Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ar(ə)-   'to ear, plow'

Semantic Field(s): to Plow; Plow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: airim vb to ear LRC
Old English: ærian, ærede, æred vb.wk.I to ear LRC
erian, erig(e)an, erede, ered vb.wk.I to ear ASD
Middle English: ærien vb to ear OED
arable adj arable AHD
English: arable adj plowable, tillable AHD/W7
ear vb to plow, till (the ground) OED
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: era vb to ear OED
Old Dutch: erien vb to ear OED
Old High German: erran, erren vb to ear OED
Middle High German: er(e)n vb to ear OED
Early New High German: aren vb to ear OED
German: ären, eren vb to ear ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: erja vb to ear OED
Icelandic: erja vb to ear ASD
Swedish: ärja vb to ear ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: arjan vb to ear LRC
Latin: arabilis adj arable W7
arō, arāre vb to ear W7
Old French: arable adj arable AHD
Middle French: arable adj arable W7
French: arable adj arable CDC
Lithuanian: árti vb to ear LRC
Old Church Slavonic: orati vb to ear LRC
Homeric Greek: ἀρόω vb to ear LRC
Greek: ἀροῦν vb to ear CDC
Armenian: araur n plow LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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