Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhū̆g̑o-s, familiar form bhukko-s   'buck, goat'

Semantic Field(s): Goat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bocc n buck RPN
Middle Irish: bocc n.masc he-goat IED/W7
Breton: bouc'h n buck RPN
Cornish: boch n buck RPN
Welsh: bwch n buck RPN
Old English: bucc n buck, male dear RPN
bucca n.masc buck, he-goat RPN
Middle English: bocher n butcher W7
buck n buck W7
English: blesbok n S African highveld antelope with facial blaze AHD/W7
bontebok n coastal S African antelope AHD
Brandybuck prop.n hobbit clan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
buck n male animal (esp. deer) AHD/W7
Buckland prop.n Shire locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
butcher n one who slaughters animals/dresses their flesh AHD/W7
gemsbok n large S African oryx AHD/W7
Oldbuck prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
springbok n small S African brown/white leaping gazelle AHD
steenbok n small antelope of SE Africa AHD
West Germanic  
Frisian: bok n buck ASD
Middle Dutch: boc n buck AHD
Dutch: bok n.masc buck ASD
Afrikaans: blesbok n blesbok, lit. blaze buck W7
bok n buck W7
bontebok n bontebok AHD
gemsbok n gemsbok, lit. chamois buck AHD/W7
springbok n springbok AHD
steenbok n steenbok AHD
Old Saxon: buc n.masc buck ASD
Old High German: boc(h) n.masc buck, he-goat ASD/W7
Middle High German: boc n.masc buck, he-goat ASD/RPN
German: Bock n.masc buck, he-goat ASD
Gemsbock n gemsbok, lit. chamois buck W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bokki n.masc buck; fellow LRC
Old Icelandic: bukkr, bokkr n buck, he-goat RPN
Icelandic: bokki n.masc buck ASD
Danish: buk n buck ASD
Swedish: bock n.masc buck ASD
Latin: bucca n buck, he-goat RPN
Old French: bouchier n.masc butcher W7
Armenian: buc n lamb RPN
Farsi: buz n goat RPN
Avestan: būza- n buck RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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