Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ā̆tos, atta   'daddy, mommy (nursery word)'

Semantic Field(s): Parent(s)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: æðel, ǣðel, ēðel n.masc/neut homeland, property, inheritance; (name for) OE-rune ASD
æðele, eðele adj noble ASD
æþeling n atheling W7
æþelu n nobility W7
ēðel-land, ēðel-lond n.neut native land ASD
Middle English: atheling n atheling W7
English: atavism n throwback, recurrence of ancestral form AHD/W7
athelas n healing herb in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
atheling n prince, nobleman AHD/W7
Athelney prop.n lit. princes' island CDC
tawdry adj/n cheap and gaudy (finery) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ethel, edel adj noble ASD
ēthel n.masc home, native land ASD
eþeling, edling n atheling CDC
Old Saxon: eðili adj noble ASD
eðiling n atheling CDC
ōðil n.masc home, native land ASD
Old High German: adal n nobility W7
adaling n atheling CDC
edili adj noble ASD
uodal n.neut home, native land ASD
Middle High German: edele adj noble ASD
German: Adel n.masc peerage, nobility, aristocracy LRC
adeln vb to ennoble, bestow peerage LRC
adlig adj noble LRC
North Germanic  
Runic: oþila n homeland, inheritance; (name for) O-rune LRC
Icelandic: ōðal n.neut home, native land ASD
Swedish: ädel adj noble ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: atta n.wk.masc father LRC
Latin: atavus n.masc ancestor, forefather, grandfather's grandfather AHD/ELD
atta n father AHD
Middle Latin: adalingus, adelingus n atheling CDC
French: atavisme n atavism AHD
Albanian: atdhe n.masc fatherland LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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