Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhl̥gh-   'debt, guilt, duty'

Semantic Field(s): Debt, Fault, Guilt


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: plega n.masc play, movement, battle, applause ASD/W7
pleg(i)an, plægan, plagian vb.wk to play, cohabit (with) ASD/W7
pliht n.masc danger ASD/W7
plihtan vb.wk to endanger, compromise ASD/W7
Middle English: play n play W7
pledge n pledge W7
plighten vb to plight W7
replevin n replevin W7
English: frankpledge n mutual responsibility for good conduct AHD/W7
play n act of briskly using/handling weapon/instrument AHD/W7
pledge n promise of chattel as security for debt/other obligation AHD/W7
plight vb.trans to engage, put/give in pledge AHD/W7
replevin n provisional recovery of goods/chattels said to be wrongfully taken AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: plicht n danger ASD
Middle Dutch: pleyen vb to play W7
Old High German: pflegan vb to take care of W7
pfligida n danger ASD
German: pflegen vb to take care of LRC
Pflicht n.fem obligation, responsibility LRC
Old French: plevir vb to pledge W7
replevir vb to give security W7
Anglo-French: replevine n.fem pledge W7
replevir vb to give security W7
Middle French: plege n.fem pledge W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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