Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dherāgh-   'to drag, pull'

Semantic Field(s): to Draw, Pull


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: dræge n dragnet W7
dragan vb.irr to drag, draw, pull ASD/W7
Middle English: dragen vb to draw W7
draggen vb to drag W7
draght n draft, move in chess W7
drawen vb to draw W7
draye n dray, wheelless vehicle W7
English: draft n act of drawing net AHD/W7
drag vb to haul, draw slowly/heavily AHD/W7
draw, drew, drawn vb to drag, haul, cause to move continuously AHD/W7
dray n vehicle for hauling goods AHD/W7
dredge n boat anchor IEW
droshky n 2/4-wheeled (Russian) carriage AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: draga, drega vb to bear ASD
Frisian: dreag(j)en, dreyn vb to drag, draw ASD
Dutch: dragen vb to bear ASD
drager n (mechanical) bearing TLL
trekken vb to drag, pull LRC
Old Saxon: dragan vb to bear ASD
Old High German: tragan vb to bear, carry ASD
Middle High German: tragen vb to bear, endure ASD
German: tragen vb to bear, carry; wear ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: draga vb to drag, draw, haul LRC
Icelandic: draga vb to drag, carry ASD
Danish: drage vb to drag, draw, carry ASD
trække vb to drag, pull LRC
Swedish: draga vb to drag, pull; wear ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: dragan vb to carry ASD
Latin: dētrahō, detrahere, dētraxī, detractum vb to remove, take off LRC
traho, trahere vb to draw, drag W7
Russian: droga n wagon pole W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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