Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhrēi-, bhrī̆-   'to fray, pierce, cut with sharp tool'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: brissim I break W7
Welsh: briw n wound RPN
Old English: brȳne n brine, salt liquor W7/ASD
Middle English: brine n brine W7
English: affricate n vocal stop with immediately following release AHD/W7
brine n saltwater, saline solution IEW
brisance n crushing/shattering effect of explosive AHD/W7
debris n ruins, remains of something destroyed/broken down AHD/W7
dentifrice n liquid/paste/powder for cleaning teeth AHD/W7
fray vb to fret, wear (cloth edge) by rubbing AHD/W7
friable adj easily crumbled/pulverized AHD/W7
fricative adj re: frictional passage of breath through narrowing in vocal tract AHD/W7
friction n (resistance to) moving one thing in contact with another AHD/W7
frottage n (producing effect via) rubbing AHD
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: brīne n brine W7
German: Affrikata n affricate W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: brandr n.masc piece of firewood LRC
Latin: affricō, affricāre, affricuī, affricātus vb to rub against W7
friabilis adj friable W7
fricō, fricāre, fricuī, frictus vb to rub W7
frictio, frictionis n.fem friction W7
frio, friare vb to crumble W7
Old French: brisier vb to break W7
debrisier vb to break to pieces W7
Middle French: débris n.masc debris W7
debriser vb to break to pieces W7
dentifrice n.masc toothpaste W7
frayer, froyer vb to rub, expend W7
friable adj friable, easily broken W7
friction n.fem friction W7
French: brisant vb.ptc breaking W7
briser vb to break W7
débris n.masc debris W7
frotter vb to rub AHD
Lithuanian: brė́žti vb to scratch, sketch RPN
Russian Church Slavic: briju, briti vb to shear, clip RPN
Sanskrit: bhrīṇā́ti vb to hurt, injure RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
sg=singular (number)
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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