Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. b(e)u-, bh(e)ū̆-   'to boil, swell, puff up'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bolach vb to boil GED
Irish: bost n boast CDC
púca n puck, imp, sprite LRC
Gaelic: bost n boast CDC
Cornish: bost n boast CDC
Welsh: bost n boast CDC
pwca n puck, goblin ASD
Old English: bēost, bȳst(ing) n.masc beasting(s) W7/ASD
bīle, bȳl(e) n.masc boil, bump ASD/GED
būc n.masc jug, bucket, pitcher; belly, stomach IEW/ASD
budda n dung-beetle IEW
ge-pōs n.neut pose ASD
pocc n.masc pock W7/ASD
pocca n.masc bag, pocket W7/ASD
pos n pose IEW
pūca, pūcel n.masc puck, goblin W7/ASD
pudd n.masc ditch, furrow, puddle W7/ASD
pyffan vb to puff W7
Middle English: be(e)stynge, bestninge n beasting(s) W7/CDC
big(ge), byg(ge) adj big, strong, lusty IEW/MEV/CDC
biging n dwelling MEV
bile n boil W7
bill(e) n bill W7/CDC
billette n billet CDC
bocle n buckle W7
boilen, boylen vb to boil W7/CDC
boost(e), bost(e) n boast; pride, arrogance W7/MEV/CDC
boule, bowle n bowl W7/CDC
bucket n bucket W7
budde n bud; beetle IEW
budden vb to bud IEW
bugge n bug, beetle IEW
bullace bolas CDC
bulle n bull W7
bullion n bullion W7
byle n boil CDC
bylet n billet W7
parboilen vb to boil thoroughly W7
pochen vb to poach W7
podel n puddle IEW
poke n poke W7
poket n pocket W7
pokke n pock W7
pouche n pouch W7
pouten vb to pout W7
puffen vb to puff W7
puke n puck W7
trebochet n trebuchet W7
English: beastings, biestings colostrum (esp. of cow) IEW/W7
big adj thick, large, of great size/force IEW
bill n written document AHD/W7
billet n note, brief letter AHD/W7
billet-doux n love letter AHD/W7
boast n brag, act of boasting AHD/W7
bocaccio n large rockfish AHD/W7
boil n localized swelling due to skin gland infection AHD/W7
boil vb to generate vapor bubbles when heated AHD/W7
bola n stone/iron balls bound to cords (used as weapon) AHD/W7
boucle n uneven 3-ply yarn with loops at intervals AHD/W7
bouillabaisse n highly seasoned fish stew AHD/W7
bouillon n clear seasoned soup made of lean meat AHD/W7
boule n pear-shaped mass of synthetic sapphire AHD/W7
bouleversement n reversal AHD
bowl n ball used in bowling AHD/W7
bubo n inflammatory swelling of lymph gland AHD/W7
buccal adj relating to the oral cavity AHD/W7
buckboard n sprung-seated four-wheeled vehicle AHD/W7
bucket n round vessel for solids/liquids IEW/W7
buckle n catch, fastener AHD/W7
Bucklebury prop.n hobbit town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
bud n undeveloped plant shoot IEW/W7
bud vb to burgeon, come out, commence growth IEW/W7
budge vb to shift, move AHD/W7
bug n insect IEW
bull n solemn papal letter sealed by bulla AHD/W7
bulla n round lead seal attached to papal bull AHD/W7
bullate adj re: puckered/blistered appearance AHD
bullet n small round mass AHD/W7
bulletin n brief authoritative public notice AHD/W7
bullion n gold/silver considered as metal AHD/W7
bully n canned/pickled beef AHD
debouch vb to march out (from defile) onto open ground AHD/W7
disembogue vb to flow as if from channel AHD/W7
ebullience n exuberance, lively/enthusiastic expression AHD/W7
embouchure n lip position on wind instrument AHD/W7
garboil n turmoil, confusion AHD/W7
parboil vb.trans to boil briefly as a preliminary AHD/W7
poach vb.trans to cook in liquid just below boiling point AHD/W7
pock n pustule in eruptive disease (e.g. smallpox) AHD/W7
pocket n purse, small bag in clothing AHD/W7
poke n sack, bag AHD/W7
pose n catarrh, head-cold IEW/OED
pouch n small drawstring bag AHD/W7
pout vb to show displeasure via sullen expression AHD/W7
puck n demon, evil spirit W7
pucker vb to gather into small folds/wrinkles AHD
puckish adj impish, whimsical W7
puddle n small pool of dirty/muddy water IEW/W7
puff vb to blow in short gust AHD/W7
Púkel-men Wose-like statues in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
trebuchet n medieval military engine for heaving missiles AHD/W7
Scots English: böl n bowl CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: bēl, beil n.fem boil, bump GED/ASD
būlen vb to boil, swell GED
Middle Dutch: bule n boil CDC
buylen vb to boil, swell GED
pocke n pock W7
Dutch: buik n belly TLL
buil n.fem boil ASD
Middle Low German: bǖle n.fem boil, bump GED
Low German: bule, büle n boil CDC
pudel n puddle W7
Old High German: būlia n.fem boil, bump GED
pūlla n.fem boil, bump GED
Middle High German: biule n.fem boil, bump GED
German: Bauch n.masc belly, stomach TLL
Beule n.fem boil ASD
beulen vb to bulge LRC
Puffen n.neut puffing sound LRC
puffen vb to puff, chuff LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: beyla n.fem boil ASD
pūki n puck, devil W7
Old Icelandic: Beyla prop.n Freyja's servant GED
bōla n.fem blain, shield boss GED
Icelandic: beyla n boil CDC
bōla n blain, blister CDC
púki n puck, imp, devil ASD
Norwegian: bolen vb.past.ptc swollen GED
bōla n boil, bump GED
Danish: bug n belly TLL
bu(g)le n.masc/fem boil ASD/CDC
byld n blain, blister CDC
pokker n puck, deuce, devil ASD
Old Swedish: bolin vb.past.ptc swollen GED
Swedish: buk n belly TLL
bula n.fem boil ASD
böld n blain, blister CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *uf-bauljan vb.wk.I to inflate GED
Latin: bucca n.fem cheek, mouth W7
buccula n.fem.dim little cheek/mouth W7
bulla n.fem bubble, amulet W7
bullio, bullire vb to boil, bubble W7
bullo, bullare vb to boil, bubble CDC
Vulgar Latin: *bilia n log AHD
bullico, bullicare vb to boil W7
Late Latin: perbullio, perbullīre vb to boil W7
Middle Latin: billeta n.dim billet CDC
Medieval Latin: billa n.fem bill W7
bubo, bubonis n.masc pustule W7
bulla n bulla, document seal AHD
New Latin: bulla n.fem bulla, bubble W7
Portuguese: bola n bowl CDC
bulir vb to boil, move, stir, be active CDC
Spanish: boca n.fem mouth W7
bocacha n.fem mouth W7
bola n.fem ball, bowl W7
bullir vb to boil CDC
desembocar vb to vomit W7
embocar vb to put into the mouth W7
Old French: billette n billet, official register AHD
boillir vb to boil W7
boillon n.masc broth W7
boule n bowl CDC
bulle n document AHD
pochier vb to pocket, put into a bag W7
Old North French: pokete n.fem.dim small bag W7
Anglo-French: bille n bill CDC
billette n billet CDC
buket n bucket, pitcher W7
bullion n.masc mint W7
Middle French: billette n.fem.dim log W7
bocle n.fem buckle, shield boss W7
bouger vb to move, budge W7
boule n.fem ball W7
boulet n.masc missile W7
boulette n.fem.dim small ball W7
bulle n.fem document W7
garbouil n.masc garboil W7
parboillir vb to parboil W7
pocher vb to poach; put into a bag W7
trébuchet n.masc trebuchet W7
French: billet(te) n billet CDC
bouche n.fem mouth W7
boucle n.fem curl, buckle W7
bouclé adj curly W7
boucler vb to curl, fasten (e.g. belt buckle) W7
bouillabaisse n bouillabaisse W7
bouillir vb to boil CDC
bouillon n.masc broth, bouillon W7
boule n.fem ball, bowl W7
bouleversement n bouleversement W7
bulletin n.masc report, bulletin W7
déboucher vb to unplug W7
embouchure n.fem embouchure W7
Old Occitan: bola n bowl CDC
Provençal: bulhir, buillir vb to boil CDC
Italian: boccaccia n.fem large ugly mouth CDC
bolla, bulla n bowl CDC
bollire vb to boil CDC
bulla n.fem papal edict W7
bullettino n.masc.dim little bulletin W7
Lithuanian: bulìs n buttock GED
Slovenian: búliti vb to swell GED
Greek: boubōn n.masc groin W7
Armenian: boil n herd, multitude GED
Sanskrit: buriṣ n buttock GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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