Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhoso-s   'bare, naked'

Semantic Field(s): to Clothe, Dress, Clothes, Clothing


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bær adj bare W7
bær-fōt adj barefoot MEV
bærlīce adv barely MEV
Middle English: bare, bair adj bare W7/MEV
barely adv barely, summarily MEV
barfot adj barefoot MEV
English: bare adj naked, without covering AHD/W7
barefoot adj/adv unshod, without footwear W7
barely adv plainly, openly, in meager manner W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: baer adj bare OED
Dutch: baar adj bare OED
Old Saxon: bar adj bare OED
Old High German: bar, par adj bare W7/ASD
Middle High German: bar adj bare ASD
German: bar adj bare LRC
barfuss adj barefoot LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: berr adj bare ASD
Danish: bar adj bare OED
Swedish: bar adj bare ASD
bara adv only, barely OED
Lithuanian: basas adj barefoot W7/LD
bosus adj bare ASD
Old Slavic: bosiĭ adj barefoot OED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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