Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: albho-   'white, albino'

Semantic Field(s): White


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ælf, ylfe n.masc elf, elves W7
ælfen, elfen, elven n.fem female elf OED
ælf-scīene, ælf-scīeno adj beautiful, of elfin beauty ASD
albe n alb W7/ASD
Middle English: albe n alb W7
alfe, alvene n elf, elves CDC
auborne, auburne, awburne adj auburn W7/CDC
dauben vb to daub W7
elf(e), elvene n elf, elves CDC
elven adj elven LRC
English: abele n white poplar AHD/W7
alb n white garment (worn at Eucharist) AHD/W7
albedo n reflected lustre AHD/W7
albescent adj becoming white AHD
albino adj/n (organism) lacking genetic pigment AHD/W7
albite n kind of feldspar AHD/W7
album n blank notebook; musical record AHD/W7
albumen n egg white AHD/W7
aubade n dawn song, morning song AHD/W7
auburn adj blond, flaxen; reddish-brown AHD/W7
daub vb to plaster, crudely spread AHD/W7
elf, elfs, elves n sprite, fairy, incubus AHD/W7
Elfhelm prop.n Rohan marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
elfin, elven adj re: elves LRC
Elfstan prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Elfstone prop.n a.k.a. Aragorn in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Elfwine prop.n 19th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Elven prop.adj re: Elves in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
Elvish prop.adj re: Elves in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
Gandalf prop.n grey/white wizard in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
Halfelven prop.n Elrond surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
oaf n fool, dullard AHD/W7
Oberon prop.n fairy king (medieval folklore) LRC
Oliver prop.n comrade of Roland, paladin of Charlemagne LRC
West Germanic  
Old Dutch: alf n.masc elf ASD
Dutch: abeel n white poplar W7
elf n.masc elf CDC
Middle Low German: alf n.masc elf CDC
Low German: elf n.masc elf CDC
Old High German: alp n.masc elf CDC
Middle High German: alb, alf, alp, elbe n.masc elf, elves CDC/ASD
German: Alb n.masc elf CDC
Albino n.masc albino LRC
Alm, Alp n.fem alpine pasture LRC
Alp n.masc elf, demon; nightmare CDC
Elf, Elfe n.masc/fem elf, goblin CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: alfr n.masc elf ASD
Álfr prop.n.masc Alf (an elf) LRC
Gandálfr prop.n.masc Gandalf (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
gandálfr n.masc wizard, lit. staff-elf LRC
Danish: alf, elv n.masc elf CDC
Swedish: albit n albite W7
alf, elfva n.masc/fem elf CDC
Latin: albesco, albescere vb to become white AHD
alburnus adj whitish AHD
albus, alba, album adj white LRC
Vulgar Latin: alba n.fem dawn W7
Late Latin: albedo n.fem whiteness W7
Middle Latin: alburnus adj auburn, whitish CDC
Medieval Latin: alba n.fem white garment worn at the Eucharist W7
albellus n.dim white (color) AHD
alburnus adj whitish W7
Portuguese: albino adj albino W7
Spanish: albada n aubade CDC
albo adj white W7
Old French: albade n aubade AHD
Auberon n.masc Oberon W7
auborne, alborne adj auburn CDC
dauber vb to coat, plaster W7
Old North French: abiel adj white W7
Middle French: auborne adj blond W7
French: aubade n.fem aubade W7
Oliver n.masc Oliver [man's name] W7
Old Provençal: alba, auba n.fem dawn W7
aubada n.fem aubade W7
Italian: alburno adj auburn CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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