Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ang̑h-   'tight, narrow, anguished; to constrict'

Semantic Field(s): Narrow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cum-ung adj narrow GED
Breton: enk adj narrow GED
Welsh: cyf-ung adj narrow GED
Old English: ang- adj.pfx tight, painful W7
angnægl n.masc agnail, corn on toe/foot ASD/W7
enge adj tight, narrow, painful GED
engu n.str.fem distress GED
ge-eng(e)d adj anxious ASD/GED
Middle English: agnail n agnail W7
anger n grief, anger MEV
angre adj angry MEV
angwisshe, angwys n grief, anguish MEV/W7
quinesie n quinsy, throat inflammation W7
English: agnail n sore/inflammation around toenail/fingernail AHD/W7
anger n wrath, resentment, strong displeasure GED/W7
angina n inflammatory suffocative illness AHD/W7
angry adj wrathful, feeling/showing anger W7
angst n fear, dread, worry, anxiety AHD/W7
anguish n extreme mental/bodily pain AHD/W7
anguished adj in anguish LRC
anxious adj worried, nervous AHD/W7
hangnail n agnail AHD
quinsy n abscess around tonsil AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: engi adj tight, narrow GED
Middle Low German: angest n angst GED
engen vb.wk to make narrow GED
Old High German: ancha n.wk.masc neck GED
angi adj narrow GED
angitha n.str.fem distress, narrowness GED
angust n angst GED
anken vb.wk to make narrow GED
engi adj narrow GED
engi n.str.fem distress GED
engida n.str.fem distress, narrowness GED
ungnagal n agnail, corn on toe/foot ASD
Middle High German: angest n angst AHD
anke n.wk.masc neck GED
enge n.fem narrowness, confinement ASD
German: Angst n.fem angst W7
Anke n.fem neck GED
Enge n.fem narrowness, confinement ASD
Swabian: Anke n.fem neck GED
North Germanic  
Old Norse: angr n grief, anger W7
öngum n narrowness, confinement ASD
Old Icelandic: angr n anger GED
ǫngr, øngr adj narrow GED
øngd n.str.fem distress, narrowness GED
øngja vb to make narrow GED
øngva vb to make narrow GED
Danish: angst n angst DEO/W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: *-agga n.sfx narrowing GED
aggwiþa n.fem distress, constriction GED
*-aggwjan vb.wk.I to oppress GED
*aggwus adj narrow GED
Latin: angina n.fem disease of the chest W7
angiportus n.masc narrow street GED
ango, angere vb to hurt, torment, strangle, make narrow GED
angor n.masc anguish; choking, anxiety GED
angustia, angustiae n.fem strait, narrow place; anguish, distress GED
angustus adj narrow GED
anxietās n.fem anxiety GED
anxius adj anxious, fearful GED
Old French: anguisse n anguish MEV
Middle French: quinancie n.fem quinsy W7
French: angoisse n.fem anguish, anxiety W7
Lithuanian: añkštas adj narrow GED
Old Church Slavonic: ązъ-kъ adj narrow GED
ǫzilište n prison GED
ǫziti vb to oppress GED
Greek: ἀγχί, ἀγχοῦ adv near GED
ἄγχω vb to bind together GED
ἄμφην n neck GED
anchein vb to strangle W7
ἆσσον adv.comp nearer GED
kynanchē n.fem dog's collar W7
Armenian: anju-k adj narrow GED/IEW
Avestan: ązanhē vb to oppress GED
ązō n need, anxiety GED
Ossetic: ungäg adj narrow GED
Sanskrit: áṁhas n need, anxiety GED
aṁhú- adj.pfx narrow GED
aṁhúh adj narrow GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
DEO=Hermann Vinterberg and C.A. Bodelsen: Dansk-Engelsk Ordbog (1966)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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