Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ant-s   'brow, front, anterior'

Semantic Field(s): Forehead


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ētan n forehead LRC
Old English: and-, ond- pfx to, against, opposite; from GED
and prep on, against GED
end adv rather, earlier GED/IEW
ende n.masc area GED
ende n.str.masc/neut end GED
ende-lēas adj endless GED
oþ- pfx until GED
prep in, on, (up) to, as far as GED
prep/conj until W7
und prep until GED
Middle English: advauncen vb to advance W7
ancien adj ancient W7
and- prep against W7
ante- prep ante- W7
ant(i)- pfx anti- W7
antipodes antipodes, those with feet opposite ours AHD
ava(u)ntage n advantage MEV/W7
ende n end W7
unto prep unto, lit. until-to W7
vantgard n vanguard W7
English: advance vb to go forward AHD/W7
advantage n benefit AHD/W7
ancient adj of yore, exceeding old AHD/W7
ante- pfx before AHD/W7
ante n initial bet/stake AHD
anterior adj forward AHD/W7
anti- pfx against, contra AHD/W7
antic adj absurd, farcical AHD/W7
antidote n remedy to effects of poison AHD/W7
antinomian adj/n (re:) adherent of antinomianism AHD
antinomianism n belief that Gospel frees Christians from law AHD
antinomy n contradiction between equally valid principles/inferences AHD/W7
antipasto n hors d'oeuvre AHD/W7
antiphon n psalm/verse sung antiphonally AHD/W7
antipodes direct/diametrical opposites AHD
antique adj ancient, very old AHD/W7
antithesis n rhetorical contrast of ideas AHD/W7
antitype n one foreshadowed by/identified with earlier type/symbol AHD/W7
antonym n word having opposite meaning W7
enantiomer n molecule not superimposable on mirror image (chemistry) AHD
enantiomorph n mirror image compound (chemistry) AHD/W7
-end sfx cape GED
end n result; terminus, finality AHD/W7
end vb to terminate AHD/W7
Haysend prop.n Buckland village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Lands-end prop.n Land's End GED
until prep/conj to, before, up to W7
unto prep to, until IEW
vanguard n leader, forefront AHD/W7
Vedanta prop.n orthodox philosophy based on Upanishads (Hinduism) LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: and(a) prep to, in, on ASD/GED
enda, ein, eind(e) n.str.masc/neut end ASD/GED
und prep until GED
Frisian: eyn(e) n end ASD
Dutch: einde n.neut end ASD
Old Saxon: and- pfx to, anti-, opposite; from GED
and prep up to GED
ant- pfx to, anti-, opposite; from GED
ant prep up to GED
endi adv earlier GED
endi n.str.masc/neut end GED
endi-lōs adj endless GED
und conj until ASD/GED
unt prep until ASD/GED
Old High German: ant-, ent-, int- pfx to, anti-, opposite; from GED
ant prep on, into; before, against ASD
anti n.str.masc/neut end GED
endi n.str.neut forehead GED
enti adv earlier GED/IEW
enti n.str.masc/neut end GED
int-fliohan vb to escape GED
und prep until GED
unt conj unto, until W7
unt-az prep until GED
unz(i) prep until ASD/GED
Middle High German: ende n.masc/neut end ASD
ende-lōs adj endless GED
German: Ende n.neut end ASD
Ost-ende prop.n Ostend GED
Langobardic: Ant-aib n border district GED
North Germanic  
Old Norse: and prep against ASD
en conj but, and; than LRC
enn adv still; also; yet; further; again; moreover; even LRC
Old Icelandic: and- pfx to, anti-, opposite; from GED
enda-lauss adj endless GED
endi(r) n.str.masc/neut end GED
endr adv again, earlier GED/IEW
enn adv again, earlier GED/IEW
enni n.str.neut forehead GED
unz prep until GED
Icelandic: endi(r) n.masc end ASD
Danish: end conj than TLL
ende n.masc/fem end ASD
Swedish: än conj than TLL
ände n.masc end ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: and prep along, through, over; up to, towards GED
andeis n.masc end GED
andiz-uh conj either/or GED/IEW
andniman vb.str.IV to take, receive LRC
*Gutisk-andeis(-andi) prop.n Gothic peninsula GED
und prep for, until, up to GED
unte conj until ASD
*unþa-þliuhan vb to escape GED
Oscan: ant prep up to GED
Latin: abante adv before W7
ante adv/prep/pfx before LRC
anterior adj taking place before W7
antiae n forelock, hair hanging to forehead GED
antīcus adj before GED/IEW
antiquus, antiqua, antiquum adj old, antique, preceding GED
Vulgar Latin: abantio, abantiare vb to go forward W7
anteanus adj ancient W7
Late Latin: antithesis n.fem contrary, antithesis W7
Medieval Latin: anti- pfx contrary, anti- W7
antitypus n antitype AHD
Portuguese: antes adv before TLL
Spanish: antes adv before TLL
delante adv before TLL
Old French: anti- pfx anti-, contrary W7
auncien adj ancient AHD
avancier vb to advance W7
avant prep/pfx fore- W7
avant-garde n.fem vanguard W7
avauntage n advantage AHD
Middle French: ancien adj ancient W7
anti- pfx anti- W7
antique adj antique, ancient, of the ancient world W7
avant prep before W7
avantage n.masc vantage, benefit, advantage W7
avant-garde n.fem vanguard W7
French: antique adj antique AHD
avant adv/prep before TLL
devant adv/prep before, in front of TLL
Italian: antico adj ancient W7
antipasto n.masc antipasto, side dish CID/W7
davanti adv before TLL
Lithuanian: añt prep on, to, against GED
anta prep up to GED
antà prep on, to, against GED
añtis n breast, bosom GED
į̃ prep at, for, in, to LRC
Greek: ἄντα prep opposite GED
ἄντη-ν adv against GED
ἀντί, αντ- adv/prep/pfx facing, opposite, anti- LRC
antithesis n.fem opposition, antithesis W7
antitupos adj representing, corresponding AHD
enanti adv facing W7
enantios adj opposite W7
Late Greek: antitupos n copy, antitype AHD
Lycian: χñta- pfx first, leader GED
Hittite: hant- n forehead, front(age) LRC
hanti adv in front; separate, especially GED
Armenian: and adv there GED
ənd prep for, through, along; with, during, under GED
Sanskrit: anta n.masc end ASD/W7
antamás adj.sup the last one GED
ántas n end, limit GED
ánti prep near, before GED
ántyas vb to be at the end GED
Vedānta prop.n end of the Veda W7
Tocharian B: ānte n brow LRC
Tocharian A: antus adv then GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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