Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ap-, more accurately əp- : ēp-   'to take, reach, grasp'

Semantic Field(s): to Take, to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: apt adj apt W7
aptitude n aptitude, tendency AHD
artillerie, artylerye n artillery CDC/W7
couple n couple W7
English: adept n able, skilled AHD/W7
apex n top, vertex, highest point AHD
apt adj fit, proper AHD/W7
aptitude n aptness, ability, learning capacity W7
artillery n missile arms AHD/W7
attitude n view, disposition AHD/W7
cabaletta n short aria with simple style/repetitive rhythm AHD
copula n (subject-predicate) link/connector AHD/W7
copulate vb to have sexual intercourse AHD/W7
couple n pair, brace AHD/W7
couple vb to join, unite, connect, copulate W7
couplet n unit of 2 successive verse lines W7
inept adj clumsy, hapless, not apt AHD/W7
lariat n rope with noose for catching cattle AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Artillerie n.fem artillery LRC
Latin: adeptus vb.ptc has been attained W7
adipīscor, adipīscī vb to attain W7
apere vb to fasten AHD
apex, apicis n.masc apex, summit, extreme end AHD/ELD
apiscor, apiscī, aptus vb to reach, attain W7
apto, aptare vb to fit, adapt, adjust, accommodate CDC
aptus vb.ptc apt W7
apud prep near, with, among LRC
cōpula n.fem tie, bond, copula ELD/W7
cōpulō, cōpulāre, cōpulāvī, cōpulātus vb to couple, copulate ELD/W7
ineptus adj inept, silly, improper, unsuitable CDC
Vulgar Latin: *apticulāre vb to equip AHD
Late Latin: aptitudo, aptitudinis n.fem aptitude W7
Middle Latin: aptitudo n aptitude CDC
artillaria, artilleria n artillery CDC
New Latin: adeptus n.masc alchemist who knows how to change base metals into gold W7
Portuguese: apto adj apt CDC
artilharia n artillery CDC
inepto adj inept CDC
Spanish: apto adj apt CDC
artillería n artillery CDC
inepto adj inept CDC
Old French: apte adj apt CDC
artillerie, arteillerie n artillery CDC
artillier vb to equip AHD
cople n.masc couple W7
Middle French: couplet n.dim couplet W7
French: attitude n.fem attitude W7
avec prep with TLL
inepte adj inept W7
Old Provençal: cobla n copula AHD
Old Occitan: artilheria n artillery CDC
Provençal: apte adj apt CDC
Italian: artiglieria n artillery CDC
attitudine n.fem aptitude LRC
attitudine n.fem attitude CID/W7
atto adj apt CDC
cabaletta n.dim cabaletta AHD
cob(o)la n copula AHD
coboletta n.dim stanza, couplet AHD
inetto adj inept CDC
Greek: ἅπτω vb to bind, fasten, attach CDC
Classical Armenian: əndunim vb to receive LRC
Sanskrit: āpta adj apt W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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