Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. ai- : oi-   'oath, significant speech'

Semantic Field(s): to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: ōeth n.masc oath IEW
Welsh: anudon n perjury IEW
Old English: āþ n.masc oath ASD/IEW
āþ-brice n.masc perjury, lit. oath-breaking ASD
āþ-gehāt n.neut sacred pledge, lit. oath-vow ASD
Middle English: ooth n oath W7
English: enigma n riddle, puzzle CDC
enigmatic adj puzzling, like an enigma CDC
oath n calling upon god to witness to truth re: claim W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: eth, ed n oath ASD
Dutch: eed n oath ASD
Old Saxon: ēð n.masc oath IEW
Old High German: eid n.masc oath IEW
Middle High German: eit n oath ASD
German: Eid n.masc oath ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: eiðr n.masc oath ASD
Danish: eed n oath ASD
Swedish: ed n oath ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: aiþs n.masc oath IEW
Latin: aenigma, aenigmatis n.neut enigma, figure, allegory CDC
Portuguese: enigma n enigma CDC
Spanish: enigma n enigma CDC
French: ánigme n enigma CDC
Italian: enigma, enimma n enigma CDC
Greek: αἰνέω vb to praise LRC
αἴνιγμα n.neut enigma LRC
αἶνος n.masc tale, story, fable, saying CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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