Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: du̯ō(u)   'two, duo'

Semantic Field(s): Number


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: da, di, da nbr.card two (2) GED
dē-riad n pair of horses GED
diabul adj double GED
Irish: dó nbr.card two (2) LRC
Scots Gaelic: dà nbr.card two (2) LRC
Manx: daa nbr.card two (2) LRC
Old Welsh: dou nbr.card two (2) EIE
Middle Welsh: dwy-flwydd n.fem biennium GED
Old English: be-twēon(um), bitweon(um) adv/prep between ASD/GED
betwīnun, betwȳnum adv/prep between CDC
be-t(w)ux, betwēox prep betwixt CDC/W7
betwyxt, betwuzt, betweoks prep betwixt CDC
ge-twǣfan vb.wk to rob, separate GED
ge-twin(n) n.masc twin ASD/GED
tān n twig GED
twǣgentig, twēntig nbr.card twenty (20), lit. twice-ten GED
twēgen, twægen, tw(u)ā, tū nbr.card twain, two (2) LRC
twelf nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED
twēo n.masc doubt GED
twēogan vb.wk to doubt GED
-twēon sfx 'tween W7
twi- pfx twice, double W7
twi-fēte adj two-footed GED
twi-ga adv twice GED
twiga adv twice W7
twig(ge) n.neut twig, branch GED
twilic adj having double thread W7
twīn n twine W7
twinn adj twofold, two-by-two W7
-twist n.sfx rope W7
twi-wa adv twice GED
-twux sfx twixt W7
Northumbrian: betweón, betwēn, bitwēn adv/prep between CDC
Middle English: at(w)o adv apart, in two MEV
atwynne adv in two MEV
bala(u)nce n balance CDC/W7
betwen(e), bitwene, bytwene adv/prep between CDC/MEV/W7
betwix(t), bitwixe prep betwixt MEV/W7
bi- pfx bi- W7
binarie adj binary AHD
bytwyzte, betuxt, betuix prep betwixt CDC
combinen vb to combine W7
di- pfx di- W7
double adj double W7
doublet n doublet W7
douten vb to doubt W7
duplicate vb to duplicate W7
redoutable adj redoubtable W7
twa nbr.card two (2) W7
twain adj twain W7
twelve nbr.card twelve (12) W7
twenty nbr.card twenty (20) W7
twi(g)es adv twice W7
twigge n twig W7
twin n twine W7
twisten vb to twist W7
twix prep twixt W7
two nbr.card two (2) W7
twyll n twill W7
English: 'tween prep between LRC
anadiplosis n repetition of last/prominent word in one phrase/clause at beginning of next AHD/W7
balance n scale for weighing AHD/W7
between adv/prep by common action, in common to AHD/W7
betwixt prep between AHD/W7
bezel n sloping edge/face on cutting tool AHD/W7
bi- pfx two, twice, double AHD/W7
binal adj double, twofold, binary AHD
binary adj re: two things/parts AHD/W7
bis adv twice AHD/W7
bistort n plant with twisted roots AHD/W7
combine vb to bring closely together AHD/W7
conduplicate adj folded lengthwise AHD/W7
deuce n face of die bearing two spots AHD/W7
di- pfx twice, double, twofold AHD/W7
di(a)- pfx through, across W7
diadelphous adj having stamens united in 2 sets by filaments AHD/CDC
diapir n intrusion of rock core into overburden AHD
Diaspora prop.n dispersion of Jews among Gentiles AHD/CDC
dichasium n cymose inflorescence with two main axes AHD/W7
dicho- pfx in pairs, in 2 parts AHD
dicrotism n having 2 pulse beats per heartbeat AHD
didymium n mixture of neodymium/praseodymium AHD/W7
didymous adj re: twin(s), growing in pairs AHD/W7
diglossia n language division: prestigious vs. colloquial AHD
dimer n two identical molecules combined AHD
diphyodont adj having 2 sets of teeth AHD/CDC
diplo- pfx double AHD
diploe n cancellous bony tissue in skull AHD/W7
diploid adj double, twofold AHD
diploma n charter, official/state document AHD/W7
dipteral adj dipterous, having (only) 2 wings AHD/CDC
double adj dual, having twofold relation/character AHD/W7
doublet n man's long close-fitting jacket AHD/W7
doubloon n old Spanish gold coin AHD/W7
doubt vb to fear AHD/W7
duad n pair AHD/W7
dual adj re: two AHD/W7
dubious adj equivocal, occasioning doubt AHD/W7
duet n composition for two performers AHD/W7
duo- pfx two AHD/W7
duo n pair, duet AHD/W7
duple adj having two units/members AHD/W7
duplex adj double, twofold AHD/W7
duplicate adj re: two identical/corresponding parts/examples AHD/W7
duplicity n doubleness, state of being double AHD/CDC
dyad n pair AHD/W7
epididymis n elongated mass at back of testis AHD/W7
hendiadys n expression of idea by two connected nouns AHD/W7
mistletoe n European semiparasitic green shrub GED/W7
redoubtable adj formidable, causing fear/alarm AHD/W7
twain adj two AHD/W7
tway nbr.card.dial two (2) AHD/W7
twayblade n type of orchid AHD/W7
tweens hobbit years 20-32 in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
twelfth nbr.ord 12th AHD
twelve nbr.card 12 AHD/W7
twenty nbr.card 20 AHD/W7
twibill n double-bladed battle-ax, lit. two-bill AHD/CDC
twice adv on two occasions AHD/W7
twig n small shoot/branch AHD/W7
twilight n light refracted/reflected by atmosphere while sun is down AHD
twill n fabric with a certain weave AHD/W7
twin adj (born) together as pair AHD/W7
twin n either of two born together W7
twine n strong string of two/more twisted strands AHD/W7
twist vb to unite (strands/threads/wires) by winding one around another AHD/W7
twixt prep betwixt AHD/W7
two nbr.card 2 AHD/W7
twofold adj double, 2 times the number/quantity LRC
zwitterion n dipolar ion AHD/W7
Scots English: betwisht, betweesht prep betwixt CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: twelef, twilif, tolef nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left ASD/GED
twēn(e), twā, twā nbr.card two (2) GED
twi- pfx twice, double ASD
twīfil n.masc doubt GED
twīne adj two each GED
twintich, twintege nbr.card twenty (20) ASD/GED
twi-ra adv twice GED
twiska(a) prep twixt GED
twist n.str.masc division GED
Middle Dutch: twijn n twine W7
twist n.str.masc quarrel, division GED
Dutch: teen n.masc twig, withe, osier ASD/GED
tusschen prep between, among TLL
twee nbr.card two (2) LRC
tweeling n twin TLL
twiju n.neut twine, twist ASD
Old Saxon: tēn n staff GED
tweho n.masc doubt, uncertainty GED
twehōn vb.wk to (inspire) doubt GED
twelif nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED
twēne, twā, twō, twē nbr.card two (2) GED
twentig nbr.card twenty (20) GED
twīfli adj doubtful GED
twīflian, twīflōn vb.wk to cause (to) doubt GED
twisc adj two each GED
twist n.str.masc division GED
Old Low German: twi- pfx twice, double ASD
Middle Low German: tēn n thin metal rod GED
twīvel n.str.masc/neut doubt GED
Old High German: zein, zain n.masc twig, reed, ruler ASD
zweho n.masc doubt, ambiguity GED
zwehōn vb.wk to doubt, hesitate GED
zweig n twig GED
zweinzug nbr.card twenty (20) GED
zwelif nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED
zwēne, zwā, zwō, zwei nbr.card two (2) GED
zwi- pfx twice, double ASD
zwīfoli adj doubtful GED
zwī(g) n.str.masc twig, branch ASD/GED
zwinal, gezuinele n.masc twin ASD
zwiro, zwirōr adv twice GED
zwisk adj twofold GED
zwīval n.str.masc/neut doubt GED
zwīvelen vb.wk to cause (to) doubt GED
zwīvo n.wk.masc doubt GED
Middle High German: zein(e) n reed, branch; rod, pole GED
zwēne nbr.card two (2) CDC
zwi- pfx two, twice, double CDC
zwir, zwis adv twice GED
zwirn n.str.masc twist, thread GED
zwist n.str.masc division GED
German: Zain n.masc reed, branch; rod, pole GED
zwanzig nbr.card twenty (20) LRC
zween nbr.card two (2) CDC
zwei nbr.card twain, two (2) GED
Zweifel n.masc doubt LRC
zweifeln vb to (cause to) doubt LRC
Zweig n.masc twig, branch LRC
zweimal adv twice LRC
zwie- pfx two, twice, double CDC
Zwilling n.masc twin LRC
zwischen prep between, among TLL
Zwist n.masc brawl, dispute LRC
zwitter adj hybrid W7
Zwitterion n.neut zwitterion W7
zwölf nbr.card twelve (12) LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: tveir, tvā nbr.card two (2) EIE
tvinnr adv two-by-two W7
Old Icelandic: teinn n twig, sprout GED
tolf nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED
tuttugu nbr.card twenty (20) GED
tveir, tvǣr, tvā nbr.card two (2) GED
tvennr, tvinnr adj twofold GED
tvis-tra vb.wk to separate GED
tvis-var adv twice GED
tvī-faldr adj double, lit. two-fold GED
tys-var adv twice GED
Icelandic: teinn n.masc twig, sprout, spit ASD
tólf nbr.card twelve (12) ASD
tuttugu nbr.card twenty (20) ASD
tveir, tvær, tvau nbr.card two (2) ASD
tvi-fættr adj two-footed ASD
tví- pfx twice, double ASD
Norwegian: ten n.masc slender rod ASD
Danish: ten n.masc spindle ASD
to nbr.card two (2) LRC
tvilling n twin TLL
Old Swedish: twis-wær adv twice GED
tys-wa(r) adv twice GED
Swedish: ten n.masc rod, spindle ASD
tvilling n twin TLL
två nbr.card two (2) LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *tains n.masc twig, branch GED
twai, twos, twa nbr.card two (2) LRC
twai-tigjus nbr.card twenty (20) ASD
twa-lif nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two left GED
*tweifleins n.fem doubt GED
tweifljan vb.wk to cause doubt GED
*tweifls n.masc doubt GED
*tweihnai adj both, two each GED
tweihnai adj two each GED/W7
tweihnaim prep 'tween GED/W7
*twis-standan vb.str.VI to part GED
*twis-stass n.fem discord GED
weina-tains n.masc vine-twig/branch GED
wit pron.du we two GED
Crimean Gothic: tua nbr.card two (2) GED
*þiinetua, thune-tua nbr.card twelve (10 + 2) CGo/GED
Old Latin: *duīni adj two each CDC
duis, dvis adv twice GED
Latin: bilanx adj having two scale pans AHD
bilix, bilicis adj having double thread W7
bīnālis n twin AHD
binarius adj binary, two-part CDC
bīni, bīnae, bīna adj two each, two-by-two GED
bi-pēs adj two-footed GED
bis, bi- adj/adv/pfx twice, double, in two GED
conduplico, conduplicāre, conduplicavi, conduplicatus vb to double W7
di- pfx undo, separate W7
diploma n.neut folded letter, letter of introduction W7
dis prep apart, in two directions GED
dualis adj of two, binary W7
dubitō, dubitāre vb to doubt, waver W7
dubius adj dubious W7
dubo, dubare vb to vacillate W7
duo, duae, duo nbr.card two (2) LRC
duodecim nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two (and) ten GED
duplex, duplicis adj double W7
duplicō, duplicāre, duplicavi, duplicatus vb to double, duplicate W7
duplus, dupla, duplum adj double, lit. two-fold GED
vīgintī nbr.card twenty (20) GED
Vulgar Latin: bilancia n.fem scale W7
Late Latin: anadiplosis n.fem anadiplosis W7
bilanx, bilancis adj having two scalepans W7
binarius adj two by two W7
combino, combināre vb to combine W7
dyas, dyadis n.fem dyad W7
hendiadys n.neut expression of idea via 2 nouns connected by 'and' W7
Middle Latin: bisalus n stone with two slopes/angles CDC
New Latin: bistorta n bistort CDC
dichasium n.neut cymose inflorescence W7
diploe n.masc bony tissue in the skull W7
epididymis n.fem mass of tubes in testicles W7
Portuguese: balança n balance CDC
bisel n bezel CDC
Spanish: balanza, balanca n balance CDC
bisel n bezel CDC
dobla n.fem old Spanish coin W7
doblón n.masc old Spanish coin W7
Old French: balance n.fem scale W7
*besel, bisel n bevel CDC
double adj double, twofold W7
douter vb to doubt W7
Middle French: bistorte n bistort W7
combiner vb to combine W7
deus nbr.card two (2) W7
di- pfx two W7
double adj double W7
doublet n.masc doublet W7
douter vb to doubt W7
redoutable adj redoubtable, to be feared W7
redouter vb to dread W7
French: balance n balance CDC
biseau n.masc bevel, chamfer W7
bistorte n bistort CDC
Old Occitan: balansa n balance CDC
Italian: bilancia n balance CDC
bistorta n bistort CDC
duetto n.masc duet, dialogue, couple CID/W7
duo adj two W7
Old Prussian: dwai nbr.card two (2) EIE
Lithuanian: dù, dvì nbr.card two (2) GED
dveigỹs adj two years old GED
dvejópas adj twofold GED
dvìdešimt nbr.card twenty (20) GED
dvỹ(na)s n twin GED
tíek adv so much, so many LRC
vè-du pron lit. we two GED
Latvian: divi nbr.card two (2) GED
dvìnis n twin GED
Czech: oba-pol adj from both sides GED
Serbo-Croatian: dvîze adj two-year-old GED
Old Church Slavonic: dъva, dъvě nbr.card two (2) GED
Russian: dva, dve nbr.card two (2) EIE
dvójka n pair GED
Albanian: dy nbr.card two (2) EIE
dytë nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
Mycenaean: dwo nbr.card two (2) EIE
Homeric Greek: διά prep through, between LRC
δοιή n doubt, perplexity GED
δύο, δύω nbr.card two (2) LRC
Greek: anadiploun vb to double W7
anadiplōsis n.fem repetition W7
διά adv apart, in two directions GED
didymos adj double W7
διόπερ adv therefore, so LRC
δι-πλός adj double, lit. two-fold GED
διπλόω vb to double LRC
diplōma n.neut folded paper, passport W7
δί-πους adj two-footed GED
δι(ς)- pfx two CDC
δίς adv twice GED
διστάζω n doubt GED
dicha adv separated in two W7
dichazein vb to halve W7
dichasis n.fem halving W7
δῠο-καί-δεκα nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two-and-ten GED
δώ-δεκα nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two-ten GED
Lycian: cbi-, tbi- adj/nbr.card other; two (2) GED
cbijêtezi nbr.ord second (2nd) GED
Hittite: da-iuga n two-year-old GED
dammai- adj other GED
dan, tan nbr.ord second (2nd) GED
duiyanalli- n second-ranked official GED
Armenian: erkeam n two-year-old GED
erko-tasn nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two (and) ten GED
erku nbr.card two (2) EIE
New Persian: dovvom, doyyom nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
Avestan: biš adv twice GED
daibitya nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
dva nbr.card two (2) EIE
Khotanese: śäta- nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
Pushto: dwayam nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
Sanskrit: d(u)vā́, dvaú nbr.card.masc two (2) GED
d(u)vé nbr.card.fem/neut two (2) GED
dva-kás adj paired GED
dva-yám n falseness GED
dvā́daśa nbr.card twelve (12), lit. two (and) ten GED
dvi- pfx two CDC
dvi-kás adj two-part, consisting of two GED
dvitā́ adv/adj twice, double GED
dvitī́ya nbr.ord second (2nd) GED
dvi-pád- adj two-footed GED
dvíṣ adv twice GED
dviṣṭhas adj ambiguous GED
Tocharian B: ikäṃ nbr.card twenty (20) GED
wate nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
wi nbr.card two (2) GED
Tocharian A: wät nbr.ord second (2nd) EIE
wiki nbr.card twenty (20) GED
wu, wi nbr.card two (2) GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
du=dual (number)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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