Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dus-   'bad, foul, evil'

Semantic Field(s): Bad, Demon, Evil Spirit


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: du-, do- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Old English: tō-, te- pfx apart W7
Middle English: dis- pfx dys-, difficult W7
English: dys- pfx bad, abnormal AHD/W7
dysarthria n dyslalia, lack of distinct articulation AHD/CDC
dyslexia n impaired ability to recognize/comprehend writing AHD
dysmenorrhea n painful/difficult/laborious menstruation AHD/CDC
dysplasia n abnormal cell/organ/tissue growth/development AHD
East Germanic  
Gothic: tuz- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Latin: dys- pfx dys- W7
Middle French: dis- pfx dys-, difficult W7
Old Church Slavonic: dъž- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Greek: δυσ- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Armenian: t- pfx un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Avestan: duš-, duž- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Sanskrit: dúṣyati vb to turn bad, be defiled RPN
dus-, dur- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis-, difficult W7
doṣa-ḥ n crime, vice, want RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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