Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: at-   'to go; year, annum'

Semantic Field(s): Year


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: anniversarie n anniversary W7
annual adj annual W7
annuite n annuity W7
English: annals history, chronicles AHD/W7
anniversary n annual recurrence of date marking notable event AHD/W7
annual adj yearly AHD/W7
annual n 1-year/annual event W7
annuity n annual payment AHD/W7
annum n year OED
biennium n 2-year period AHD/W7
decennary adj/n (re:) decennium AHD
decennium n 10-year period AHD/W7
millennium n 1000-year period AHD/W7
perennial adj everlasting, lit. through years AHD/W7
quadrennium n 4-year period AHD/W7
quindecennial adj re: 15-year period AHD
quinquennium n 5-year period AHD/W7
septennial adj (happening) every 7 years AHD/W7
sexennial adj (happening) every 6 years AHD
superannuated adj outmoded AHD/W7
triennium n 3-year period AHD/W7
vicennial adj (happening) every 20 years AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Annalen annals LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *at-aþni n.neut year GED
*aþn n.neut year GED
aþnam years GED/W7
Oscan: acunum of years GED
akeneí n.abl in the year GED
Umbrian: acnu years GED
Latin: annales annals W7
annalis adj annual W7
anniversārius adj recurring annually W7
annus, anni n.masc annum GED
annuus adj annual, lasting one year W7
biennium n.neut 2-year period GED
decennium n.neut 10-year period W7
-ennium sfx year(s) W7
perennis adj lasting the entire year GED
quadriennium n.neut 4-year period W7
quinquennium n.neut 5-year period W7
quotannis adv yearly, annually LRC
triennium n.neut 3-year period GED
Late Latin: annualis adj annual W7
septennium n.neut 7-year period W7
vicennium n.neut 20-year period W7
Medieval Latin: anniversāria n anniversary AHD
annuitas, annuitatis n.fem annuity W7
superannuor, superannuari, superannuatus vb.dep to be too old W7
New Latin: biennium n.neut every 2 years W7
-ennium sfx year(s) W7
millennium n.neut 1000-year period W7
Old French: annuel adj annual AHD
Anglo-French: annuite n annuity AHD
Middle French: annuel adj annual W7
annuité n.fem annuity, annual tax/rent W7
Sanskrit: átati vb to go, walk GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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