Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhag-   'to divide, apportion'

Semantic Field(s): to Divide


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: ysophagus n esophagus W7
English: baksheesh n tip, gift, windfall, gratuity AHD/W7
bhakti n devotion to deity (Hinduism) AHD/W7
buckshee n baksheesh AHD/W7
esophagus n muscular tube leading from pharynx to stomach AHD/W7
nebbish n timid weak-willed person AHD
pagoda n Far Eastern tower erected as temple/memorial AHD/W7
-phage n.sfx one that eats AHD/W7
-phagous adj.sfx re: eating AHD/W7
porgy n white perch: marine food fish AHD
West Germanic  
Yiddish: nebekh adj poor, unfortunate AHD
New Latin: -phagia n.sfx -phage W7
Portuguese: pagoda n.fem oriental idol/temple W7
Czech: neboh adj poor, unfortunate, lit. not rich AHD
Old Church Slavonic: bogatъ adj rich LRC
bogatěti, bogatějǫ, bogatěješi vb to be rich LRC
bogъ n.masc god LRC
ubogъ adj poor, not rich LRC
Greek: oisophagos n.masc esophagus W7
phagein vb to eat W7
-phagos afx who eats W7
Middle Persian: bakhshīdan vb to give presents AHD
bakhshishn n baksheesh AHD
Persian: bakhshīdan vb to give W7
bakhshīsh n baksheesh W7
Avestan: bakhsh- vb to give presents AHD
Sanskrit: bhakti n portion; devotion to deity W7
bhájati vb to receive, distribute RPN
Hindi: bakhsis n baksheesh, something extra obtained free W7
Tocharian B: pāke n part, portion RPN
Tocharian A: pāk n part, portion RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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