Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dhreugh-   'to harm, deceive'

Semantic Field(s): to Harm, Injure, Damage


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: drog-, droch- adj bad RPN
Breton: droug, drouk adj bad RPN
Cornish: drog adj bad RPN
Welsh: drwg adj bad, wild, uncivilized RPN
Old English: drēam n.str.masc dream, joy, religious ecstasy; noise GED
Middle English: dreem n dream W7
English: dream n deceptive image, thought/emotion experienced during sleep AHD/W7
Druadan prop.n Woses' forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: drām n.str.masc dream GED
Frisian: driech vb.ptc enduring GED
Old Saxon: bi-driogan vb.str.II to deceive GED
drōm n.str.masc dream GED
gi-drōg n mirage GED
Old High German: gi-trog n.str.neut deception GED
triogan vb.str.II to deceive GED
troum n.str.masc dream GED
German: Traum n.masc dream LRC
Trug n fraud, deception RPN
trügen vb to deceive RPN
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: draugr n.str ghost GED
draumr n.str.masc dream GED
drȳgja vb.wk to carry out GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: *driugan vb.str.II to wage/carry on (e.g. campaign) GED
Old Prussian: drāktai adv firmly GED
podrūktinai vb to confirm GED
Sanskrit: drúhyati vb to hurt, hate RPN
droha-ḥ n harm, wrong, treachery RPN
dhrúk, druh- adj injuring, hurting RPN
Gujarati: droh n malice RPN
Hindi: dho n malice, injury RPN
dhok(h)ā n fear, deceit RPN
Oriya: dhokā n fear, doubt, injury RPN
Sindhi: ḍrohu n deceit RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at