Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. bheug-, bheugh-   'to bow, flex, bend, crook'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bocc adj soft W7
Irish: bog adj soft, moist, tender CDC
bogach n bog, moor, morass CDC
Scots Gaelic: bog adj soft, moist, tender CDC
bogan n bog, morass, quagmire CDC
Old English: bē(a)g, bē(a)h, bǣh n.masc bee, crown, garland, collar, bracelet W7/ASD
bōg n bough W7
boga n.masc bow: arch W7/ASD
būgan, bēah, bugon, bogen vb to bow: submit W7/ASD
būhsum adj buxom W7
bȳgan, bīg(e)an, bēgan vb.wk.trans to bow: bend, flex, curve CDC
byht n.masc bight W7/ASD
forbūgan, forbēah, forbugon, forbogen vb.str.II to flee from LRC
regn-boga n.masc rainbow ASD
stān-boga n.masc arch, bridge, lit. stone-bow ASD
Middle English: beghe, byghe, by(e), bie, beh n bee W7/MEV/CDC
beyen, beien vb to bow: bend, flex, curve OED
bight, bycht, byzt n bight W7/CDC
bogge n bog CDC
boghe, boze n bow: submission CDC
bowe n bow: arch W7
bowen vb to bow W7
buxsum adj buxom W7
English: akimbo adj/adv with hand on hip and elbow turned outward AHD/W7
bagel n hard doughnut-shaped roll AHD/W7
bee n.obs metal ring/torque OED
bight n bend, angle, corner AHD/W7
bog n marsh, wet spongy ground AHD/W7
bow n arch, bend, something bent/curved AHD/W7
bow n submission, bending of head/body W7
bow vb to yield, defer, submit AHD/W7
bow vb to flex, bend into curve AHD/W7
buxom adj yielding, tractable, obedient AHD/W7
rainbow n rain/mist/spray reflecting/refracting sun's rays in colored arc TLL
Stonebows a.k.a. Brandywine Bridge in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: boga n.masc bow: arch ASD
Frisian: boage n bow: arch ASD
Middle Dutch: būghen vb to bow: submit OED
Dutch: bocht n bight CDC
bogt n.fem bight ASD
boog n.masc bow: arch ASD
buigen vb to bow: submit OED
regenboog n rainbow TLL
Old Saxon: bāg n bee CDC
bōg n.masc bee ASD
bogo n.masc bow: arch ASD
*būgan vb to bow: submit CDC/OED
Middle Low German: boge n bow: arch CDC
būgen vb to bow: submit OED
Old High German: biogan vb to bow: submit W7/OED
bogo n.masc bow: arch ASD
boug, bouc n bee W7/CDC
pouc n.masc bee ASD
Middle High German: biegen vb to bow: bend, flex, curve OED
boge n.masc bow: arch ASD
bouc n.masc bee ASD
*böugel n.dim little ring AHD
German: beugen vb to bow: submit LRC
biegen vb to bow: bend, flex, curve LRC
Boge(n) n.masc bow: arch ASD
Bucht n.fem bight ASD
Bügel n hoop, handle LRC
Regenbogen n rainbow TLL
Yiddish: beygel n bagel W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: baugr n.masc bee ASD
*bjúga vb to bow: submit OED
bōgr n bow: arch W7
Icelandic: baugr n bee CDC
bogi n.masc bow: arch ASD
buga vb.wk to bow: submit CDC
bygð n.fem bight ASD
stein-bogi n stone arch ASD
Danish: bue n bow: arch ASD
bugt n.masc/fem bight ASD
regnbue n rainbow TLL
Old Swedish: boghi n bow: arch CDC
Swedish: buga vb.wk to bow: submit CDC
bugt n.masc bight ASD
båge n.masc bow: arch ASD
regnbåge n rainbow TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: biugan vb to bow: submit OED
bugjan vb.wk.I to buy LRC
Crimean Gothic: boga n bow: arch CGo
Sanskrit: bhujati vb to bend W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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