Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: blou-, bhlou-?, plou-   'flea'

Semantic Field(s): Insect


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fleā, fleah n.masc flea ASD/W7
Middle English: fle(e) n flea CDC
English: flea n wingless bloodsucking insect adapted to leaping AHD/W7
psylla n plant louse/pest AHD/W7
psyllium n annual Eurasian plant AHD
puce n dark red, flea-color AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: vloo n.fem flea ASD/CDC
Middle Low German: vlō, vloe n flea CDC
Low German: flo, flö n flea ASD/CDC
Old High German: flō(c)h n.masc flea ASD/W7
Middle High German: vlōch n.masc flea ASD/CDC
German: Floh n.masc flea CDC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: flō n.fem flea ASD/CDC
Latin: pulex, pulicis n.masc flea W7
Spanish: pulga n.fem flea LRC
Old French: pulce n flea CDC
French: puce n.fem flea; puce W7
Greek: ψύλλα n.fem flea LRC
Sanskrit: pluṣi n plant louse W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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