PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: bhok- 'to burn?'
Semantic Field(s): to Burn, Scorch
|English:||focus||n||point of concentration||TLL|
|fusil||n||light flintlock musket||W7|
|fusilier, fusileer||n||soldier armed with fusil||W7|
|fusillade||n||many shots fired successively/simultaneously||W7|
|Latin:||focus, focī||n.masc||hearth, fireplace||LRC|
|Middle Latin:||focus, focī||n.masc||seat/central point of disease||CDC|
|New Latin:||focus, focī||n.masc||focus, point where light rays from lens converge||CDC|
|fusiller||vb||to fire, shoot||W7|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|CDC||=||W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|
|TLL||=||Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|