Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ag̑-   'to lead, drive, agitate'

Semantic Field(s): to Lead, to Drive


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ag- vb to conduct GED
ār vb to slaughter GED
imm-agim vb to send about GED
Ogma prop.n god who invented ogham (Celtic mythology) AHD
Middle Irish: ogom, ogum n ogham W7
Irish: ogham n.masc ogham W7
Old Welsh: agit vb to go LRC
Welsh: amaeth n husbandman GED
Gaulish: amb n.masc highly ranked servant (not a slave) GED
Old English: ac(h), ah, oc conj but, and, however ASD
ambeht n.str.masc servant GED
ambeht n.str.neut office GED
ambihtian vb.wk to serve GED
e(a)x, æx n.fem axis, axle ASD/W7
eaxl(e), eaxel, ex(e)l n.fem shoulder ASD/CDC/W7
Middle English: ac conj but MEV
act n act, deed W7
active adj active W7
actour n actor AHD
actuel adj actual W7
agent n agent W7
agonie n agony W7
alleggen vb to allege W7
ambages n ambage W7
ambassadour n ambassador W7
assay, assai, asaye, asaie n assay CDC/W7
axel, axil, æxl, exl n axle CDC
axeltre n axletree W7
axiom n axiom AHD
axis n axis AHD
ele n aisle, wing of building AHD
exacten vb to exact W7
examinen vb to examine W7
ile n aisle W7
pedagoge n pedagogue W7
squatten vb to squat W7
synagoge n synagogue W7
English: act n deed; statute; affectation AHD/W7
act vb to feign, perform, simulate, represent W7
action n deed, doing of a thing TLL
active adj lively, characterized by movement AHD/W7
actor n doer, one who acts (e.g. part in play) AHD/W7
actress n doer, female who acts (e.g. part in play) W7
actual adj real, true; current AHD/W7
actuary n clerk, registrar AHD/W7
actuate vb.trans to put into action/motion AHD/W7
agendum, agenda n program, list/plan/outline of events AHD/W7
agent n doer; means; representative AHD/W7
agile adj nimble, able to move quickly/easily AHD/W7
agitate vb to excite, disturb, give motion to AHD/W7
-agogue n.sfx substance promoting secretion/expulsion AHD/W7
agony n torture, anguish, intense pain in mind/body AHD/W7
aileron n moveable part of airplane wing AHD/W7
aisle n passage between seat rows AHD/W7
ala, alae n wing, winglike part/structure AHD/W7
alar adj alary AHD
alary adj re: wings AHD
alate(d) adj having alae AHD/W7
aliform adj wing-shaped, having winglike extension(s) AHD/W7
allege vb.trans to assert/declare without proof AHD/W7
alula n bastard wing: bird's thumb AHD/W7
ambage n ambiguity, circumlocution AHD/W7
ambassador n official envoy, esp. foreign government representative AHD/W7
ambiguous adj doubtful, unclear, equivocal AHD/W7
anagoge n mystical reading of text AHD/W7
antagonize vb.trans to act against, provoke hostility in AHD/W7
assay n test, trial, effort, attempt; scrutiny AHD/W7
axilla n armpit AHD/W7
axiology n study of values/valuation AHD/W7
axiom n common maxim, well-accepted truth AHD/W7
axis n line about which something rotates AHD/W7
axle n shaft around which wheel turns AHD/W7
axletree n fixed bar/beam with bearings for wheels AHD/W7
axon n nerve-cell process AHD/W7
axoneme n cytoskeletal structure in cilium AHD
axoplasm n axon's intracellular cytoplasm AHD
cache n hiding-place, something hidden AHD/W7
choragus n leader of choir/chorus AHD/W7
chronaxie n a certain electric excitation time AHD/W7
coagulum n coagulated mass/substance AHD/W7
cogent adj compelling, convincing AHD/W7
demagogue n leader who champions the plebs AHD/W7
embassage n embassy, message/commission entrusted to ambassador AHD/W7
embassy n official position/residence of ambassador AHD/W7
emmenagogue n catalyst of menstrual discharge AHD/W7
epact n lunisolar intercalary period AHD/W7
essay n effort; literary composition AHD/W7
exact adj precise AHD/W7
exact vb.trans to draw out from, extort AHD/W7
examine vb.trans to test/inspect closely AHD/W7
exigent adj requiring drastic/immediate action AHD/W7
exiguous adj scanty in amount AHD/W7
fumigate vb.trans to apply smoke/gas to AHD/W7
fustigate vb.trans to cudgel; criticize severely AHD/W7
glucagon n pancreatic hormone AHD
hypnagogic adj relating to drowsiness before sleep AHD/W7
intransigent adj uncompromising, irreconcilable AHD/W7
levigate vb.trans to polish, smooth AHD/W7
litigate vb to wage legal contest AHD/W7
mystagogue n disseminator of mystical doctrines AHD/W7
navigate vb to steer through water/other medium AHD/W7
objurgate vb.trans to denounce harshly AHD/W7
ogham n 5th-6th century Irish alphabet of notches AHD/W7
pedagogue n teacher, schoolmaster AHD/W7
protagonist n leading/sympathetic role in story AHD/W7
redact vb to frame, draw up, write down AHD
retroactive adj extending in scope/effect to a prior time AHD/W7
squat vb to sit/crouch over ground AHD/W7
stratagem n clever trick/artifice of war AHD/W7
strategist n one skilled in strategy W7
strategy n art/science of military command W7
synagogue n Jewish congregation/house of worship AHD/W7
transact vb to carry out, perform AHD/W7
variegate vb.trans to diversify in external appearance AHD/W7
British English: antagonise vb.trans to antagonize LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ax(e)le n.fem shoulder ASD
Dutch: as n.fem axis, axle ASD
Old Saxon: ahsla n.fem shoulder ASD
ambahteo n.masc servant GED
ambahtman n.masc servant GED
ambaht-skepi n.masc service GED
ambaht-skipi n.masc service GED
Old High German: ahsa n.fem axis, axle ASD
ahsala n.fem shoulder ASD
ambaht, ampaht n.str.masc servant ASD/GED
ambahtēn vb.wk to serve GED
ambaht(i) n.str.neut office GED
Middle High German: ahse n.fem axis, axle ASD
ahsel n.fem shoulder ASD
German: Achse, Axe n.fem axis, axle ASD
Achsel n.fem shoulder ASD
agitieren vb to campaign, agitate LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: aka vb to travel in vehicle W7
ambátt n.fem servant ASD
öxull n axle AHD
öxultrē n axletree W7
Old Icelandic: aka vb to lead, drive, travel in wagon GED
ambātt n.str.fem maid, concubine GED
embætta vb.wk to wait on GED
embætti n.str.neut service, office GED
Icelandic: axull, öxull n.masc axis, axle ASD
öxl n.fem shoulder ASD
öxul-trē n.neut axle-tree ASD
Norwegian: oksl, aksl, axel n shoulder CDC
Danish: axe n.masc/fem axis, axle ASD
axel n.masc/fem shoulder ASD
Swedish: axel n.masc axis, axle, shoulder ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: amsa n.masc shoulder ASD
andbahts n.masc servant GED
Oscan: acum vb to drive LRC
Latin: acta, actōrum n.masc act, deed, record AHD/CLD
activus adj active W7
actor, actōris n.masc actor, driver, manager AHD/CLD
actuarius n.masc actuary, shorthand writer W7
actum n.neut act, record, thing done W7
actus, actūs n.masc doing; gesture, expression LRC
agens, agentis adj/vb.ptc effective; acting W7
agilis adj agile W7
agitō, agitāre, agitāvī, agitatus vb.freq to move, impel, agitate ELD/W7
agō, agere, ēgī, āctum vb to do, act, lead, drive LRC
āla n.fem ala; axle TLL
allego, allegāre vb to cite, allege, dispatch W7
alula n.dim alula, little wing W7
ambactus, ambacti n.masc vassal, servant; dependent AHD/CLD
*ambāges n.fem delay, detour, circumlocution CLD/W7
ambigo, ambigere vb to dispute, hesitate, wander about W7
ambiguus adj ambiguous W7
axilla n.fem armpit W7
axioma n.masc axiom W7
axis, assis n.masc axis, axle W7
axle n axle, axis CDC
choragus n.masc person in charge of paying for choral production W7
coactō, coactāre, coēgī, coactus vb to compel, press together W7
coagulum n.neut curdling agent W7
cōgō, cōgere vb to compel, drive together W7
exāmen n.neut examination W7
exāminō, exāmināre vb to examine W7
exigō, exigere, exactus vb to demand, measure, drive out W7
exiguus adj very small W7
fumigo, fumigare, fumigavi, fumigatus vb to fumigate W7
jurgo, jurgāre vb to quarrel, take to law W7
lego, legāre vb to bequeath, depute, send as emissary W7
litigo, litigāre, litigāvī, litigatus vb to sue, dispute, litigate W7
mystagogus n.masc mystagogue, initiator W7
navigo, navigare, navigavī, navigatus vb to navigate W7
objurgō, objurgāre, objurgāvī, objurgatus vb to blame, punish, objurgate W7
paedagogus n.masc pedagogue W7
retroago, retroagere vb to reverse, drive back W7
transigo, transigere, transegi, transactus vb to transact, complete, drive through W7
variego, variegare, variegavi, variegatus vb to vary, variegate W7
Vulgar Latin: coactico, coacticare vb to press together W7
coatio, coactīre vb to press together W7
Late Latin: actualis adj actual W7
-agogus sfx promoting expulsion W7
agonia n.fem agony W7
anagoge n.fem anagoge, initiation, education W7
epacta n.fem an intercalar period added to the calendar W7
exagium n.neut act of weighing W7
*exlītigāre vb to clear at law AHD
fustigatus vb.ptc fustigated, criticized W7
fustigo, fustigāre vb to fustigate, criticize severely W7
synagoga n.fem synagogue W7
Middle Latin: assagium, assaia n trial, assay CDC
essagium, essayum n essay, examination CDC
Medieval Latin: actuo, actuare, actuavi, actuatus vb to actuate W7
ambactia n mission, embassy, legation AHD
New Latin: -agogon sfx -agogue, who teaches W7
-agogue sfx -agogue, who teaches W7
axon n.neut axon; wooden cube bearing Greek laws W7
Portuguese: ala n wing TLL
ensaio n trial CDC
Spanish: ala n wing TLL
asayo n assay CDC
ensayo n trial CDC
intransigente adj intransigent, not making any concessions W7
transigente vb.pres.ptc tractable, making compromises W7
transigir vb to compromise W7
Catalan: assatg n assay CDC
ensatg n trial CDC
Old French: acte n act AHD
actual adj active, actual AHD
agonie n agony AHD
aile n wing AHD
alegier vb to justify, vindicate AHD
alleguer vb to allege, pretend W7
ambassadeur n ambassador AHD
assai n.masc assay W7
axiome n axiom AHD
ele n aisle, wing of building AHD
eslegier vb to pay a fine AHD
essai n.masc essay W7
synagoge n.fem synagogue W7
Middle French: actif adj active W7
actuel adj actual W7
agile adj agile W7
ambages n.masc delays, detours, circumlocutions W7
epacte n.fem epact W7
esquatir vb to squat W7
essai n.masc tentative W7
examiner vb to examine W7
pédagoge n.masc pedagogue W7
French: agile adj agile AHD
-agogue n.sfx teaching W7
aile n wing TLL
aileron n.dim aileron AHD
ambassade n.fem embassy GED
cache n.fem a hideout W7
cacher vb to hide W7
chronaxie n.fem time needed to stimulate nervous/muscular tissue with electricity R1/W7
hypnagogique adj hypnagogic, inducing sleep W7
quatir vb to press W7
rétroactif adj retroactive W7
Old Occitan: assai, assag n assay CDC
essai n essay CDC
Italian: ala n wing TLL
(as)saggio n assay CDC
stratagèmma n.masc trick, stratagem W7
Lithuanian: aszis n.fem axis, axle ASD
Greek: ἀγείρω vb to assemble GED
ἄγω vb to lead, drive GED
-agōgos, -agōgon adj.sfx leading, inducing; expelling W7
agōgos adj leading W7
agōn n.masc fight, competition W7
agōnia n.fem anguish, struggle W7
agōnizesthai vb to compete W7
agōnistēs n.masc actor, competitor W7
ἀνάγω vb to refer, lead up LRC
anagōgē n.fem anagoge, reference W7
antagōnizestyai vb to compete, antagonize W7
axia n.fem value W7
axios adj worthy, sufficient W7
axioun vb to think worthy W7
axiōma n.neut honor W7
axōn n.masc axle W7
dēmagōgos n.masc orator W7
ἐπάγω vb to invite, bring in, intercalate LRC
epaktos adj foreign, alien W7
mystagōgos n.masc mystagogue, initiator W7
paidagōgos n.masc pedagogue W7
προάγω vb to proceed, go before LRC
prōtagōnistēs n.masc character, competitor W7
stratēgein vb to maneuver, be a general W7
stratēgēma n.neut strategem, war maneuver, guile in war W7
stratēgos n.masc general, strategist W7
synagein vb to bring together W7
συνάγω vb to bring together LRC
synagōgē n.fem synagogue, assembly W7
ὑπάγω vb to lead on, retire LRC
chorēgos n.masc choragus W7
Late Greek: anagōgē n anagoge W7
Classical Armenian: artakʿs adv out LRC
Armenian: acem vb to lead GED
Avestan: azaiti vb to drive GED
Sanskrit: aksha n wheel, axle ASD
ájati vb to drive GED
Tocharian: āk- vb to lead, travel GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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