Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhes-   'to spread, smear, rub on'

Semantic Field(s): to Strew, Spread Out, to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Breton: bezo n.masc birch ASD
Old English: bes(e)ma n.masc besom ASD/KEW
sand n.masc sand AHD/ASD
Middle English: beseme n besom W7
sand n sand W7
English: besom n broom: twigs/fibers on long handle for sweeping LRC
epsilon n 5th letter of Greek alphabet AHD
palimpsest n writing material reused after erasure of earlier writing AHD/W7
psephology n study of political elections AHD
psilomelane n hydrous black manganese oxide AHD
sabulous adj sandy, gritty AHD/W7
sand n loose granular material produced by rock disintegration AHD/W7
Sandheaver prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
sandy adj re: sand (in color/composition) W7
Sandyman prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
upsilon n 20th letter of Greek alphabet AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Frisian: besma n.masc besom ASD
Old Dutch: bes(s)em n.masc besom ASD
Dutch: bezem n.masc besom TLL
zand n sand TLL
Old High German: besamo, besemo n besom ASD/KDW
sant n sand W7
German: Besen n.masc besom ASD/TLL
Epsilon n epsilon LRC
Sand n.masc sand LRC
sandig adj sandy, gritty LRC
North Germanic  
Danish: sand n sand TLL
Swedish: sand n sand TLL
Latin: palimpsestus n.masc/fem parchment scraped twice W7
sabulosus adj sandy W7
sabulum n.neut coarse sand W7
Greek: palimpsēstos adj scraped again W7
psammos n.fem sand W7
psēn vb to rub, scrape W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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