Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhelbh-   'to dig, delve, bury'

Semantic Field(s): to Dig, Delve, to Hide, Conceal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: delfan vb to delve RPN
Middle English: delven vb to delve W7
English: delf n excavation in/under earth OED
delve vb to dig, burrow, excavate AHD/W7
Dwarrowdelf prop.n a.k.a. Khazad-dum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: del(v)a vb to dig RPN/ASD
Frisian: dollen vb to delve ASD
Dutch: delven vb to delve ASD
Old Saxon: bi-delƀan vb to bury ASD
Old High German: bi-telban vb to bury ASD
telban vb to dig W7
Middle High German: telben, tëlben vb to dig RPN/ASD
German: delben vb to delve ASD
Slovenian: dléto n chisel RPN
Russian: dolbat', dolbit' vb to chisel, hollow out RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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