Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dhen-   'flat of hand, surface of land, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): Flat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: dene n.masc/fem vale, valley ASD
denn n.neut den ASD/W7
denu n.fem plain, dale, vale, valley ASD
Middle English: Dan prop.n Dane W7
den n den W7
English: Dane prop.n native of Denmark LRC
Danegeld prop.n English tax for forces opposing Danes AHD/CDC
Danelaw prop.n Danish laws once enforced in N/E England AHD/CDC
Danish prop.adj/n (re:) Denmark people/culture/language AHD
den n lair of wild (predatory) animal AHD/W7
Dwimordene prop.n a.k.a. Lorien in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
thenar n ball of thumb AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: denne n.fem deck of ship ASD
Old High German: tenni n.neut area, threshing floor ASD/W7
Middle High German: tenne n.neut area ASD
German: Tenne n.fem area ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Danr prop.n Dane, citizen of Denmark W7
New Latin: thenar n.neut ball of thumb W7
Greek: thenar n.neut palm of hand W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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