Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: am(m)a, amī̆   'mama, amah (nursery word)'

Semantic Field(s): Mother


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: amicable adj amicable W7
amite n amity W7
amour n amour W7
aunt(e) n aunt CDC/W7
enamouren vb to enamor W7
enemi n enemy W7
paramour n paramour W7
English: amah n nurse, female domestic servant AHD/W7
amateur n hobbyist, non-professional AHD/W7
amative adj re: love AHD/W7
amatory adj re: sexual love AHD
amicable adj friendly AHD/W7
amigo n friend AHD/W7
amity n friendship, good-feeling AHD/W7
amoretto n Cupid, cherub AHD/W7
amour n lover AHD/W7
aunt n uncle's wife, parent's sister AHD/W7
enamor vb.trans to attract love/desire AHD/W7
enemy n opponent, opposition AHD/W7
inamorata n woman, lover AHD/W7
inimical adj opposed, hostile AHD/W7
paramour n illicit lover AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: amma n amah, mama W7
German: Amateur n.masc amateur LRC
Amme n.fem amah LRC
Latin: amator n.masc lover W7
amicitia, amicitiae n.fem friendship LRC
amicus n.masc friend W7
amita n.fem paternal aunt W7
amo, amāre, amatus vb to love W7
amor n.masc love W7
inimicus adj enemy W7
Vulgar Latin: *amīcitās n amity AHD
Late Latin: amicabilis adj friendly W7
inimicalis adj unfriendly W7
Medieval Latin: amativus adj amorous W7
amicitas n.fem friendship W7
amma n.fem amah W7
Portuguese: ama n.fem amah, wet nurse W7
Spanish: amigo n.masc friend W7
Old French: amite n amity AHD
amour n.masc love W7
a(u)nte n aunt CDC
enamourer vb to fall in love W7
enemi n.masc.adj enemy W7
Anglo-French: aunte n aunt AHD
Middle French: amité n.fem friendship W7
French: aimer vb to love TLL
amateur n.masc amateur W7
tante n aunt CDC
Old Provençal: amor n.masc love W7
Old Occitan: amda n aunt CDC
Italian: amida, ameta n.dial aunt CDC
amore n.masc love W7
amoretto n.masc flirtation, casual love affair CID/W7
innamorare vb to inspire with love W7
innamorato, innamorata vb.ptc in love W7
Greek: amma n.fem amah W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at