Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: aiu̯-, ai̯u-   'vitality, life force'

Semantic Field(s): to Live; Living; Life


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: adv aye GED
ǣ, ǣw(e) n.str.fem law, marriage ASD/GED
ǣfre, ǣfer adv ever ASD/W7
ēce, ǣce adj eternal ASD/GED
nā adv never GED
nǣfre adv never W7
adv aye GED
Middle English: age n age W7
ay(e), ai, ei adv aye CDC/W7
eternal adj eternal W7
eterne adj eterne W7
eternite n eternity W7
ever adv ever W7
nay adv nay W7
never adv never W7
sempiternal adv sempiternal W7
English: (a)eon n age, long period of time AHD/W7
age n lifetime, stage/period of life AHD/W7
ay(e) adv yes, indeed; ever, always, forever AHD/CDC/W7
coetaneous adj coeval AHD/W7
coeval adj of equal age AHD/W7
eternal adj undying, everlasting AHD/W7
eterne adj eternal AHD/W7
eternity n endlessness of time AHD/W7
ever adv always, forever AHD/W7
Evermind prop.n Rohan (grave) flower in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hygiene n personal cleanliness AHD/W7
longevity n lifespan, (long) time to live AHD/W7
medieval adj re: the Middle Ages AHD/W7
nay adv no, lit. not ay(e) AHD/W7
never adv lit. not ever AHD/W7
primeval adj earliest, original, most ancient AHD/W7
sempiternal adj eternal AHD/W7
utopia n ideal/imaginary place AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: n law CDC
n.str.masc law GED
ēwa n.fem law ASD
ēwe n.wk.fem law GED
ēwīg, ewch, iowich, iowigh adj eternal ASD/GED
Dutch: eeuwig adj eternal ASD
Old Saxon: ēo, ēu n.str.masc law GED
ēo, (g)io adv aye CDC
ēwan adj eternal GED
ēwīg adj eternal GED
ēwitha n.str.fem eternity GED
Old High German: ē(h)a n.fem law, custom, marriage ASD
ēwa n.fem law, marriage, religious decree GED
ēwī n.fem law, marriage, religious decree GED
ēwida n.str.fem eternity GED
ēwīg adj eternal GED
ēwīn n.str.fem eternity GED
io, ēo adv aye, always CDC/GED
neo, nio adv nay, never GED
Middle High German: ē(we) n.fem law, custom, marriage ASD
ēwic, ēwec adj eternal ASD
ie, je adv aye CDC
German: Ehe n.fem marriage ASD
ewig adj eternal LRC
Hygiene n.fem hygiene LRC
ja adv aye: yes LRC
je adv aye: ever CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ei adv aye: ever W7
eigi adv not LRC
nei adv nay W7
samr adj same W7
æ adv aye: ever LRC
Old Icelandic: ei adv aye GED
lang-ǣr adj long-lived GED
æ adv aye: ever GED
æfi n.str.fem age, life GED
ævi n.str.fem age, life GED
Icelandic: ei, ey n aye CDC
Danish: evig adj eternal ASD
Swedish: evig adj eternal ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: aiw adv aye CDC
*aiws n.str.masc aeon, lifetime, eternity GED
*ajukduþs n.fem eternity (as a feature of existence) GED
halis-aiw adv hardly ever GED
Old Latin: aeuom, aevom n.neut aeon CDC/GED
Latin: aetās, aetātis n.fem age, period W7
aeternitās, aeternitātis n.fem eternity W7
aeternus adj eternal GED
aevum n.neut aeon GED/IEW
aevus n.masc aeon GED/IEW
coaevus adj coeval W7
longaevus adj long-lived GED
primaevus adj primeval W7
sempiternus adj eternal W7
vivus adj living W7
Vulgar Latin: aetaticum adj re: age W7
Late Latin: aeternalis adj eternal W7
longaevitas n.fem longevity W7
sempiternalis adj sempiternal W7
Old French: aage n.masc age W7
Middle French: eternal adj eternal W7
eterne adj eternal W7
eternité n.fem eternity W7
French: hygiène n.fem cleanliness, healthy living W7
Homeric Greek: οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ adv no, not W7
Greek: ἀεί adv aye: ever LRC
αἰεί adv aye: ever LRC
αἰέν adv always GED
αἰών n.masc aeon, life(time) GED
αἰ[Ϝ]ές adv always GED
δηναι(Ϝ)ός adj long-lived GED
hygieinos adj healthful W7
hygiēs adj healthy W7
Vedic: āyunā n.loc life GED
ā́yuni n.inst life GED
Sanskrit: ā́yu- n life, life force GED
eva n.masc course, manner ASD
Tocharian A: ăym- n life, spirit GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
inst=instrumental (case)
loc=locative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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