Indo-European Lexicon

Language Indices

Below we list Indo-European languages by family, from west to east. Families are divided into groups, by age and/or geographic area (again, generally from west to east). Each language is listed via a standard abbreviation followed by its full-form name; "a.k.a." comments may indicate synonymous language/dialect names.

If we have prepared an alphabetic index to a particular language's reflexes -- words & affixes therein, derived from ancient Proto-Indo-European etyma -- a link is provided to a page listing those reflexes. This work is in progress: reflex indices are being added on a language-by-language basis, as time goes on, for languages with 10 or more reflexes.

Because our IE Lexicon currently emphasizes Germanic languages, especially English, we have split the Germanic family into four convenient but partly imaginary sub-families:

  1. English (technically part of Anglo-Frisian Low German);
  2. West Germanic (minus all English dialects, per above);
  3. North Germanic (the Norse/Scandinavian languages); and
  4. East Germanic (of which only Gothic is well-attested).

In addition, our Paleo-Balkan "family" lists languages in four groups, of which only Albanian is well-attested and that only recently; the languages in the other groups do not necessarily form a family with Albanian (or each other), but are listed with it mainly for geographic reasons and because there is no other place to put them. No hard conclusions should be drawn from our Paleo-Balkan "family" structure: it is, at best, speculative!

While the Nuristani languages are now considered a third branch of the Indo-Iranian family, the status of the Dardic languages is less clear. Traditionally, Dardic was assigned to the Indic branch; but this was less than certain and, indeed, the languages in our Dardic "family" do not necessarily form a single genetic tree. We have tentatively listed Dardic alongside Indic, next to the Nuristani languages by which Dardic tongues are known to be influenced. Again, no hard conclusions should be drawn from this structural detail.

  • Celtic
    • Insular  (Goidelic)
    • Insular  (Brythonic)
    • Continental
      • Celt.
        Celtiberian
      • Gaul.
        Gaulish
      • TGaul.
        Transalpine Gaulish
      • CGaul.
        Cisalpine Gaulish
      • Lep.
        Lepontic
      • Noric.
        Noric
      • Gal.
        Galatian

  • English

  • West Germanic
    • Low German  (Anglo-Frisian)
      • OFris.
        Old Frisian
      • OWFris.
        Old West Frisian
      • MFris.
        Middle Frisian
      • Fris.
        Frisian
      • WFris.
        West Frisian
        a.k.a. Dutch/Netherlands Frisian
      • NFris.
        North Frisian
      • EFris.
        East Frisian
      • Sater.
        Saterfriesisch
    • Low German  (Dutch, Saxon, etc.)
      • OF.
        Old Frankish
        a.k.a. Old Franconian
      • ODu.
        Old Dutch
        a.k.a. Old Low Franconian
      • OLF.
        Old Low Franconian
      • MDu.
        Middle Dutch
      • Du.
        Dutch
      • Afrik.
        Afrikaans
      • F.
        Franconian
        a.k.a. Mainfränkisch
      • OFlem.
        Old Flemish
      • MFlem.
        Middle Flemish
      • Flem.
        Flemish
      • WFlem.
        West Flemish
      • Limb.
        Limburgish
        a.k.a. Limburger, Limburgan
      • PaG.
        Pennsylvania German
        a.k.a. Pennsylvania Dutch
      • OS.
        Old Saxon
        a.k.a. Old Low German
      • OLG.
        Old Low German
      • MLG.
        Middle Low German
      • LG.
        Low German
        a.k.a. Low Saxon
      • LS.
        Low Saxon
        a.k.a. Low Franconian
      • Thur.
        Thuringian
    • High German
      • OHG.
        Old High German
      • MHG.
        Middle High German
      • MG.
        Middle German
        a.k.a. Frankish
      • ENHG.
        Early New High German
      • NHG.
        New High German
        a.k.a. (Standard) German
      • G.
        German
        a.k.a. Standard German
      • Bav.
        Bavarian
        a.k.a. Austro-Bavarian
      • Alm.
        Alemannic
      • Swab.
        Swabian
      • Swiss.
        Swiss German
        a.k.a. Alsatian, Schwyzerdütsch
      • Wals.
        Walser
      • Yid.
        Yiddish
      • Lux.
        Luxembourgish
      • Lang.
        Langobardic
        a.k.a. Lombardic

  • North Germanic
    • West Norse
      • OWN.
        Old West Norse
      • OIce.
        Old Icelandic
      • Ice.
        Icelandic
      • Faer.
        Faeroese
        a.k.a. Faroese
      • Norn.
        Norn
      • ONorw.
        Old Norwegian
      • MNorw.
        Middle Norwegian
      • Norw.
        Norwegian
      • NBok.
        Norwegian Bokmål
      • NNorw.
        New Norwegian
        a.k.a. Nynorsk
      • Jamt.
        Jamtska
    • East Norse

  • East Germanic
    • Gothic
    • other  (all marginally attested)
      • Vand.
        Vandalic
      • Burg.
        Burgundian

  • Italic
      • Ven.
        Venetic
      • Aeq.
        Aequian
      • Vest.
        Vestinian
    • Sabellic
      • Osc.
        Oscan
      • Hern.
        Hernican
      • Marr.
        Marrucinian
      • Pael.
        Paelignian
      • Umb.
        Umbrian
      • Mars.
        Marsian
      • Sab.
        Sabine
      • SPic.
        South Picene
      • Vol.
        Volscian
    • Latino-Faliscan
    • Western Romance
      • OPort.
        Old Portuguese
        a.k.a. Medieval Galician, Galician-Portuguese
      • Port.
        Portuguese
      • Gali.
        Galician
        a.k.a. Galego
      • OSp.
        Old Spanish
      • MSp.
        Middle Spanish
      • ClSp.
        Classical Spanish
      • Lad.
        Ladino
        a.k.a. Sefardi, Judaeo-Spanish
      • Sp.
        Spanish
      • AmSp.
        American Spanish
        a.k.a. New World Spanish
      • MexSp.
        Mexican Spanish
      • Arag.
        Aragonese
      • OCat.
        Old Catalan
      • Cat.
        Catalan
      • OFr.
        Old French
      • ONFr.
        Old North French
      • AngFr.
        Anglo-French
        a.k.a. Anglo-Norman
      • Wall.
        Walloon
      • MFr.
        Middle French
      • Fr.
        French
      • AmFr.
        American French
      • CanFr.
        Canadian French
        a.k.a. Quebec French
      • AcadFr.
        Acadian French
      • LaFr.
        Cajun French
      • OProv.
        Old Provençal
        a.k.a. Old Occitan
      • OOcc.
        Old Occitan
      • Occ.
        Occitan
        a.k.a. Occitanian
      • Prov.
        Provençal
      • OIt.
        Old Italian
      • It.
        Italian
      • Neap.
        Neapolitan
      • Rom.
        Romansh
        a.k.a. Romansch, Rhaeto-Romance
    • Insular Romance
      • Cors.
        Corsican
      • Sard.
        Sardinian
      • Sic.
        Sicilian
    • Eastern Romance
      • Dalm.
        Dalmatian
      • Rum.
        Rumanian
        a.k.a. Romanian
      • Mold.
        Moldavian
        a.k.a. Moldovan
      • Arom.
        Aromanian
        a.k.a. Arumanian, Macedo-Romanian
      • Istr.
        Istro Romanian
      • Megl.
        Megleno Romanian

  • Balto-Slavic
    • Baltic
      • Nadr.
        Nadruvian
      • Skal.
        Skalvian
    • West
      • Galin.
        Galindan
      • Sudo.
        Sudovian
        a.k.a. Yotvingian
      • OPrus.
        Old Prussian
        a.k.a. Prussian
    • East
      • Curo.
        Curonian
      • Sel.
        Selonian
      • Zem.
        Zemgalian
        a.k.a. Semigallian
      • OLith.
        Old Lithuanian
      • LLith.
        Low Lithuanian
      • Lith.
        Lithuanian
      • Latv.
        Latvian
        a.k.a. Lettish
    • Slavic
    • West
      • OPol.
        Old Polish
      • Pol.
        Polish
      • OPom.
        Old Pomeranian
      • Kashub.
        Kashubian
      • Polab.
        Polabian
      • OCz.
        Old Czech
      • Cz.
        Czech
      • Knaan.
        Knaanic
        a.k.a. Canaanic, Judeo-Slavic, Leshon Knaan
      • Slovak.
        Slovak
      • OSorb.
        Old Sorbian
      • Wend.
        Wendish
        a.k.a. Sorbian
      • Sorb.
        Sorbian
      • USorb.
        Upper Sorbian
      • LSorb.
        Lower Sorbian
      • Lusat.
        Lusatian
    • South
      • OSerb.
        Old Serbian
      • SCr.
        Serbo-Croatian
      • Serb.
        Serbian
      • Croat.
        Croatian
      • Bosn.
        Bosnian
      • Slovene.
        Slovenian
      • OCS.
        Old Church Slavonic
        a.k.a. Old Bulgarian
      • LCS.
        Late Church Slavic
      • Bulg.
        Bulgarian
      • MacSl.
        Macedonian Slavic
    • East
      • ORuss.
        Old Russian
      • RCS.
        Russian Church Slavic
      • Russ.
        Russian
      • Ruth.
        Ruthenian
        a.k.a. West Russian, Chancery Slavonic
      • Belo.
        Belorussian
      • Ukr.
        Ukrainian

  • Paleo-Balkan
    • Albanian
      • Alb.
        Albanian
      • Gheg.
        Gheg
      • Tosk.
        Tosk
      • Arv.
        Arvanitika
      • Arb.
        Arbëreshë
    • Illyrian
      • Illyr.
        Illyrian
      • Mess.
        Messapic
        a.k.a. Messapian
    • Thracian
      • Thrac.
        Thracian
      • Dac.
        Dacian
    • Phrygian
      • Phryg.
        Phrygian

  • Hellenic
      • Myc.
        Mycenaean
      • Arcad.
        Arcadian
        a.k.a. Arcadocypriot
      • Cyp.
        Cyprian
        a.k.a. Arcadocypriot
      • MacGk.
        Macedonian Greek
      • Hesy.
        Hesychius' Greek Lexicon
    • Western
      • Ach.
        Achaean
      • Dor.
        Doric
        a.k.a. Dorian
      • Elean.
        Elean
      • Lac.
        Laconian
        a.k.a. Spartan
    • Central
      • Aeol.
        Aeolic
        a.k.a. Aeolian
      • Boeot.
        Boeotian
      • Lesb.
        Lesbian
      • Thess.
        Thessalian
    • Eastern
    • Modern
      • NGk.
        New Greek
        a.k.a. Modern Greek
      • Cap.
        Cappadocian
      • Pont.
        Pontic
      • Tsak.
        Tsakonian

  • Anatolian
    • Luwian
      • Luw.
        Luwian
      • CLuw.
        Cuneiform Luwian
      • HLuw.
        Hieroglyphic Luwian
      • Lyc.
        Lycian
        a.k.a. Lycian A
      • Mil.
        Milyan
        a.k.a. Lycian B
      • Car.
        Carian
      • Side.
        Sidetic
      • Pisid.
        Pisidic
        a.k.a. Pisidian
    • Hittite
      • Hitt.
        Hittite
      • OHitt.
        Old Hittite
      • MHitt.
        Middle Hittite
      • NHitt.
        Neo-Hittite
      • Pala.
        Palaic
      • Lyd.
        Lydian

  • Armenian

  • Indo-Iranian
    • Iranian
      • OIran.
        Old Iranian
      • MIran.
        Middle Iranian
      • Yas.
        Yassic
      • Iran.
        Iranian
    • Western
      • OPers.
        Old Persian
      • Med.
        Median
      • Pahl.
        Pahlavi
        a.k.a. Pehlevi, Middle Persian
      • MPers.
        Middle Persian
      • Mani.
        Manichaean
      • Parth.
        Parthian
      • NPers.
        New Persian
        a.k.a. Persian
      • Pers.
        Persian
        a.k.a. Farsi, Parsi
      • Farsi.
        Farsi
      • Balu.
        Baluchi
      • Kurd.
        Kurdish
      • Par.
        Parachi
      • Dari.
        Dari
      • Taj.
        Tajik
    • Eastern
      • OAv.
        Old Avestan
      • Av.
        Avestan
      • YAv.
        Young Avestan
      • OScyth.
        Old Scythian
      • Scyth.
        Scythian
      • Sogd.
        Sogdian
      • Bact.
        Bactrian
      • Chor.
        Chorasmian
      • Alan.
        Alanic
      • OOss.
        Old Ossetic
      • Khot.
        Khotanese
      • Sac.
        Sacian
        a.k.a. Sakan
      • Saka.
        Sakan
        a.k.a. Sacian
      • Tums.
        Tumshuqese
      • Oss.
        Ossetic
        a.k.a. Osetin, Ossetian
      • Push.
        Pushto
        a.k.a. Pashto
      • Yagn.
        Yagnobi
        a.k.a. Yaghnobi
      • Pamir.
        Pamir
      • Shug.
        Shughni
        a.k.a. Shugnan, Shugni
      • Sari.
        Sarikoli
        a.k.a. Sarykoly, Salikur
      • Yazg.
        Yazgulyam
      • Munj.
        Munji
        a.k.a. Munjani
      • Ishk.
        Ishkashimi
      • Sang.
        Sanglechi
      • Wakh.
        Wakhi
        a.k.a. Wakhani
      • Yidg.
        Yidgha
        a.k.a. Yidga
      • Wane.
        Waneci
        a.k.a. Wanechi, Vanechi
    • Nuristani
      • Pras.
        Prasuni
        a.k.a. Vasi-vari
      • Bash.
        Bashgali
        a.k.a. Kati, Kamkata-viri
      • Ashk.
        Ashkunu
      • Treg.
        Tregami
        a.k.a. Gambiri
      • Waig.
        Waigali
        a.k.a. Kalasha-ala
    • Dardic
      • Khow.
        Khowar
      • Kals.
        Kalasha
        a.k.a. Kalasha-mun
      • Kash.
        Kashmiri
      • Kish.
        Kishtwari
      • Pogu.
        Poguli
      • Bat.
        Bateri
      • Chil.
        Chilisso
      • Gow.
        Gowro
      • Kalk.
        Kalkoti
      • Kalm.
        Kalami
      • Koh.
        Kohistani
      • Tira.
        Tirahi
      • Torw.
        Torwali
      • Wota.
        Wotapuri-Katarqalai
      • Dam.
        Dameli
      • Gawar.
        Gawar-Bati
      • Nang.
        Nangalami
      • Shum.
        Shumashti
      • Pash.
        Pashayi
        a.k.a. Pashai
      • PashNW.
        Pashayi-NW
        a.k.a. NW Pashai
      • PashSW.
        Pashayi-SW
        a.k.a. SW Pashai
      • PashNE.
        Pashayi-NE
        a.k.a. NE Pashai
      • PashSE.
        Pashayi-SE
        a.k.a. SE Pashai
      • Brok.
        Brokskad
        a.k.a. Brokskat (?)
      • Domk.
        Domaaki
      • Phal.
        Phalura
        a.k.a. Palola/Palula/Phalulo
      • ShinKo.
        Shina-Kohistani
      • Shina.
        Shina
      • Savi.
        Savi
      • Ush.
        Ushojo
    • Indic
      • RV.
        Rigvedic
        a.k.a. Rgvedic, Ancient Sanskrit
      • Ved.
        Vedic
      • Skt.
        Sanskrit
    • Middle
      • Prak.
        Prakrit
      • Gand.
        Gandhari
      • Pali.
        Pali
      • Saur.
        Sauraseni
      • OMart.
        Old Marathi
    • Modern
      • Assm.
        Assamese
      • Beng.
        Bengali
      • Bhil.
        Bhili
      • Bih.
        Bihari
      • Domr.
        Domari
        a.k.a. Luti, Mehtar, Tsigene, Middle Eastern Romani
      • Guj.
        Gujarati
      • Hin.
        Hindi
        a.k.a. Hindi-Urdu
      • Khan.
        Khandeshi
      • Konk.
        Konkani
      • Kum.
        Kumauni
      • Lahn.
        Lahnda
      • Mald.
        Maldivian
      • Mart.
        Marathi
      • Nep.
        Nepali
      • Ori.
        Oriya
      • Pnj.
        Panjabi
        a.k.a. Punjabi
      • Raj.
        Rajasthani
      • Rmy.
        Romani
        a.k.a. Romany, Gypsy
      • Sind.
        Sindhi
      • Sinh.
        Sinhalese
        a.k.a. Sinhala
      • Thar.
        Tharu
      • Urdu.
        Urdu
        a.k.a. Hindi-Urdu

  • Tocharian


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