Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhau-   'to press, strangle'

Semantic Field(s): to Press


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: faun n faun W7
English: avifauna n flying animal(s) AHD/W7
faun n ancient Italian god of herds/fields W7
fauna n animal(s), animal life W7
Faunus prop.n god of animals (Roman mythology) W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: *af-dojan vb.wk.I to annoy, trouble GED
Latin: avisfauna n avifauna CDC
Faunus prop.n.masc Faunus (mythical king of Latium) ELD/IEW
Late Latin: Fauna prop.n.fem sister of Faunus (Roman mythology) W7
New Latin: avifauna n.fem avifauna W7
fauna n.fem fauna (of a region) W7
Lithuanian: dõvyti vb to annoy, trouble GED
Old Church Slavonic: daviti vb to strangle GED
Greek: θώς n jackal GED
Lydian: Kan-daúlhj prop.n Dog-destroyer GED
Avestan: dvaidī vb.1.du.mid we (two) harass GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
I=class 1
du=dual (number)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
mid=middle (voice)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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