Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. bher-   'to bore, cut, scrape, use sharp tool'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut, Sharp, Tool


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: barra n bar, spike CDC
Gaelic: barra n bar, spike CDC
Breton: barren n bar, branch CDC
Cornish: bara n bar CDC
Welsh: bar n bar, rail CDC
Old English: bearg, bearh n.masc barrow ASD/W7
bor n auger, gimlet RPN
borian vb to bore, pierce RPN
Middle English: barow(e), bar(r)ow, baru n barrow CDC/W7
barr(e) n bar CDC/W7
bor(i)en vb to bore CDC/W7
English: bar n barrier, straight solid wood/metal implement IEW
barrow n male hog castrated prior to sexual maturity AHD/W7
bore vb to pierce with rotary tool AHD/W7
borer n rotary tool for boring LRC
burin n stone-cutting tool with sharp beveled point AHD
Dukhobor prop.n (member of) Russian Christian movement AHD
foramen n fenestra: small opening/orifice/perforation AHD/W7
perforate vb to make hole(s) in AHD/W7
pharynx n alimentary canal between mouth and esophagus AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Frisian: baerg n.masc barrow ASD
Dutch: barg n.masc barrow ASD
berg n barrow CDC
boor n borer, auger, gimlet CDC
boren vb to bore CDC
Middle Low German: barc n barrow CDC
bor n borer, auger, gimlet CDC
Old High German: bar(u)g, barc n.masc barrow ASD/W7
boro n auger RPN
borōn vb to bore RPN
Middle High German: bar(re) n bar CDC
born vb to bore CDC
German: Barre n bar, ingot CDC
bohren vb to bore LRC
Bohrer n.masc borer, auger, gimlet LRC
Borg-schwein n.neut barrow ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: barki n throat W7
berja, barði, bariðr vb to beat, smite; (refl.) fight LRC
Old Icelandic: bora vb to bore (holes in) RPN
borr n borer, auger, gimlet RPN
Icelandic: bora vb to bore CDC
borr n borer, auger, gimlet CDC
börgr n barrow CDC
Danish: barre n bar, ingot CDC
bor n borer, auger, gimlet CDC
bore vb to bore CDC
Swedish: borr n borer, auger, gimlet CDC
borra vb to bore CDC
Latin: feriō, ferīre vb to strike, cut, kill W7
forāmen, forāminis n.neut hole, opening W7
forō, forāre vb to bore, pierce RPN
informis, informis, informe adj hideous, unshapely LRC
perforo, perforare, perforatus vb to pierce, perforate W7
Late Latin: barra n bar CDC
New Latin: pharynx, pharyngis n.masc pharynx W7
Portuguese: barra n bar CDC
Spanish: barra n bar CDC
Old French: barre n bar W7
French: barre n bar CDC
Old Occitan: barra n bar CDC
Italian: barra n bar CDC
Old Church Slavonic: borjǫ, brati vb to fight RPN
Russian: barŭ n bar CDC
bort' n hollowed-out tree RPN
Albanian: brimë n hole RPN
Homeric Greek: φάρυγξ n.fem throat, gullet, pharynx LS
Greek: φαράω vb to plow RPN
φάρμακον n.neut paint, color LRC
φαρόω vb to plow RPN
pharynx n.masc/fem throat, pharynx W7
Classical Armenian: beran n mouth LRC
Armenian: brem vb to dig, drill (out) RPN
Sanskrit: bhára-ḥ n war, battle, contest RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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