Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ank-, ang-   'to flex, bend, angle'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: anclēow n.masc ankle ASD/W7
ancor, āncer n anchorite, hermit ASD/W7
anga n hook W7
angel n.masc fishhook W7
Angel-cynn prop.n.neut English, lit. Angle kin LRC
Engle n the Angles (coastal Germanic group) W7
Middle English: ancre n anchor W7
angel n fishhook W7
angelen vb to angle: fish W7
angle n angle W7
ankel n ankle W7
English: anchor n anchor (fluked boat stabilizer) AHD/W7
ancon n architectural bracket or elbow support AHD/W7
Angle prop.n member of Germanic tribe in Anglia LRC
angle n corner, sharp bend AHD/W7
angle vb to turn/flex/position at an angle AHD/W7
angle vb to fish with hook W7
ankle n joint between foot and leg AHD/W7
ankylosis n joint stiffness; bone fusion AHD/W7
onchocerciasis n river blindness (caused by filarial worms) AHD
oncidium n kind of orchid AHD/W7
unciform adj hook-shaped AHD/W7
uncinaria n hook-mouthed nematode AHD/W7
uncinate adj hooked, unciform, bent at end AHD
uncus n hooked anatomical part AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: anker n anchor TLL
Old Saxon: ēnkoro n.masc hermit, anchorite ASD
Old High German: anchlāo, anchal(a) n ankle ASD/W7
ango n hook W7
angul n.masc hook, fishhook ASD
einchoranar n.masc hermit, anchorite ASD
Middle High German: angel n.masc hook, fishhook ASD
enkel n.masc ankle ASD
German: Angel n.fem hinge, angle; fishing rod LRC
angeln vb to fish, angle LRC
Anker n.masc anchor LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: eng n meadow LRC
ökul, ökli n.masc ankle ASD
öngull n.masc hook, fishhook ASD
Danish: anker n anchor TLL
eng n meadow TLL
Swedish: ankare n anchor TLL
ankel n ankle ASD
äng n meadow TLL
Latin: anchora n.fem anchor W7
Ancon n.fem town in Italy W7
ancōn n ancon AHD
Angli Angles: people of Germanic origin W7
angulus n.masc angle W7
uncinus adj hook W7
uncus n.masc hook W7
New Latin: ankylosis n.fem ankylosis W7
oncidium n.neut genus of orchids W7
unciformis, unciforme adj shaped like a hook W7
uncinaria n.fem hookworm W7
uncus n.masc a hooked anatomical part or process W7
Old French: angle n angle AHD
Middle French: angle n.masc angle W7
Greek: ankos n.masc glen W7
ankylos adj crooked W7
ankyloun vb to make crooked W7
ankylōsis n.fem ankylosis W7
ankyra n.fem anchor W7
ankōn n.masc elbow W7
onkos n.masc barbed hook, mass W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at