Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi-   'to fit, suit'

Semantic Field(s): Good, Custom, Usage


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: rīm n number GED
rīmid counts GED
Welsh: cyf-rif vb to count, recount, narrate GED
rhif n number GED
rhifo vb to count GED
Old English: drǣdan vb.irr to dread ASD/W7
earm n.masc arm ASD/W7
hund-red nbr.card hundred (100), long hundred (120) W7
rǣd, rēd n.masc rede ASD/IEW
rǣdan, rǣdde, rǣded vb.wk to read/rede, counsel ASD/W7
rǣdan, rē(or)d, rēdon, rǣden vb.str to read/rede, counsel ASD/W7
rǣdelse n opinion, conjecture, riddle W7
rǣden n condition W7
rīm n.str.masc/neut number, calculation ASD/GED
rīman vb.wk to count, number GED
Northumbrian: arm n arm CDC
Middle English: adornen vb to adorn W7
alarme, alarom n alarm W7
ar(i)smetrik n arithmetic CDC/W7
armarie, almerie n ambry AHD/W7
armature n armor, armature AHD
arm(e) n arm; embrace MEV/W7
armee, arm(e)ye n army CDC/W7
armen vb to arm W7
armes arms, warfare W7
armony n harmony W7
armure n armor W7
arreinen, arraynen, arenen vb to arraign CDC/W7
art(e) n art CDC/W7
article n article W7
desarmen vb to disarm W7
dreden vb to dread W7
hatred n hatred W7
hundred nbr.card hundred (100) GED
inordinat adj inordinate W7
kindred n kindred W7
ordeinen vb to ordain W7
ordinal adj ordinal W7
ordinance n ordinance W7
ordinarie adj ordinary W7
ornament n ornament W7
ornat adj ornate W7
primordial adj primordial W7
rate n rate W7
redels n riddle W7
reden vb to read/rede W7
resoun n reason W7
ridel n riddle W7
rime n rhyme W7
rite n rite W7
subordinat adj subordinate W7
English: adorn vb.trans to deck, strew with ornaments AHD/W7
alarm n warning, panic AHD/W7
ambry n pantry; recess in church wall AHD/W7
anarthrous adj re: noun without article; lit. without joints AHD
aristocracy n rule of the best AHD/W7
arithmetic n mathematics, science of numbers AHD/W7
arm n upper limb AHD/W7
arm vb to equip with weapons AHD/W7
armada n fleet AHD/W7
armadillo n small shelled nocturnal mammal AHD/W7
armature n organ for attack/defense AHD/W7
armillary adj/n (re:) bracelet, iron ring AHD/W7
armoire n large chest AHD/W7
armor n defensive bodily covering W7
arm(s) weapon(s) AHD/W7
army n large organized body of armed personnel AHD/W7
arraign vb.trans to charge, indict AHD/W7
art n ingenuity, creativity, performance skill AHD/W7
arthr(o)- pfx joint AHD/W7
article n item; type of prose composition AHD/W7
artiodactyl n even-toed ungulate AHD/W7
artisan n craftsman AHD/W7
artist n one skilled in creative art(s) AHD/W7
artiste n skilled adept musical/theatrical performer W7
coarctate adj close together; contracted AHD/W7
coordination n harmonious movement AHD/W7
diarthrosis n free-moving joint AHD/W7
disarm vb to strip of weapons AHD/W7
dread vb to fear, stand in awe of AHD/W7
dysarthria n dyslalia, lack of distinct articulation AHD/CDC
enarthrosis n ball-and-socket joint AHD/W7
exordium n preface, introduction AHD/W7
Fastred prop.n personal name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Folcred prop.n Rohan prince in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gendarme n police officer AHD/W7
Halfred prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
harmony n concord AHD/W7
hatred n hate, extreme contempt AHD/W7
hundred nbr.card 100 GED
inert adj still, idle, unchanging AHD/W7
inertia n indisposition to change/motion AHD/W7
inordinate adj immoderate, out of order AHD/W7
kindred n ancestry, heritage AHD/W7
logarithm n power of ten AHD/W7
ordain vb to consecrate AHD/W7
order n rank, class, structure AHD/W7
ordinal adj re: specified serial order AHD/W7
ordinal n book of ordination rites AHD/W7
ordinance n law, regulation AHD/W7
ordinary adj normal, commonplace AHD/W7
ordinary n judicial prelate/clergyman AHD/W7
ordinate n Cartesian y-axis coordinate AHD/W7
ordo n Catholic calendrical list AHD/W7
ornament n decoration AHD/W7
ornate adj adorned, decked out AHD/W7
primordial adj original, extremely ancient AHD/W7
rate n speed AHD/W7
rathskeller n restaurant patterned after German Ratskeller AHD/W7
ratio n numeric fraction/proportion AHD/W7
ration n dole, measured portion AHD/W7
read, read vb to parse meanings of letters AHD/W7
reason n cognition, intellect AHD/W7
rede n advice, counsel; story, account W7
rede vb.trans to advise, give counsel; explain, interpret AHD/W7
rhyme n echo at end of word AHD/W7
riddle n cryptic saying AHD/W7
rite n religious practice AHD/W7
ritual adj re: rite(s) W7
ritual n form for (religious) ceremony W7
subordinate adj lesser, subject, serving AHD/W7
suborn vb.trans to compel to break the law AHD/W7
synarthrosis n immovable joint AHD/W7
Théodred prop.n Theoden's son in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: arm, erm n.masc arm ASD
hund-red, hunderd nbr.card hundred (100) ASD
rēd n rede ASD
rēda vb.str to rede, counsel ASD
rethe n.str.fem speech, word, account GED
rīm n number ASD
Frisian: arm, earm n arm ASD/CDC
artisan n artisan CDC
Old Dutch: aerm n arm CDC
Dutch: arm n.masc arm ASD
raad n rede LRC
raden vb to rede TLL
Old Saxon: an(t)-drādan vb to dread ASD
arm n.masc arm ASD
hunde-rod nbr.card hundred (100), long hundred (120) LRC
rād n rede ASD
rādan vb.str to rede, counsel ASD
reðia n.str.fem speech, word, account GED
reðinon vb to give account GED
reðion vb.wk to speak, say GED
un-rīm n number ASD
Old High German: ant-rātan vb to dread ASD
ant-reitjan vb.wk to settle, arrange, set in order ASD
ar(a)m n.masc arm ASD
ge-rīman vb to count, number ASD
hunde-rt nbr.card hundred (100) ASD
rāt n.masc rede IEW
rātan vb.str to rede, counsel W7
reda n.str.fem speech, word, account GED
redina n.str.fem account, explanation GED
redinōn vb.wk to speak, say GED
rīm n.str.masc number, calculation GED
rīmen vb.wk to count, number GED
Middle High German: arm n.masc arm ASD
ent-rāton vb to dread ASD
German: Alarm n.masc alarm LRC
Arithmetik n arithmetic CDC
Arm n.masc arm ASD
Armee n.fem army LRC
Ärmel n sleeve TLL
Harmonie n.fem harmony LRC
hundert nbr.card hundred (100) LRC
Ornament n.neut ornament LRC
Rat n rede LRC
raten vb to rede TLL
Rathaus n town hall TLL
Ration n.fem ration LRC
Ratskeller n.masc rathskeller, city-hall basement restaurant W7
Rede n.fem speech LRC
reden vb to speak, talk LRC
Reim n.masc rhyme LRC
reimen vb to rhyme LRC
Ritual n.neut ritual LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: armr n arm LRC
hund-raþ nbr.card hundred (100), long hundred (120) W7
ráð n.neut rede; means, expedient; plan; agreement LRC
ráða vb to rede, counsel; plot, discuss LRC
rœða, rœdd vb to speak LRC
Old Icelandic: ald-rœðr adj old GED
ātt-rœðr adj eighty-year-old GED
hund-rað nbr.card long/great hundred (120) GED
rīm n.str.masc calendar, calculation GED
Icelandic: armr n.masc arm ASD
(g)reiða vb.wk to arrange, get/make ready ASD/ICE
hund-rað nbr.card hundred (100) ASD
rāð n rede ASD
ráða vb.str to rede, counsel ASD
rím n number ASD
Danish: arithmetik n arithmetic CDC
arm n.masc/fem arm ASD
raade vb to rede TLL
raadhus n town hall TLL
råd n rede LRC
ærme n sleeve TLL
Swedish: arithmetik n arithmetic CDC
arm n.masc arm ASD
råd n rede SAO
råda vb to rede TLL
rådhus n town hall TLL
ärm n sleeve TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: arms n.masc arm ASD
ga-raidjan vb.wk to rede, counsel ASD
ga-raþjan vb to count GED/W7
ga-rēdan vb.str to rede, counsel ASD
raþjo n.wk.fem number, account, explanation GED
rōdjan vb.wk.I to speak LRC
Latin: adorno, adornāre vb to adorn W7
arithmetica n.fem arithmetic W7
arma, armōrum arms LRC
armarium n.neut chest W7
armātūra n.fem arms, armor, equipment ELD/W7
armilla n armlet, armillary AHD
armō, armāre, armātus vb to arm, equip W7
armus, armūs n.masc arm, shoulder W7
ars, artis n.fem art, skill LRC
articulus n.masc joint; division, article W7
artīre vb to instruct in arts AHD
artus, artūs n.masc limb, joint LRC
artus adj narrow, confined W7
coarctatus vb.ptc confined, drawn together W7
coarto, coartare vb to confine, draw together W7
exordior, exordīri vb to begin W7
exordium n.neut beginning, introduction W7
harmonia n.fem harmony W7
iners, inertis adj inert, unskilled W7
inertia n.fem inertia, slothfulness, lack of skill W7
inordinatus adj disorderly W7
ordinarius adj in order W7
ordino, ordināre, ordinatus vb to order, arrange W7
ordior, ordīri vb.dep to begin W7
ordo, ordinis n.masc line, order, series; group, class LRC
orior, orīrī, ortus vb.dep to arise LRC
ornamentum n.neut ornament W7
ornō, ornāre, ornātus vb to adorn, furnish, decorate W7
parte n.fem.abl according to a fixed proportion W7
primordium n.neut origin W7
primordius adj primordial W7
ratiō, ratiōnis n.fem ratio, account; tally, calculation GED
ratus, rata, ratum adj/vb.ptc fixed, counted, calculated GED
reor, reri vb.dep to think, count, calculate GED
rītus n.masc rite, custom, religous ceremony GED
suborno, subornare vb to suborn, corrupt W7
Vulgar Latin: *adrationāre vb to call to account AHD
*artitiānus n artisan AHD
ratio, rationis n.fem ration, measure; reason W7
rationo, rationare vb to compute, consider, deliberate W7
Late Latin: arismetica n arithmetic AHD
aristocratia n.fem aristocracy W7
coordinatio, coordinationis n.fem coordination W7
ordinalis adj of the order W7
ordino, ordināre vb to enroll in the orders W7
primordialis adj primordial, re: origin W7
Middle Latin: artesanus n artisan CDC
Medieval Latin: almārium n ambry, closet AHD
armata n.fem army, fleet W7
armilla n armillary W7
artista n lettered person AHD
ordinantia n.fem ordinance W7
ordo, ordinis n.masc ecclesiastical order W7
rata n.fem rate W7
subordinō, subordināre, subordinātus vb to subordinate W7
New Latin: applicata n.fem line applied in an orderly manner W7
artiodactylus n/adj artiodactyl CDC
diarthrosis n.fem articulation that permits free movement W7
enarthrosis n.fem enarthrosis W7
inertia n.fem inertia, lack of movement W7
logarithmus n.masc logarithm W7
Portuguese: arithmetica n arithmetic CDC
armada n army, armada CDC
armadilho n armadillo CDC
armadura n armature CDC
armar vb to arm CDC
armas n arms CDC
arte n art CDC
artesão n artisan CDC
articulo, artigo n article CDC
Spanish: arismética, aritmética n arithmetic CDC
armada n.fem ensemble of naval forces Sal/W7
armadillo n.masc armadillo W7
armado adj.masc armed W7
armadura n armature CDC
armar vb to arm CDC
armas n arms CDC
arte n art CDC
artesano n artisan CDC
artículo n article CDC
Old French: adourner vb to adorn AHD
alarme n alarm AHD
araisner, aranier vb.trans to arraign CDC/W7
arismetique n.fem arithmetic W7
aristocracie n aristocracy CDC
armaire n.fem armoire W7
armarie, almarie n.fem chest, closet, ambry AHD/W7
armature n armor, armature AHD
armee n army CDC
armer vb to arm W7
armes arms; hereditary heraldic devices W7
arm(e)ure n armor, equipment W7
art n.masc art, practice, discipline W7
article n article CDC
artiste n lettered person AHD
desarmer vb to disarm W7
ordener vb to ordain W7
ornement n.masc ornament W7
raison n.fem reason W7
Anglo-French: arainer, are(i)ner vb.trans to arraign CDC
ordinarie n ordinary; common meal W7
Middle French: adorner vb to adorn W7
alarme n.fem alarm, concern W7
araisner vb to arraign W7
aristocratie n.fem aristocracy W7
armée n.fem army W7
armoire n.fem armoire W7
armonie n.fem harmony W7
artisan n.masc artisan W7
desarmer vb to disarm W7
gendarme, gensdarmes n.masc gendarme, soldier, armed person W7
ordenance n.fem ordinance, art of arranging W7
ordre n.masc order W7
suborner vb to suborn W7
French: aristocratic n aristocracy CDC
arithmétique n arithmetic CDC
armature n armature CDC
armée n army CDC
armer vb to arm CDC
armillaire adj armillary W7
armoire n armoire AHD
art n.masc art CDC
article n article CDC
artisan n artisan AHD
artiste n artist AHD
coordination n.fem coordination W7
gendarme n.masc gendarme W7
ration n.fem ration W7
Old Occitan: arismetica n arithmetic CDC
armada n armada CDC
armadura n armature CDC
armar vb to arm CDC
armas n arms CDC
Old Italian: allarme n alarm AHD
arte n.masc art W7
artigiano n.masc artisan W7
Italian: allarme n.masc alarm LRC
aritmetica n arithmetic CDC
armadura, armatura n armature CDC
armare vb to arm CDC
armata n army, armada CDC
armi arms CDC
arte n art CDC
articolo, articulo n article CDC
artigiano n artisan CDC
Lithuanian: artì adv near LRC
ir̃ conj/pcl and LRC
rindà n row, line GED
Latvian: rīdā adv in rows GED
rīdams adv in rows GED
Old Church Slavonic: radi post for (the sake of), because of LRC
Albanian: armë n.fem arm: weapon LRC
Greek: anarthros adj not articulated AHD
arariskein vb to fit together W7
ἀρετῆ n.fem virtue LRC
arthron n.neut joint, articulation W7
arthroun vb to articulate W7
arthrōsis n.fem arthrosis W7
arithmein vb to count W7
arithmētikē n.fem arithmetic W7
arithmētikos adj arithmetical W7
arithmos n.masc number W7
ἀριστοκρατία n.fem aristocracy CDC
aristos adj.sup best W7
harmonia n.fem scale, harmony W7
ἁρμός n arm, joint, shoulder CDC
harmos n.masc joint W7
ἄρτι adv now LRC
ἄρτιος adj even, exact, perfect, complete CDC
ἄρτιος adj meet, right, proper; complete, perfect; fitted, suitable LS
δι-αρθρόω vb to articulate, divide by joints LRC
diarthrōsis n.fem diarthrosis W7
Ὅμερος prop.n.masc Homer LRC
synarthrōsis n.fem synarthrosis W7
Classical Armenian: ard adv now; so, then LRC
armukn n elbow LRC
č'arač'ar adj terrible LRC
č'ar adj/n bad; evil LRC
Sanskrit: īrma n.masc arm ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
abl=ablative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
Sal=Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española (1996)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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