Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ak̑-, ok̑-   'sharp, acute, angular; stone'

Semantic Field(s): Sharp, Rock, Stone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ēr adj high GED
ochair n edge GED
Gaulish: Aχrotalus prop.n with high forehead GED
Old English: ægnan chaff GED
agen n ear of grain W7
agu n magpie GED
ēar n.str.neut ear, icker GED
ecg n.str.fem tip, edge GED
egenu n.str.fem chaff GED
egl n.str.masc splinter GED
Middle English: acetous adj acetous AHD
acuite n acuity AHD
aglet n aglet W7
ague n ague W7
awn(e), aune, awene, agun n awn CDC/W7
egge n egg W7
eggen vb to egg (on), urge/tempt, incite/entice W7
eglentyn adj eglantine W7
egre adj eager W7
selvage n selvage W7
vinegre n vinegar W7
English: acerate adj pointed like needle AHD/W7
acerbic adj sour/acid in taste AHD
acerose adj long and narrow and pointed AHD
acetabulum n hipbone socket; a leech's sucker AHD/W7
acetic adj re: vinegar, acetic acid AHD/W7
acetous adj sour, acetic AHD
acetum n vinegar, dilute acetic acid solution AHD
acicula n needlelike spine/bristle/crystal AHD/W7
acid adj sour, sharp, biting to the taste AHD/W7
acid n sour substance W7
acidanthera n (type of) flower AHD
acidic adj acid, acid-forming W7
acme n peak, highest point AHD/W7
acne n skin pore inflammation AHD/W7
acrid adj sharp/pungent in taste/odor AHD/W7
acrimony n harsh/biting sharpness (of words) AHD/W7
acr(o)- pfx topmost, extreme AHD/W7
acrobat n one who performs gymnastic feats AHD/W7
acromegaly n chronic hyperpituitarism (enlargement of feet/hands) AHD/W7
acromelic adj re: extremity ends (hands/feet) AHD
acromion n high outside part of scapula AHD
acronym n word formed by first letters of name AHD
acrophobia n abnormal fear of heights W7
acropolis n upper fortified part of ancient Greek city AHD/W7
acrostic n composition where initial/final letters of lines form word/phrase/sequence AHD
acuity n sharpness, keenness of perception AHD/W7
aculeate adj having a sting, prickly AHD/W7
acumen n keenness of perception AHD/W7
acuminate vb to taper to sharp point AHD
acupuncture n Chinese medical science of body puncture AHD/W7
acute adj sharp, severe, penetrating AHD/W7
aglet n tag of a lace-end AHD/W7
ague n fever of heat, chills, sweating AHD/W7
amphioxus n lancelet AHD/W7
awn n slender bristle at end of grain-stalk AHD/W7
carvacrol n liquid phenol used as antiseptic AHD/W7
eager adj.arch keen, sharp AHD/W7
ear n fruiting spike of a cereal AHD/W7
edge n edge, cutting side or line AHD/W7
egg vb to incite to action AHD/W7
eglantine n sweetbrier AHD/W7
ester n organic acid/alcohol compound AHD/W7
exacerbate vb to excite, enflame, intensify AHD/W7
icker n head of grain W7
mediocre adj middling, inferior AHD/W7
oxalis n wood sorrel AHD/W7
oxygen n oxygen AHD/W7
oxytone adj acutely accented on last syllable AHD/W7
paragon n model of excellence/perfection AHD/W7
paroxysm n convulsion, sudden onset of disease symptoms AHD/W7
selvage n ravel-resistant fabric edge AHD/W7
vinegar n vinegar AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: eg, ig n.fem edge ASD
Frisian: eher n.str.neut ear GED
ig n edge ASD
Middle Flemish: egge n edge W7
selvage, selvegge n ravel-resistant fabric edge W7
Old Saxon: eggia n.str.fem tip, edge GED
Old High German: aga n magpie GED
agana n.str.fem chaff, ear of grain GED
ahir n.str.neut ear GED
ecka, ekka n.str.fem tip, edge ASD/GED
ehir n.str.neut ear GED
Middle High German: ag(e)ne, ane n awn CDC
eck n.neut edge ASD
ecke n.fem edge ASD
German: Ähre n.fem ear LRC
akut adj acute, urgent LRC
Äther n ether W7
Eck n.neut edge ASD
Ecke n.fem edge, corner ASD
Essig n vinegar W7
Essigäther n ethyl acetate W7
Ester n organic acid/alcohol compound W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: egg n.fem edge LRC
eggja, eggjað vb to urge, whet LRC
ögn n ear of grain W7
Old Icelandic: ax n.str.neut ear GED
egg n.str.fem tip, edge GED
ǫgn n.str.fem chaff GED
Icelandic: egg n.fem edge ASD
ögn, agnar n awn, chaff CDC
Danish: avne n awn, chaff CDC
eg n.masc/fem edge ASD
Swedish: agg n.masc prick, resentment GED
agga vb.wk to prick, incite GED
*agn, agnar n awn, chaff CDC
egg n.masc edge ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ahaks n tame white dove (sacrificial dove; also symbol of the Holy Spirit) GED
ahana n.fem awn, chaff GED
ahs n.neut ear (of grain) GED
Umbrian: ocar n mountain GED
ukar n mountain GED
Old Latin: mediocris adj mediocre, at mid-height GED
ocris n rocky mountain GED
Latin: aceo, acēre vb to be sour W7
acer, aceris n.neut maple (tree) GED
ācer, ācris, ācre adj sharp, piercing GED
acerbo, acerbare vb to aggravate, make harsh/bitter AHD/CLD
acerbus adj harsh, bitter W7
aceris n.gen chaff GED
acetum n.neut vinegar W7
acidus adj sour, acidic W7
acies, aciei n.fem line of battle LRC
acrimonia n.fem bitterness, harshness W7
aculeatus adj having stings W7
aculeus n.masc sting W7
acumen, acuminis n.neut point W7
acuō, acuere, acuī, acūtus vb to sharpen W7
acus n chaff GED
acus n.fem needle W7
agna n.fem ear of grain GED
exacerbo, exacerbare vb to exacerbate, make worse/more bitter W7
mediocris adj not good but not bad; halfway up a mountain W7
ocris n.masc stony mountain W7
oxalis n.masc wood sorrel W7
Vulgar Latin: aculentum n.neut eglantine W7
Late Latin: acicula, acucula n.fem ornamental pin W7
Medieval Latin: acuta adj.fem sharp (fever) W7
paroxysmus n.masc paroxysm W7
New Latin: amphioxus adj sharp at both ends W7
oxalis n.masc wood sorrel W7
Old French: acrostiche n acrostic AHD
agu adj sharp W7
agüeté n.fem acuity W7
aigre adj sour W7
vinaigre n.masc vinegar W7
Middle French: acrimonie n.fem acrimony W7
acrostiche n.masc acrostic W7
acuité n.fem acuity W7
aguë adj acute (fever) W7
aguille, aiguille n.fem needle W7
aguillette, aiguillette n.fem small needle W7
aiglent n.masc eglantine, sweetbrier W7
médiocre adj not good but not bad W7
paragon n.masc example, model W7
French: acétique adj acetic W7
acide adj sour, acidic W7
acrobate n.masc acrobat W7
acromégalie n acromegaly AHD
acrostiche n.masc acrostic AHD
aigre adj keen, sour W7
oxygène n.masc oxygen W7
oxyton n.masc a word accented on the last syllable W7
paroxysme n.masc climax, paroxysm W7
Old Italian: paragonare vb to test on a touchstone W7
paragone n.masc touchstone W7
Old Prussian: ackons n ear of grain GED
Lithuanian: ašnìs n blade GED
aštrùs adj sharp GED
Latvian: akrims n stone GED
Old Church Slavonic: ostrъ adj sharp GED
Cyprian: ἀκοσ-τή n barley GED
Doric: ἄχνα n awn, chaff CDC
Homeric Greek: ἀκαχμένος adj pointed, sharpened GED
ἄκμων n stone, anvil LRC
Greek: ἄκαινα n tip GED
ἄκανθα n.fem thorn LRC
akē n.fem point W7
ἀκ-μή n peak GED/IEW
akmē n.fem point W7
aknē n.fem eruption on face W7
ἀκόνη n whetstone GED
akonē n.fem whetstone W7
ἄκονος n thistle GED
akrobatein vb to walk on tip-toe AHD
akrobatēs n.masc acrobat AHD
ἄκρον n.neut peak, extremity, mountain-top LRC
ἄκρος adj sharp GED
akrostichis n.fem acrostic W7
akrōmion n acromion, outer end of scapula AHD
ἄκων n throwing spear GED
ἄχνη n awn, chaff CDC
ὄκρις n mountain peak GED
oxynein vb to provoke W7
oxys adj sharp W7
oxytonos adj oxytone W7
parakonan vb to sharpen W7
paroxynein vb to stimulate W7
παροξυσμος n.masc paroxysm, irritation, provocation, exasperation LS
Hittite: aku- n stone GED
hekur n (tip of) rock GED
Armenian: asełn n needle GED
Avestan: ašnō n rock, stone for sling GED
Sanskrit: aśánis n thunderbolt, tip of missile GED
aśrá- adj sharp GED
áśriṣ n sharp edge GED
Tocharian B: āke n end GED
Tocharian A: āk n end GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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