Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dheu-, dhu̯-ēi-   'to die, faint, vanish'

Semantic Field(s): to Die; Dead; Death


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: díth n end, death GED/RPN
duine adj mortal GED
duine n.masc person, human being IED/W7
Old English: dēad adj dead GED
dēaþ n.str.masc death GED
dwīnan vb.str to dwindle, decrease, vanish ASD/GED
dȳdan vb.wk to kill GED
Middle English: deed n dead W7
deeth n death W7
dien vb to die W7
English: Dáin prop.n dwarf name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
dead adj lifeless, having died AHD/W7
death n end of life, permanent cessation of vital function AHD/W7
die vb.intrans to expire, end physical life AHD/W7
dwindle vb to shrink, diminish, become less AHD/CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: dād, dath adj dead ASD/GED
dāth, dad n.str.masc death ASD/GED
dēda vb.wk to kill GED
Frisian: dea adj dead ASD
dea(d) n death ASD
Dutch: dood adj dead ASD
dood n.masc death ASD
Old Saxon: dōd adj dead GED
dōð n.str.masc death GED
dōjan vb.wk to die GED
Old High German: tōd n.str.masc death GED
tōt adj dead GED
tōten vb.wk to kill GED/RPN
touwen vb.wk to die GED/RPN
Middle High German: tōt adj dead ASD
tōt n.masc death ASD
German: Tod n.masc death ASD
to(d)t adj dead ASD
töten vb to kill LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: dauðr adj/n.masc dead; death LRC
Dáinn prop.n.masc Dain (Edda dwarf) ICE
dáinn adj dead, deceased ICE
deyja vb to die, pass away LRC
Old Icelandic: dauði n.str.masc death GED
dauðr adj dead GED
deyða vb.wk to kill GED
deyja vb.str to die GED
dvīna vb to dwindle, decrease, vanish GED
Icelandic: dauði n.masc death GED
dauðr adj dead GED
dvīna, dvina vb to dwindle, pine away ASD
Danish: død adj dead ASD
død n.masc/fem death ASD
tvine vb to weep, vanish ASD
Swedish: död adj dead ASD
död n.masc death ASD
twina vb to languish, pine away ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: dauþjan vb.wk.I to kill, put to death GED
dauþs adj dead GED
dauþs adj dead RPN
dauþus n.masc death GED/RPN
*diwan vb.str.V to die GED
ga-dauþnan vb.wk.IV to die GED
Latin: fūnus n death, funeral, burial GED/RPN
Hittite: dandukessar n mortality GED
danduki- adj mortal, human GED
Armenian: di, dīakn n corpse GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
IV=class 4
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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