Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhrūg-   'fruit; to brook, enjoy'

Semantic Field(s): Fruit, to Please, Glad, Joyful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: brūcan vb to brook W7
Middle English: br(o)uken vb to brook OED/W7
fruicioun n fruition W7
fruit n fruit W7
frumenty n frumenty W7
English: brook vb to use, enjoy; endure, tolerate AHD/OED/W7
fructify vb to bear fruit, make fruitful AHD/W7
frugal adj thrifty in resource expenditure AHD/W7
frugivorous adj feeding on fruit AHD/W7
fruit n product of plant growth AHD/W7
fruition n enjoyment, pleasurable use/possession AHD/W7
frumentaceous adj made of/resembling grain (e.g. wheat) AHD/W7
frumenty n wheat dish boiled in milk flavored with sugar/spices/raisins AHD/W7
infructescence n fruiting stage of inflorescence AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: bruka vb to brook ASD
Frisian: bruke vb to brook ASD
Dutch: gebruiken vb to brook ASD
vrucht n fruit TLL
Old Saxon: brūkan vb to brook ASD
Old High German: brūchan vb to brook ASD
Middle High German: brūchen vb to brook ASD
German: brauchen vb to brook ASD
Frucht n.fem fruit LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: brūka vb to brook ASD
Danish: bruge vb to brook ASD
frugt n fruit TLL
Swedish: brūka vb to brook ASD
frukt n fruit TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: brukyan vb to brook ASD
Latin: fructus, fructūs n.masc fruit, use, revenue W7
frugalis adj frugal, virtuous W7
frumentum n.neut grain W7
fruor, frui, fructus, fruitus vb.dep to enjoy, benefit W7
frux, frugis n.fem fruit, produce LRC
Late Latin: fruitio n.fem enjoyment W7
frumentaceus adj of grain W7
Old French: fruit n.masc fruit W7
Middle French: frugal adj frugal, inexpensive W7
fruition n.fem fruition, benefit W7
frument n.masc grain W7
frumentee n.fem frumenty W7
Gheg: pāfrujt adj barren, without fruit LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at