Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhāgó-s   'beech (tree)'

Semantic Field(s): Beech, Tree, Oak


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bēce, bǣce, beōce n.wk.fem beech GED/ASD
bōc, bēc n.str.fem book(s), record(s) GED
bōc n.wk.fem beech GED
bōcere n.str.masc writer GED
bōc-hūs n.neut library, lit. book-house MEV
bōc-stǣf n.str.neut letter (of alphabet) GED
Middle English: beche n beech W7
boc, bok(e), book(e) n book MEV/W7
boc-hous n library, lit. book-house MEV
English: beech n grey/white smooth-barked hardwood tree AHD/W7
Beechbone prop.n Ent name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
book n written work with pages bound together AHD/W7
buckwheat n Asian plant with small edible triangular seeds AHD/W7
Scots English: buik, beuk, buke n book CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: bōk n.str.fem book GED
Frisian: boek n.neut book ASD
bok n.fem book ASD
Old Dutch: boeke n beech CDC
Middle Dutch: boeck n book CDC
Dutch: beuk(e) n.fem beech ASD
boec n beech W7
boek n.neut book CDC/ASD
boekweit n buckwheat W7
Flemish: boek n beech CDC
Old Saxon: bōk n.str.fem/neut book, writing-tablet GED
bōk(ia) n.wk.fem beech GED
bōk-staƀo n.wk.masc letter (of alphabet) GED
bōk-staf n.str.masc letter (of alphabet) GED
Old Low German: bōk n book CDC
bōke, bóke n beech CDC
Low German: baike n beech CDC
book n book CDC
Old High German: bōk n beech CDC
buocha n.wk.fem beech GED
buoh, bōh n.str.neut book GED/ASD
buohha n beech tree W7
buohhāri n.str.masc scribe GED
buoh-stap n.str.masc letter (of alphabet) GED
Middle High German: buoch n.neut book CDC/ASD
buoche n beech CDC
buoch-stabe n.wk.masc letter (of alphabet) GED
Buohhunna prop.n Beech Wood GED
German: Buch n.neut book CDC
Buche n.fem beech ASD
Buchstabe n.masc letter (of alphabet) LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bók n.str.fem book LRC
Old Icelandic: bōk, bøkr n.str.fem book(s) GED
bōk n.str.fem beech GED
bōk-stafr n.str.masc letter (of alphabet) GED
Icelandic: baukr n box GED
beyki n beech forest GED
bōk n.fem book CDC
Danish: bog n book CDC
bøg n beech CDC/TLL
Swedish: bok n beech CDC
bok n.fem book CDC/ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: bōk n.neut letter (of alphabet) CDC
*bōka n beech CDC
bōk(a) n.fem/ (letters comprising) book, writing, document CDC
boka n.fem book, letter (of alphabet) GED
bokareis n.masc scribe, writer GED
Latin: fāgus n.fem beech(-tree) GED
Middle Latin: Boconia prop.n Beech Wood GED
Lithuanian: bùkas, bū̃kas n beech GED
Polish: buk n beech CDC
buk n beech GED
Czech: buk n beech CDC
Serbian: bukva n beech CDC
Old Church Slavonic: bukva n.fem book ASD
bukvamъ letters GED
bukvarǐ n abecedarium CDC
bukui, bukuve n beech CDC
bukui n letter CDC
bukui (letters comprising) writing CDC
bukъvi epistle, document GED
Bulgarian: buk n beech CDC
Russian: buz n alder GED
buziná n.fem alder GED
bukva n letter CDC
bukŭ n beech CDC
Albanian: bungë n oak GED
Doric: φᾱγός n oak, acorn GED
Attic: φαγεῖν vb to eat GED
φηγός n.fem oak, acorn GED
Sanskrit: bhákṣati vb to eat GED
bhájati vb to distribute GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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