Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dā : də-, and dāi- : dəi-, dī̆-   'to share, divide'

Semantic Field(s): to Divide


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bidǣlan, bedǣlan, bidǣlde, bidǣled vb.wk.I to deprive, release ASD
dāl n.neut dole, division ASD/W7
ordāl n ordeal W7
tīd n.fem tide LRC
tīdan vb to tide, occur, happen AHD
tīdung n tiding W7
tīma n time, date W7
top n top, tuft/ball at high end CDC
Middle English: condemnen vb to condemn W7
damage n damage W7
dampnen vb to damn W7
demon n demon W7
dole n dole W7
firkin n firkin W7
ordal n ordeal W7
tappen vb to tap IEW
tide n time W7
tiden vb to tide W7
tiding vb.ptc occurring AHD
time n time W7
tippen vb to tip IEW
top(pe) n top CDC
English: condemn vb.trans to censure, declare wrong AHD/W7
daimon n demon AHD/W7
damage n loss/harm resulting from injury AHD/W7
damn vb to condemn (to punishment), repudiate AHD/W7
deme n local government unit in ancient Attica AHD/W7
democracy n government by common people AHD/W7
democratic adj re: democracy W7
demography n statistical human population study AHD/W7
demon n genius, attendant power/spirit AHD/W7
demos n populace, common people of ancient Greece AHD/W7
demotic adj popular AHD/W7
dole n allotted share/portion/destiny AHD/W7
endemic adj belonging/native to a people/country AHD/W7
epidemic adj affecting many at once AHD/W7
eventide n evening AHD/W7
firkin n small wooden cask/vessel AHD/W7
geodesy n applied mathematics identifying exact positions/areas of earth's surface AHD/W7
gotterdammerung n turbulent end of regime/institution AHD
indemnify vb.trans to secure against loss/damage AHD/W7
indemnity n security against loss/hurt/damage AHD/W7
ordeal n primitive means to determine guilt/innocence AHD/W7
pandemic adj widespread, affecting large fraction of population AHD/W7
tap n (sound of) light audible blow W7
tap vb to hit/strike lightly IEW/W7
ted vb to strew, spread out GED
tide n time, season, period AHD/W7
tide vb.intrans to befall, betide AHD/W7
tiding n piece of news AHD/W7
time n period/duration when something exists/continues AHD/W7
tip vb to tap, softly touch/push IEW
top n peak, crest, summit, highest part CDC
Weathertop prop.n windy hill in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Yahrzeit prop.n anniversary of relative's death AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ordēl, urdēl n ordeal ASD
tīd n.fem tidings ASD
top n.masc top, tuft, lock ASD/CDC
Middle Dutch: getes adj fitting, accommodating GED
onget(h)es adj restless GED
tiden vb to go, come W7
veerdel n quarter, lit. fourth-part W7
Dutch: tijding n.fem tidings ASD
top n.fem top ASD
Old Saxon: tīd n.fem tide, time, hour ASD
urdeili n ordeal ASD
Low German: tippen vb to tip W7
Old High German: irteilen vb to judge, distribute W7
teil n part W7
teilen vb to divide; render verdict W7
urteil(a) n ordeal, judgment ASD/W7
zetten vb to ted GED
zīt n.fem time, hour, age ASD/W7
zopf(e) n.masc top, tuft/lock of hair ASD/CDC
Middle High German: jārzīt n.fem anniversary AHD
tāpe n tap, (blow dealt with) paw W7
zīt n.fem time AHD
zītunge n.fem tidings ASD
German: Dämon n.masc demon LRC
Demokratie n.fem democracy LRC
Götterdämmerung n.fem gotterdammerung, twilight of the gods AHD
Jahrzeit n.fem anniversary AHD
Teil n.masc part LRC
teilen vb to divide LRC
Urteil n.neut judgment LRC
urteilen vb to judge LRC
Viertel n.masc quarter LRC
Zeit n.fem time LRC
Zopf n.masc tuft/lock of hair LRC
Yiddish: Yahrzeit prop.n.fem Yahrzeit, anniversary AHD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: deila, deilad vb to divide; quarrel, contend LRC
deili details LRC
tíð n.masc time LRC
tīmi n time W7
toppr n top; mop/tuft/lock of hair IEW
Old Icelandic: tað n.neut manure (spread out) GED
teðja vb.wk to ted (manure) GED
Icelandic: tíð n.fem tide, time, hour ASD
tíðindi n.fem tidings, event ASD
tími n.masc time, hour ASD
toppr n.masc top, tuft, lock ASD
Danish: tidende n.fem tidings ASD
top n.masc top, tuft, crest, summit ASD/CDC
Swedish: topp n.masc top, summit ASD/CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: dáils n.str.fem share, portion LRC
-tassaba adv.sfx in idleness GED
*ungatass adj idle, undisciplined GED
Latin: condemno, condemnāre vb to condemn W7
daemon n.masc daimon, divinity W7
damno, damnāre vb to damage, condemn W7
damnum n.neut damage, loss, fine W7
indemnis adj unharmed W7
Late Latin: daemon n.masc demon, evil spirit W7
democratia n.fem democracy W7
pandemus adj pandemic, re: all the people W7
Old French: condemner vb to condemn W7
dam n.masc damage W7
damage n.masc damage W7
dampner vb to doom, damage W7
toupet n.dim (little) top, tuft of hair CDC
Middle French: democratie n.fem democracy W7
epidemie n.fem epidemy, disease spreading among the people W7
taper vb to tap, strike with flat hand W7
French: démographie n.fem demography W7
endémie n.fem state of what never stops among the people W7
endémique adj never stopping among the people W7
épidémique adj epidemic, spreading among populace W7
Italian: toppo n end CDC
Albanian: demokraci n.fem democracy LRC
demokratik adj democratic LRC
Greek: geōdaisia n.fem geodesy W7
daiesthai vb to divide W7
δαΐζω vb to slay, rend, cleave asunder RPN
daimōn n.masc daimon, divinity W7
δαίομαι vb to distribute GED
δαίω vb to divide RPN
δάσμα n portion GED
δατέομαι vb to distribute GED
dēmokratia n.fem democracy W7
dēmos n.masc people W7
δημοσίᾳ adv in public LRC
dēmotēs n.masc commoner W7
δημοτικός adj in common use, re: the people LRC
endēmia n.fem action of dwelling among the people W7
endēmos adj endemic, among the people W7
epidēmia n.fem visit, epidemic W7
epidēmos adj visiting, epidemic W7
pandēmos adj pandemic, re: all the people W7
Sanskrit: dáyati vb to divide, destroy RPN
dā́ti vb to cut, reap, divide, distribute GED/RPN
dyáti vb to cut, reap, divide RPN
Tocharian A: tät-k vb to cut up, separate GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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