Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhug(h)əter-   'daughter'

Semantic Field(s): Daughter


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: dohtor, dōhtur, dōhter n.fem daughter GED/ASD
Middle English: doughter n daughter W7
English: daughter n female (human) child AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: dochter n.fem daughter GED
Frisian: doayter, dochter n daughter ASD
Dutch: dochter n.fem daughter ASD
Old Saxon: dohtar, dohter, dohtor n.fem daughter GED/ASD
Old High German: tochter n.str.fem daughter GED
tohter, tohtar n.fem daughter W7/ASD
Middle High German: tohter n.fem daughter ASD
German: Tochter n.fem daughter ASD
North Germanic  
Runic: dohtriz daughters GED
Old Norse: dóttir n.fem daughter LRC
Old Icelandic: dōttir n.fem daughter GED
Icelandic: dōttir n.fem daughter ASD
Danish: datter n.fem daughter ASD
Swedish: dotter n.fem daughter ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: dauhtar n.fem daughter GED
Oscan: futir n.fem daughter GED
Old Prussian: duckti n.fem daughter GED
Lithuanian: duktė n.fem daughter GED
Old Church Slavonic: dъšti, dъšter n.fem daughter LRC
Greek: θυγάτηρ n.fem daughter LRC
Armenian: dustr n.fem daughter GED
Avestan: duγðar n.fem daughter GED
Sanskrit: duhitā́ n.fem daughter GED
Tocharian B: tkācer n.fem daughter GED
Tocharian A: ckācar n.fem daughter GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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