Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ā̆bel-, ā̆bō̆l-, abel-   'apple'

Semantic Field(s): Apple


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: abhal, ubhal n apple CDC
Gaelic: abhal, ubhall n apple ASD/CDC
Manx: ooyl n apple CDC
Breton: aval n apple CDC
Cornish: aval n apple CDC
Old Welsh: abal n apple CDC
Welsh: afal n apple CDC
Old English: æp(pe)l, ap(pe)l n.masc apple ASD
æppel-ðorn n.masc crab-apple (tree), lit. apple-thorn ASD
Middle English: appel, ap(p)le n apple CDC
eppel, epple n apple CDC
English: apple n round, edible, usu. red/yellow pome fruit AHD/W7
Appledore prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
dapple n (animal having) mottled/spotted marking AHD
dapple vb to spot, variegate with spots AHD/CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: appel n.masc apple CDC
Frisian: a(e)ple n.masc apple CDC
North Frisian: apel n.masc apple CDC
Dutch: appel n.masc apple CDC
Old High German: affal, affol, afful n.masc apple CDC
apful n.masc apple W7
aphal, aphol, aphul n.masc apple CDC
Middle High German: apfel n.masc apple CDC
German: Apfel n.masc apple TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: *apall n apple AHD
epli n.neut apple CDC
Norwegian: eple n apple CDC
Danish: æble n.neut apple CDC
Old Swedish: æpl n.neut apple CDC
Swedish: äp(p)le n.neut apple CDC
East Germanic  
Crimean Gothic: apel n apple CGo
Latin: Abella prop.n town where apple orchards originated? CDC
Old Prussian: woble n apple CDC
Lithuanian: obolys, obulas n apple ASD/CDC
Latvian: ābols n apple CDC
Old Slavic: ablŭko n apple W7
Polish: jabłko n apple CDC
Czech: jabl(k)o n apple CDC
Serbian: yabuka n apple CDC
Slovenian: yabelko, yabolka n apple CDC
Old Church Slavonic: (y)ablŭko n apple CDC
Bulgarian: (y)ablŭka n apple CDC
Russian: yabloko n apple CDC
Belorussian: yabko n apple CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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