Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhlag̑-   'to hit, flog, flail'

Semantic Field(s): to Hit, Strike, Beat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: flegel n flail W7
Middle English: bakke, backe n bat CDC/W7
flagicious adj flagitious W7
flail, fleil n flail W7
English: bat n nocturnal flying mammal AHD/W7
flagellate adj having flagellae AHD/W7
flagellate n flagellate protozoan/alga AHD/W7
flagellate vb.trans to flail, whip AHD/W7
flagellum n elongated filiform appendages, as AHD/W7
flagitious adj villainous, marked by outrageous/scandalous crime/vice AHD/W7
flail n threshing implement AHD/W7
flail vb to thrash, strike/thresh with flail W7
flog vb.trans to lash, beat with rod/whip AHD/W7
Scots English: bak, buck n bat CDC
West Germanic  
Old High German: flegil n flail W7
German: Flegel n.masc flail; boor, brat LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: blaka vb to wave W7
Icelandic: blaka n bat CDC
Danish: bakke n bat CDC
Old Swedish: bakka n bat CDC
nattbakka n bat W7
Swedish: batta, blacka n bat CDC
Latin: blatta n cockroach CDC
flagellō, flagellāre, flagellāvī, flagellātus vb to flail, whip, lash W7
flagellum n.neut.dim flail, whip W7
flagitiosus adj shameful W7
flagitium n.neut shameful thing W7
flagrum n.neut whip, lash W7
Middle Latin: b(l)atta, blacta n bat CDC
New Latin: Flagellata class of unicellular organisms W7
flagellatus vb.ptc flagellated, having flagellae W7
Middle French: flaiel n.masc flail W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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