Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. bher-   'shining; bright brown'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten, Bright, Dark in Color


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Gaelic: beabhar n beaver CDC
Cornish: befr n beaver CDC
Old English: beofor, befer n beaver RPN/CDC
beorn, birn n.masc man, prince, hero, warrior ASD
bera adj brown GED
bera n.masc bear RPN/ASD
brūn adj brown, dark RPN
Middle English: bere n bear W7
bever n beaver W7
broun(e), browne adj brown W7/MEV
burnet n burnet W7
burnischen vb to burnish W7
English: bear n large heavy mammal with long shaggy hair AHD/W7
beaver n large semiaquatic rodent with broad flat tail AHD/W7
Beorn prop.n heroic bear-man in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
berserk(er) n (Norse) warrior frenzied in battle AHD/W7
brown adj very dull dark reddish color AHD/W7
bruin n bear (large mammal) AHD/W7
brunet adj (with hair) of dark brown color AHD/W7
burnet n herb with stipulate odd-pinnate leaves AHD/W7
burnish vb.trans to polish, make shiny/lustrous by rubbing AHD/W7
Grimbeorn prop.n Beorn's son in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: brun adj brown ASD
Frisian: brun adj brown ASD
Middle Dutch: bere adj brown GED
Dutch: beer n.masc bear ASD
bever n beaver CDC
bruin adj brown ASD
bruin n bruin W7
Low German: baar n bear CDC
bever n beaver CDC
Old High German: bero, pero n bear RPN/ASD
bero adj brown GED/IEW
bibar n beaver RPN
brūn adj brown RPN
Middle High German: ber n bear ASD
biber n beaver CDC
brūn adj brown ASD
German: Bär n.masc bear ASD
Bieber n.masc beaver LRC
braun adj brown ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ber-serkr n.masc giant, lit. bear-sark (bear-shirt) ICE
björn n.masc bear RPN/ASD
Old Icelandic: bjórr n beaver RPN
bjǫrn adj brown GED/IEW
brúnn adj brown RPN
Icelandic: berserkr n berserk CDC
bjōrr n beaver CDC
björn n.masc bear ASD
brūnn adj brown ASD
Danish: bjørn n.masc bear TLL
bruun adj brown ASD
bæver n beaver CDC
Swedish: björn n.masc bear ASD
brun adj brown ASD
bäfver n beaver CDC
Old Latin: biber n beaver CDC
Latin: fiber n beaver RPN
Spanish: bibaro n beaver CDC
Old French: brun adj brown W7
brunette n.fem dark brown fabric W7
burnete n.fem (genus of) herb W7
Middle French: brun adj brown W7
brunir, brunissé vb to make brown W7
French: bièvre n beaver CDC
brun adj brown TLL
brunet, brunette adj brown(ish) W7
Old Occitan: vibre n beaver CDC
Italian: bevero n beaver CDC
Old Prussian: bebrus n beaver CDC
Lithuanian: bebrùs n beaver RPN
bėras adj brown GED/IEW
Latvian: bebris n beaver CDC
Polish: bóbr n beaver RPN
Czech: bobr n beaver CDC
Old Church Slavonic: *bebrъ n beaver RPN
bĭbrŭ, bŏbrŭ n beaver CDC
Russian: bobr n beaver RPN
bobrŭ n beaver CDC
Greek: φρῦνος, φρύνη n toad RPN
Sanskrit: babhrú-ḥ adj ruddy, brown RPN
bhallas n bear GED/IEW
bhallū́kas n bear GED/IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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