a wall, cornice, eaves -- <сѹнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> pour out -- <съ> (w. gen.) (down) from; (w. instr.) with -- <събьрати, -бєрѫ, -бєрєши> collect, gather -- <съвєсти, -зѫ, -зєши> bring together, collect, gather -- <съврьшити, -шѫ, -шиши> prepare, perfect, complete -- <съвъкѹпити, -плѭ, -пиши> lead together, collect, gather -- <съвѣтьникъ> counsellor -- <съдравити, -влѭ, -виши> be healthy, be strong -- <съдѹмати, -аѭ, -аѥши> deliberate, consider, take counsel -- <съдѣлати, -аѭ, -аѥши> found, establish; work, build -- <съзрѣти, -зрѣѭ, -зрѣѥши> mature; produce -- <съконьчати, -чаѭ, -чѥши> complete, end, fulfill -- <съкрѹшити, -шѫ, -шиши> run together, shatter, crush; strike, smite, strike together -- <съкѹпъ> a joining; a convening, a coming together -- <съмирити, -рѭ, -риши> make peace; come together, unite; reconcile -- <съмръкнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> grow dark, darken -- <съмрьть> death -- <съмѣр҄єньѥ> humility; retinue -- <съмѣрити, -рѭ, -риши> lower, reduce, lessen, humble, abase -- <сънѧти, съньмѫ, съньмєши> take away from, remove; go down, descend; lead down; (refl.) come together, collect, gather -- <съпасти, -дѫ, -дєши> fall; fall together -- <съподобити, -блѭ, -биши> deem worthy -- <сърѣсти, -рѧштѫ, -рѧштєши> meet -- <състигнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> follow, pursue, catch up with, overtake, obtain, procure -- <съсѹти, съсъпѫ, съсъпєши> collect, heap up -- <сътворити, -рѭ, -риши> do, make -- <сътѫга> (meaning unclear) a binding; clasp, buckle; fibula -- <сꙑнъ> son -- <сꙑрорѣзаньѥ> (meaning unclear) child-killing? -- <сь, сє, си> this, this one -- <сѣвєръ> Severian, of the Severian tribe (a Slavic tribe located along the Sejm and Sula rivers) -- <сѣдѣти, -ждѫ, -диши> sit, remain -- <сѣмо> to here, here -- <сѣсти, сѣдѫ, -дєши> sit down -- <сѣтованьѥ> sorrow -- <сѣтовати, -тѹѭ, -тѹѥши> mourn -- <сѣшти, сѣкѫ, сѣчєши> cut down; scratch, carve; sacrifice, slaughter -- <сѫдити, -ждѫ, -диши> judge, adjudicate -- <т> three hundred -- <тако> thus, in this way -- <тачє> then -- <твои, твоє, твоꙗ> thy, thine, your, of you (sg.) -- <тєшти, тєкѫ, тєчєши> run, rush, flow; follow, pursue -- <ти> and; but; (added to adverbs) indeed -- <то> but, then, therefore -- <тогда> then -- <тожє> also, and -- <трєтьи, -тьѥ, -тьꙗ> third -- <тризна, трꙑзна> contest, prize; stadium; trench, track; funeral repast, commemoration of the dead -- <Трѹворъ> Truvor, Thorvardhr (Scandinavian name) -- <трѣмъ> tower, castle; home, residence -- <трѣмьнъ> of a tower, relating to a tower, relating to a castle -- <тѹ> there; then -- <тъ, то, та> that, that one -- <тꙑ> you, thou -- <тѣло> body -- <тѧжькъ> grave; burdensome; savage; intolerable -- <тѫга> distress, difficulty -- <тѫжити, -жѫ, -жиши> shut in, drive, force, impel; be moved in a confined space; mourn -- <у> four hundred -- <ѹ> (w. gen.) near, at, by -- <ѹбийство> killing, murder -- <ѹбити, -биѭ, -биѥши> kill -- <ѹбоꙗти сѧ, -боѭ сѧ, -боиши сѧ> fear, become afraid -- <ѹвꙑ> (w. dat.) alas, woe -- <ѹвѣдѣти, -вѣмь, -вѣси> see; know, understand -- <ѹдарити, -рѭ, -риши> strike, beat -- <ѹзрѣти, -зрѫ, -зриши> look at, behold; see -- <ѹзьрѣти, -р҄ѭ, -риши> see, perceive -- <ѹмил҄єнъ> dejected, abject -- <ѹмрѣти, -рѫ, -рєши> die -- <ѹмъ> mind, reason, intellect -- <ѹмꙑвати, -ваѭ, -ваѥши> wash -- <ѹмꙑслити, -шлѭ, -слиши> devise, contrive, invent -- <ѹнити, -нѭ, -ниши> want; desire; beg; prefer -- <ѹнꙑньѥ> mourning, sadness; carelessness, negligence, neglect -- <ѹньи, ѹн҄є, ѹн҄ьши> better -- <ѹпити сѧ, -пьѭ, -пьѥши> become inebriated, get drunk -- <ѹполѹчити сѧ, -чѫ сѧ, -чиши сѧ> be in the way, come upon, meet -- <ѹпросити, -шѫ, -сиши> ask, interrogate, question -- <ѹранити, -нѭ, -ниши> pierce, pierce through, run through; stab, wound; harm -- <ѹрокъ> judgement; festival; expense, charge, cost; supply; payment; stipend -- <ѹсирити, -рѭ, -риши> deprive of parents, orphan; deprive (in general) -- <ѹслꙑшати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear, find out -- <ѹста> (n. pl.) mouth, lips -- <ѹставлꙗти, -ꙗѭ, -ꙗѥши> set, fix; put, place, prescribe, define; discern -- <ѹставъ> end; boundary; rule; definition -- <ѹстрьмити сѧ, -млѭ, -миши> hasten, rush; be eager -- <ѹсть> door, gate, entrance, mouth -- <ѹсънѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> fall asleep -- <ѹтръпати, -аѭ, -аѥши> grow stiff or useless, become torpid, become listless or inactive, become dull -- <ѹхо, ѹшєсє> ear -- <ѹѥдинити, -нѭ, -ниши> leave behind alone; unite -- <ходити, -ждѫ, -диши> walk, go -- <Хоривъ> Khoriv, Xoriv (brother of Kyi) -- <хотѣти, хоштѫ, хоштєши> want, wish -- <храбръ> (m.) fighter, soldier; (adj.) strong -- <црькꙑ> church, temple -- <цѣлованьѥ> salutation, greeting, embrace -- <цѣрь> sulfur -- <Цѣсарь Градъ> Byzantium, Constantinople (literally 'the Emperor's City') -- <чаꙗти, чаѭ, чаѥши> hope; expect -- <число> number -- <чиштьнъ> venerable; valuable -- <чьи, чьѥ, чьꙗ> whose, of whom -- <чьсть> honor, rank, reverence, feast, device, pattern -- <чюдь> (collective) the Chuds (a Finnish tribe, in Estonia near Lake Peipus) -- <чѧстъ> dense -- <чѧсть> part -- <шатьръ> tabernacle, tent -- <Щєкъ> Shchek, Shek (brother of Kyi) -- <южє, ѹжє> already -- <юность> youth, young age -- <ютро, ѹтро> dawn, daybreak; morning, morrow, tomorrow -- <ꙗко> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- <ꙗкожє> as, like, than, so as to -- <ꙗма> pit, hole -- <Ярославъ> Jaroslav, Yaroslav (name of the brother of Svjatoslav, Boris, Gleb, and Predslava) -- <Ярославъ> Jaroslav, Yaroslav (name of a prince, brother of Svjatopolk, Boris, Gleb, and Predslava) -- <ꙗхати (ꙗд-), -хаѭ, -хаѥши> be carried, ride, go -- <ѥда> if, if only, would that; that not, lest; unless, otherwise -- <ѥликъ> how much, how many; as much, as many -- <ѥщє> yet, still -- <ѩти, имѫ, имєши> take, seize; (refl.) take to, set out, start on -- <ѫсобица> discord, strife, sedition -- <ѯ> sixty -- <ѳ> nine --

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