Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: denk̑-   'to bite'

Semantic Field(s): to Bite


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: intinga n.masc cause, reason LRC
tang(e) n.fem tong(s) GED
tōh adj tough W7
Middle English: tang n tang W7
tonge(s) n tong(s) W7
tough adj tough W7
English: tang n projecting shank/prong/tongue (e.g. on knife/sword) connected with handle AHD/W7
tongs grasping device: pieces joined at end by pivot/hinge AHD/W7
tough adj strong/firm in texture, flexible, not brittle AHD/W7
zinc n crystalline bivalent metallic element AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: tang n.fem tongs, forceps ASD
Old Saxon: tanga n.fem tongs GED
Old Low German: tanga n.fem tongs, forceps ASD
Old High German: zāhi adj tough, tenacious, holding together ASD/W7
zanga n.fem tong(s), forceps GED
zangar n wound, cautery GED
Middle High German: zāch n.str.masc wick GED
zāhe n.wk.masc wick GED
zanger adj sharp, keen, lively GED
German: zāhe adj tough, tenacious, holding together ASD
Zange n.fem tongs LRC
Zink n zinc W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: tangi n tang, point of land W7
tǫng n.fem tong LRC
Old Icelandic: tāg n.fem fiber GED
tǫng n.fem tongs GED
Icelandic: tæja vb to card/comb (wool) GED
töng n.fem tongs, forceps ASD
Norwegian: tæja vb to fray (re: a garment) GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: *dis-taheins n.fem dispersion GED
*dis-tahjan vb.wk.I to scatter, disperse GED
*tahjan vb.wk.I to tear apart GED
Albanian: danë, darë n tongs GED
Greek: δάκνω vb to bite, lacerate GED
Sanskrit: daṁśati vb to bite, lacerate GED
dáśati vb to bite, lacerate GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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